Autor: GERMAN CARNEVALI FERNANDEZ CONCHA
A new species from Venezuela, Encyclia lopezii, is proposed. Encyclia lopezii is similar to E. cordigeraand both species
share the large flowers, the broad, suborbicular-subquadrate labellum central lobe, and the obovate to spathulate petals.
Encyclia lopezii is, however, different from E. cordigera in several characters, including the subapically winged column
with straight margins, the verrucose pedicellate ovary, and the fact that the apices of the lateral lobes of the lip do not
overlap on top of the column at anthesis. The new species is fully illustrated and described. Encyclia cordigeraand an
Andean form of E. diurnaare also documented with illustrations and discussed in the context of the relationships of the
new species here proposed. A conservation assessment of Encyclia lopeziiis provided following the IUCN criteria.
Cryptocentrum misasiiP.Ortiz & Carnevali is described and illustrated. This distinctive, showy new species has been
collected only once in western Colombia at Cerro Mecana, Serranía del Baudó (Chocó), at 800–1000 m elevation.
Cryptocentrum misasii is easily distinguished from all other species of Cryptocentrumby its large white flowers. On
morphological grounds, it is referable to subgenus Cryptocentrumdue to its monopodial habit, distichous leaves, and
ovary plus spur totally enclosed by the floral bract. Within subgenus Cryptocentrum, C. misasiiis most similar to C.
dodsonii, from which it is amply distinct by its large flowers with sepals of up to 24.5 mm (vs. 9.5–16.0 mm in C.
dodsonii) and white perianth segments (vs. bright yellow to yellow or yellow-green in C. dodsonii). Identifications are
provided for the Cryptocentrumspecies featured in Dr. Misas-Urreta's book on the orchids of the Serranía del Baudó.
The conservation status of the species was assessed as Critically Endangered (D) by the IUCN criteria.
A new species of Macroclinium(Orchidaceae, Oncidiinae) is described and illustrated from the Venezuelan Andes.
Macroclinium larenseis related to M. borjaensebut is readily diagnosed by its wider isthmus, which is about as long as
broad whereas it is conspicuously narrower in M. borjaense; furthermore, sizes and proportions of other floral organs are
also different. The new species is only known from the Yacambú National Park in Lara state. An identification key and a
distribution map of the species of Macrocliniumpresent in Venezuela are provided. Finally, a brief biogeographical
consideration of the genus is presented.
A revision of Zephyranthes Herbert (Amaryllidaceae) in the Mexican portion of the Yucatán Peninsula Biotic Province is presented. Three species are native in the area, including the newly proposed, Zephyranthes orellanae Carnevali, Duno & J. L. Tapia, which is known from a narrow region of dry forests over rocky soils along the northwestern edge in the Yucatán state. Zephyranthes orellanae is related to Z. citrina Baker but is distinguishable by its narrower leaves. (0.9–1.2 mm wide vs. more that 3 mm in Z. citrina). Zephyranthes chlorosolen (Herb.) D. Dietrich is reported for the first time from the Yucatán Peninsula. The status of Zephyranthes citrina in the Yucatán Peninsula is assessed. The names Cooperia drummondii Herbert ( = Zephyranthes brazosensis Traub) and Cooperia chlorosolen Herb. ( = Zephyranthes chlorosolen) are lectotypified. Descriptions of all taxa and a key to their diagnosis are presented, as well as a map and iconography depicting all taxa involved. The conservation status of all three taxa is assessed against IUCN criteria.
"Two new orchid species in tribe Cranichideae, collected in the context of the project “Flora de Orquídeas de los Estados Amazonas y Bolívar, Venezuela” (Orchid Flora of Amazonas and Bolívar states, Venezuela”) are described and illustrated. Ligeophila gavilanesis (subtribe Goodyerinae) is similar to L. unicornis but differs in having broader (1.75—2.90 versus 0.93—1.50 cm) narrowly elliptic to oblonglanceolate (not lanceolate) leaves, flowers with oblong-lanceolate, obtuse (not broadly lanceolate, acute) epichile lobules, and an unappendaged (i.e., lacking an oblong, compressed projection) epichile. Sarcoglottis maroaënsis (subtribe Spiranthinae) is similar to S. metallica but the new species differs in the cream flowers with dark reddish veins in the sepals, petals, and labellum, and the leaves of different color. In flower color it is similar to S. ventricosa but the inflorescence of Sarcoglottis maroaënsis is more lax and not lanate, the flowers are smaller, and the lateral sepals and labellum are different. We report an isotype of Sarcoglottis
stergiosii not cited in the protologue and a specimen collected in the Colombian Amazon."
