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La etnicidad cuestionada: Ancestralidad en las hijas e hijos de inmigrantes indígenas oaxaqueños en Estados Unidos

Questioned Ethnicity: Ancestrality in the Children of Indigenous Oaxacan Immigrants in the United States

MARIA EUGENIA HERNANDEZ MORALES MATILDE LAURA VELASCO ORTIZ (2015)

Este artículo analiza el dilema identitario y de pertenencia en los hijos de inmigrantes indígenas oaxaqueños en Estados Unidos, a través del estudio de tres dimensiones de la ancestralidad: el lugar de origen, la vida comunitaria y la lengua indígena. El artículo documenta distintos cursos del proceso de etnización entre jóvenes de origen mixteco, zapoteco y triqui, nacidos o crecidos en Estados Unidos; metodológicamente se basa en tres talleres con activistas del Frente Indígena de Organizaciones Binacionales (FIOB) y en veinte entrevistas en profundidad. Los hallazgos muestran que cada una de las dimensiones analizadas tiene un papel distinto en la construcción identitaria de acuerdo con ciertos factores como la escolaridad, el aprendizaje del idioma inglés y la participación política o comunitaria de estos jóvenes

This article analyzes the dilemma of identity and belonging in the children of Oaxacan indigenous immigrants in the United States, through the study of three dimensions of ancestry: the place of origin, community life and the indigenous language. The article documents various courses of the ethnicization process among young mixtec, zapotec and triqui, born or grown in the United States; methodologically is based on three workshops with activists of the Indigenous Front of Binational Organizations (FIOB) and twenty in-depth interviews. The findings show that each of the dimensions analyzed has a different role in the construction of identity according to certain factors such as schooling, English language and political or community participation of young people.

Article

Migración indígena Etnicidad transnacional California Diferencia cultural Jóvenes Indigenous migration Transnational ethnicity Cultural difference Youth CIENCIAS SOCIALES

Desarrollo de capacidades femeninas, el caso de las mujeres integrantes de la sociedad de productores indígenas ecológicos Sierra Negra S C

CAROLINA MUÑOZ RODRIGUEZ (2010)

Tesis (Maestría en Ciencias, especialista en Desarrollo Rural).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2010.

El proceso de desarrollo debe ser visto como la expansión de las libertades fundamentales. Dentro de las libertades fundamentales se encuentra el desarrollo de capacidades de las personas. El presente trabajo se realizó con mujeres integrantes de la SPIESN S. C. Eloxochitlan, San Sebastián Tlacotepec, Coyomeapan y Zoquitlan municipios ubicados en la región Sierra Negra del Estado de Puebla. El objetivo general de la investigación es describir, identificar y conocer cuáles han sido los beneficios alcanzados a partir de la intervención institucional y las limitaciones que han enfrentado las mujeres para que se dé el desarrollo de capacidades. La metodología utilizada fue cuanti-cualitativa con perspectiva de género. Los resultados indican que las mujeres reconocen y valoran la importancia de la alfabetización, la generación de ingresos propios y la posesión de tierras. Las principales limitaciones para el desarrollo de estas capacidades son de tipo estructural. La incorporación de las mujeres a la SPIESN S. C. ha dado resultados positivos, sin embargo hace falta incorporar capacitación en desarrollo humano con enfoque de género. _______________ FEMALE CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT, THE CASE OF THE WOMEN PARTICIPATING IN THE SOCIEDAD DE PRODUCTORES INDIGENAS ECOLOGICOS SIERRA NEGRA S.C. ABSTRACT : The process of development should be seen as the expansion of the fundamental liberties. Within the fundamental liberties we can find the individual´s capacities development. The present work was carried out in a female team who belong to the SPIESN S. C. Eloxochitlan, San Sebastián, Tlacotepec, Coyomeapan and Zoquitlan, counties located in the Sierra Negra region of the State of Puebla. The overall aim of the present investigation is to describe, identify and get to know the improvements reached due to the institutional intervention and the limitations that the women have found in the pursuit of the capacities development. The approach on this study was cuantitative – qualitative in a gender perspective. The results indicate that the team women recognize and value the importance of alfabetization, the generation of an income of their own and the possession of land ownership. The most outstanding limitations for capacities development are structural. The incorporation of women into the SPIESN S. C. has given off positive results, however, training in human development with a gender approach is necessary.

