Author: AIDA JIMENA VELARDE SALCEDO
AIDA JIMENA VELARDE SALCEDO (2011)
"La obesidad es una enfermedad crónica, compleja, asociada con el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiacas, hipertensión, algunos tipos de cáncer y diabetes. Actualmente, la industria alimentaria explora aspectos relacionados a los componentes presentes en los alimentos funcionales o nutraceúticos que promuevan el bienestar y una vida saludable. Dentro de estos compuestos, los péptidos bioactivos encriptados en las proteínas de los alimentos son de gran importancia. El amaranto es una planta nativa de Centro y Suramérica y su importancia radica en la alta calidad nutritiva y nutracéutica de las proteínas de reserva o de almacenamiento de la semilla. Se ha reportado la presencia de péptidos antihipertensivos, antioxidantes y anticancerígenos; sin embargo, hasta el momento no se ha caracterizado el potencial antidiabético ni el efecto sobre la regulación del peso corporal de los biopéptidos encriptados en las proteínas de la semilla. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la respuesta de los péptidos bioactivos de las proteínas de reserva de amaranto sobre la acumulación de grasa en cultivos de células de ratón y la capacidad inhibitoria sobre la actividad de la dipeptidil peptidasa IV (DPP IV). La DPP IV es una enzima clave en el desarrollo de la diabetes tipo 2 y un novedoso blanco terapéutico. Se encontró que tanto una digestión con tripsina como la simulación completa de la digestión gastrointestinal de las proteínas de amaranto liberan péptidos menores de 10 kDa que inhiben a la DPP IV hasta en un 60% y que estos péptidos además son capaces de disminuir la acumulación de grasa de adipocitos de ratón y disminuyen la diferenciación de sus células precursoras inmaduras. Este trabajo proporciona nuevas evidencias que proponen y sustentan fuertemente al amaranto como una fuente alternativa de péptidos bioactivos contra la obesidad y la diabetes tipo 2."
"Obesity is a multifactorial, complex, chronic disease that is usually associated with high mortality rates and the risk to develop cardiac disease, hypertension, some types of cancer and diabetes. Food industry is now exploring the aspects related to the components present in food that promote a healthy life, such as the bioactive peptides encrypted in the proteins of several foods. Amaranth is a plant native from Central and South-America which contains antihypertensive, antioxidant and anti-cancer peptides; however, the antidiabetic potential and the effect upon body weight of the seed proteins have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of these peptides upon fat accumulation in mouse adipocytes cultures and their ability to inhibit the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), a new key enzyme in the type 2 diabetes treatments. Both, the tryptic and gastrointestinal digestions of amaranth proteins were able to release peptides with a molecular mass lower than 10 kDa that reduced 60% of the DPP IV activity. Furthermore, these peptides decreased mouse adipocytes fat accumulation and reduced the differentiation of its immature precursor cells. This work presents new evidence that could place amaranth as an alternative source of bioactive peptides against obesity and type 2 diabetes."
AIDA JIMENA VELARDE SALCEDO (2015)
"El incremento en el consumo de amaranto se debe a sus propiedades nutricionales y a la presencia de compuestos bioactivos que generan un beneficio a la salud. En trabajo previo se encontró que hidrolizados de la proteína de la semilla de amaranto tienen la capacidad de inhibir a la DPPIV, molécula blanco de nuevos fármacos hipoglucemiantes para el tratamiento de la diabetes; esto sugiere que el amaranto es un alimento funcional con propiedades antidiabéticas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar y purificar los péptidos inhibidores de la DPPIV presentes en la semilla de amaranto; así como medir su funcionalidad empleando ensayos in vitro, líneas celulares y modelos in vivo. Aplicamos las herramientas de la proteómica para analizar los cambios en el perfil de proteínas de plasma de ratas normoglucémicas y diabéticas con una dieta control y una dieta suplementada con amaranto. Mediante un análisis bioinformático se predijo que algunos de los péptidos de hidrolizados de las globulinas de amaranto son capaces de unirse al sitio activo de la DPPIV y en la región de dimerización, inhibiendo por tanto su actividad. Además se lograron purificar dos fracciones con un alto potencial inhibitorio sobre la DPPIV de 300 y 900 Da. Encontramos que la actividad de la DPPIV varía de acuerdo al tipo celular y órgano en el que se analice, lo que muestra la multifuncionalidad de esta enzima. Por otro lado, en un modelo de diabetes inducida por estreptozotocina existe un incremento en la actividad de DPPIV en sangre y este efecto se reduce por el consumo crónico de amaranto. También se observó un efecto positivo en los niveles de HDL-c y colesterol total por el consumo de amaranto, el cual estuvo relacionado con cambios en la acumulación de apolipoproteína H, apolipoproteína A-II y la enzima antioxidante paraoxonasa/arilesterasa 1. Este trabajo muestra el potencial antidiabético del consumo de las proteínas del amaranto y el potencial benéfico para la salud."