A new species of Epidendrum, E. paruimense, and three additional species of Orchidaceae are reported for the flora of Guyana: Encyclia conchaechila, Epidendrum urichianum, and Masdevallia vargasii. A report of Baskervilla venezuelana from the Guianas was erroneusly based on a specimen unequivocally referable to Ponthieva ovatilabia.
—We demonstrate, through separate and combined phylogenetic analyses of morphological characters, nucleotide sequences,
and coded gaps of two DNA regions (plastid rpl32-trnL and nrDNA-ITS) using parsimony and Bayesian inference, that Lophiarella
(Orchidaceae), as originally circumscribed, is polyphyletic. We re-circumscribe the genus to exclude one of the two species included in
the original description and include two others, which requires two new combinations: Lophiarella splendida and Lophiarella
flavovirens. As newly circumscribed, Lophiarella is strongly supported as a monophyletic assemblage within the Trichocentrum-clade,
where it is sister to the (Cohniella, (Trichocentrum, Lophiaris)) clade. Lophiarella is easily diagnosable within the Trichocentrum-clade,
among other characters, by the conduplicate yet rigidly fleshy-coriaceous leaves and the rigidly erect inflorescences with peduncles
coated with a conspicuous, waxy film. In the context of a phylogenetic analysis, we discuss the evolution of several taxonomically,
ecologically and biogeographically relevant characters, such as rostellum shape, vegetative architecture, labellum, and column structure.
We also present a key to the genera of the Trichocentrum-clade and a taxonomic revision of the species of Lophiarella with keys,
descriptions, nomenclature, iconography, discussion of affinities, ecological and biogeographical information, a distribution map, and
full exsiccata citations.
A recent phylogenetic analysis of four DNA regions for ca. 354 species of core Maxillariinae strongly indicate that the genus Maxillaria, as traditionally circumscribed, is grossly polyphyletic. We present a new phylogenetic classification for core Maxillariinae that recognizes 17 genera. Necessary realignments include: 1) resurrection of the genera Camaridium, Heterotaxis, and Ornithidium; 2) recognition of the recent segregates Brasiliorchis (=Maxillaria sect. Repentes), Christensonella (=Maxillaria sect. Urceolatae), Nitidobulbon (in press), and a recircumscribed Sauvetrea (=Maxillaria sect. Trigonae); 3) adoption of the new genera Inti (=Maxillaria sect. Polyphyllae), Mapinguari, Maxillariella (=Maxillaria sections Ebulbes and Erectae), and Rhetinantha; 4) transfers from Maxillaria sect. Reflexae to Ornithidium, and Maxillaria sect. Rufescens to Mormolyca; and 5) synonymizing of the genera Adamanthus, Pseudomaxillaria, Psittacoglossum, and Sepalosaccus (under Camaridium), Anthosiphon (under Cryptocentrum), Chrysocycnis (under Mormolyca), Dicrypta, Marsupiaria, and Pentulops (under Heterotaxis), and Laricorchis, Neo-urbania, and Siagonanthus (under Ornithidium). Some new synonyms at the specific level are also presented.
A new natural hybrid between Prosthechea cochleata and P. radiata (Orchidaceae, Laeliinae) from the central part of Guatemala, P. × chixoyensis Mó & Cetzal, is herein described, illustrated, and characterized based on the morphological characters. The new nothospecies is most similar to P. cochleata but the petals are proportionally broader and the mucro of the labellum is subapical, as observed in P. radiata. Additionally, the perianth segments are neither as strongly reflexed as they are in P. cochleata nor patent as in P. radiata. A table of diagnostic characters for the new hybrid and its putative parents, a comparative figure, and a map showing their geographical distributions are also provided. Furthermore, a key to diagnose the hybrid from parental taxa and related species is also featured.