Master thesis

Libertad Capacidades Pobreza Género Etnia Freedom Capacities Poverty Gender Ethnicity Maestría CEDERU Desarrollo Rural CIENCIAS SOCIALES

Reference values for areal bone mineral density among a healthy Mexican population

JUAN ALFREDO TAMAYO Y OROZCO Rodrigo Díaz Acosta Eduardo César Lazcano Ponce Madeline Muñoz GABRIEL GERARDO HUITRON BRAVO MARIA ELIZABETH HALLEY CASTILLO JUAN CARLOS DIAZ MONTIEL JYOTI MUDGAL MAURICIO HERNANDEZ AVILA JORGE SALMERON CASTRO (2009)

Objective. Compare the influence of ethnicity in the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in various Mexican populations using two normal dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) reference databases: manufacturer¿s incorporating US Hispanic population and a normal mestizo Mexican population. Material and Methods. MMP included 9 946 subjects participating in an ongoing long-term cohort study focusing on lifestyle and chronic diseases, of which 6 487 MMP males and females aged 7 to 80 years were the normal subjects used to determine bone density T- and Z-scores, following WHO criteria, and peak bone mass values. Abnormal bone mass density values estimated by the manufacturer's and peak bone mass reference values were compared. Results and Conclusions. Our results show that by using the manufacturer´s T-score values in the mestizo Mexican population we are underestimating the number of abnormal bone mass BMD populations.

Article

Salud Bone densitometry normal reference values ethnicity Mexico MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD

Here, there, and beyond: remittances in transnational family consumption.

JUDITH CAVAZOS ARROYO (2011)

This research charts the multicultural nature of remittances as they impact consumption in transnational families. Using interview data, it is emphasized the importance of remitances sent by migrant workers in the U.S. to their families in Mexico in a process of family reproducction that features consumption activities and events anda cultural meanings tha together affect these families. Analysis highlights the cultural meanings of family motivating memebers to leave home to procure remittances for consumption, even as doing so changes anda challenges the very viability of these families. Theoretically, this work contributes to the knowledge of remittances in an intricate web of transnational, family consumption activities anda meanings, and adds to understandings of the central role of consumption in the transnational family. The research is concluded with implications for consumer researchers anda public agencies concerning the place of consumption in transnational family development anda well-being.

Article

Transnational Family Consumption CIENCIAS SOCIALES SOCIOLOGÍA SOCIOLOGÍA CULTURAL OTRAS

La diáspora transnacional purépecha en Estados Unidos

Transnational Purepecha Diaspora in the United States

CASIMIRO LECO TOMAS (2013)

En este artículo se estudia la conformación de una nueva diáspora: la purépecha, originaria de una región indígena del estado de Michoacán, México, que actualmente registra una presencia importante de su población viviendo en Estados Unidos. Dada la cercanía geográfica entre ambos países, estos individuos mantienen una estrecha comunicación y movilización entre localidades, dando paso a la conformación de “comunidades purépechas transnacionales”. Dicha comunidad presenta características que distinguen a este sector, que le dan sentido a su identidad étnica y que fortalece la noción de diáspora.

This article analyses the creation of a new diaspora, that of the Purepecha people, native from an indigenous region in the state of Michoacan, Mexico, which has acquired an important presence in the United States due to the number of its inhabitants living in that

country. The geographical position of the two countries has promoted close communications and continuous movements of people between regions, giving way to the creation of transnational Purepecha communities that possess unique characteristics, which give

meaning to their ethnic identity and strengthen the notion of diaspora.

Article

CIENCIAS SOCIALES Diáspora Transnacional Indígena Purépecha Estados Unidos Diaspora Transnational Indigenous Purepecha United States

The strategic role of labor in mexico´s subordinated integration into the u.s. production system under NAFTA

RAUL DELGADO WISE James Martin Cypher (2005)

There have been innumerable attempts to define and characterize the tendency toward accelerating internationalization (consisting of three simultaneous movements in the current era: rapidly expanding international trade, an explosive growth in international financial flows and activities, and one new element—the creation of globally integrated systems of production). This process of accelerating internationalization is sometimes understood to define “globalization”. Yet, globalization remains an elusive concept often capriciously defined and vaguely employed. Among other objectives, we seek to add some specificity to the process of accelerating internationalization through the examination of what could be considered a paradigmatic case: NAFTA, with particular reference to Mexico’s role in the transnational production system that NAFTA has created. We seek to illuminate in one important instance what has occurred as both the US and Mexico have exhibited a process of asymmetrical integration. This case analysis cannot seek to define “globalization”, least of all because it is an ideologically charged term. Nonetheless, the pathological process we explore below cannot be considered an aberration or an exception to the dynamics of internationalization (or “globalization”). Rather, we maintain, it is clearly derivative of, and a definitive negation of, the neoclassical/neoliberal percept that an indiscriminate opening between nations (or “free trade”) will generate significant mutual benefits for these nations (irrespective of their relative power, history, distinct productive apparatuses, relative level of development, etc.).

Producción Científica de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas UAZ

Conference object

CIENCIAS SOCIALES Financial flows Internationalization Globalization Transnational production

The strategic role of mexican labor under NAFTA: Critical perspectives on current economic integration

RAUL DELGADO WISE JAMES MARTIN CYPHER (2007)

This article aims to reveal the precise meaning of

Mexico’s export platform by focusing on maquiladoras

and the disguised maquila industry. In both sectors,

imported components account for 75 to 90 percent of

export value. As a result, benefits for the Mexican economy

are basically restricted to wages, that is, the value

of the labor incorporated into the exports. The authors

argue that what is actually taking place is the disembodied

exportation of labor or, alternatively, that the workforce

is being exported without requiring Mexican

workers to leave the country. The authors thus demystify

the purported orientation of Mexican exports toward

high-value-added manufactured goods and reveal the

regressive movement of the export platform.

Producción Científica de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas UAZ

Article

CIENCIAS SOCIALES NAFTA Maquiladora industry Disguised maquila Export-led industrialization Transnational corporations Mexican conglomerates Tratado de Libre Comercio Corporaciones transnacionales Industria maquiladora

The strategic role of labor in mexico´s subordinated integration into the u.s. production system under NAFTA

RAUL DELGADO WISE JAMES MARTIN CYPHER (2005)

There have been innumerable attempts to define and characterize the tendency toward accelerating internationalization (consisting of three simultaneous movements in the current era: rapidly expanding international trade, an explosive growth in international financial flows and activities, and one new element—the creation of globally integrated systems of production). This process of accelerating internationalization is sometimes understood to define “globalization”. Yet, globalization remains an elusive concept often capriciously defined and vaguely employed. Among other objectives, we seek to add some specificity to the process of accelerating internationalization through the examination of what could be considered a paradigmatic case: NAFTA, with particular reference to Mexico’s role in the transnational production system that NAFTA has created. We seek to illuminate in one important instance what has occurred as both the US and Mexico have exhibited a process of asymmetrical integration. This case analysis cannot seek to define “globalization”, least of all because it is an ideologically charged term. Nonetheless, the pathological process we explore below cannot be considered an aberration or an exception to the dynamics of internationalization (or “globalization”). Rather, we maintain, it is clearly derivative of, and a definitive negation of, the neoclassical/neoliberal percept that an indiscriminate opening between nations (or “free trade”) will generate significant mutual benefits for these nations (irrespective of their relative power, history, distinct productive apparatuses, relative level of development, etc.).

Producción Científica de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas UAZ

Conference object

CIENCIAS SOCIALES Financial flows Internationalization Globalization Transnational production

The strategic role of mexican labor under NAFTA: Critical perspectives on current economic integration

RAUL DELGADO WISE James Martin Cypher (2007)

This article aims to reveal the precise meaning of

Mexico’s export platform by focusing on maquiladoras

and the disguised maquila industry. In both sectors,

imported components account for 75 to 90 percent of

export value. As a result, benefits for the Mexican economy

are basically restricted to wages, that is, the value

of the labor incorporated into the exports. The authors

argue that what is actually taking place is the disembodied

exportation of labor or, alternatively, that the workforce

is being exported without requiring Mexican

workers to leave the country. The authors thus demystify

the purported orientation of Mexican exports toward

high-value-added manufactured goods and reveal the

regressive movement of the export platform.

Producción Científica de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas UAZ

Article

CIENCIAS SOCIALES NAFTA Maquiladora industry Disguised maquila Export-led industrialization Transnational corporations Mexican conglomerates Tratado de Libre Comercio Corporaciones transnacionales Industria maquiladora

The Mexico-United States migratory system: Dilemmas of regional integration, development, and emigration

RAUL DELGADO WISE HUMBERTO MARQUEZ COVARRUBIAS (2006)

The aim of this paper is to describe the Mexico-United States migratory system, with particular emphasis on the problems and challenges that have arisen from the implementation of NAFTA. In pursuit of that goal, it analyzes four analytical dimensions: (1) the regional economic integration; (2) the transnational labor market; (3) the development model; and (4) the emergence of collective or organized migrants. Our argument underscores the fact that the recent upswing in Mexican migration fulfills a dual function: first of all, it assists the process of productive restructuring ongoing within the U.S. economy by supplying cheap labor and, second, it bolsters the socioeconomic stability of Mexico, a country which rather than promoting a development policy that would integrate its diaspora has deepened its dependence on remittances from abroad. The analytical approach is based on the political economy of development and relies on two guiding theoretical propositions: the labor export-led model, and the remittance-based development model.

Producción Científica de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas UAZ

Article

CIENCIAS SOCIALES Mexico-United States migratory system NAFTA Regional economic integration Transnational labor market Development Tratado de libre comercio Integración económica Desarrollo