"Amaranth seed is cultivated due to its high nutritional value and the presence of bioactive compounds with several health benefits. In previous work it was reported that amaranth hydrolyzates have an inhibitory activity upon DPPIV, the target molecule of several hypoglycemic drugs for diabetes treatment. This suggests that amaranth is a functional food with antidiabetic properties. The aim of this work was to characterize and purify DPPIV inhibitory peptides encrypted in amaranth seeds in vitro, and to determine if amaranth consumption has a positive health effect in a model of diabetes in vivo using a proteomic approach. Bioinformatic analysis showed that peptides from amaranth globulins inhibit DPPIV activity by interaction with the active site and the dimerization site. Two fractions with high DPPIV inhibitory activity (300 and 900 Da) were purified from amaranth glutelins. DPPIV activity varies depending on the cellular type and organ analyzed, which shows the multifunctionality of the enzyme. Moreover, there is an increase in DPPIV activity in plasma in streptozotocin-induced diabetes, which is reverted by amaranth consumption. Amaranth also provides a positive effect in HDL-c and total cholesterol levels and this is related to changes in de accumulation of apolipoprotein H, apoliprotein A-II and the antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase/arylesterase 1. This work shows the antidiabetic potential of amaranth seed proteins."
"Scope: Amaranth grain is a source of several bioactive compounds such as cancer-preventive and ACE inhibitory peptides. In vitro analysis of amaranth proteins has also demonstrated the presence of bioactive peptides, which exert inhibitory activity upon dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), a new target for type 2 diabetes, but this potential activity has not been tested in vivo. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether chronic amaranth consumption has a beneficial effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, particularly in DPPIV activity and changes in plasma proteome profile. Methods and results: Diabetic rats were fed with 20% popped amaranth grain diet for 12 weeks. Changes in lipid profile, DPPIV activity in plasma and kidney, as well changes in plasma proteome were evaluated. Total cholesterol and DPPIV activity in plasma were increased in diabetic rats but this was ameliorated by amaranth consumption. Diabetic rats fed with amaranth showed the highest levels of HDL and this correlated with an accumulation of apolipoprotein (apo) A-II. Furthermore, amaranth diet stimulated the up-accumulation of the antioxidant protein paraoxonase 1(PON1). Conclusion This study provides molecular evidence about the role of amaranth as a potential functional food with DPPIV inhibitory activity and with a positive effect in plasma lipoproteins."
"Amaranth has been claimed as functional food, but its function on obesity-related disorder is not fully known. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of amaranth protein intake on blood lipids profile and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice. The effect of soybean protein was also analysed for comparative purposes. C57BL-6 mice were fed for eight weeks with regular or high fat diet. Amaranth or soybean protein isolates (10 mg/kg) were supplied via oral administration. Changes in body weight, adipose tissue, total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, a glucose tolerance test, as well as the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes were measured. Our results have shown that amaranth protein induces a decrease in plasma insulin in mice fed with a regular diet, whereas a decrease in triglycerides was observed in mice fed with high fat diet. Furthermore, down-regulation of Tnf-α and Res, suggested the inhibition of inflammation state. The present study demonstrates that amaranth protein, but not soybean protein, improves the obese mice health, and the hormonal modulation (Lep, Fasn, Lpl) could lead to new mechanism of action by which amaranth consumption exerts its beneficial health effect."
ESAU BOJORQUEZ VELAZQUEZ AIDA JIMENA VELARDE SALCEDO Antonio de León Rodríguez HUGO JIMENEZ ISLAS JOSE LUIS PEREZ TORRES ALFREDO HERIBERTO HERRERA ESTRELLA Eduardo Espitia Rangel Ana Paulina Barba de la Rosa (2018)
"Amaranth seeds have gained renewed interest due to the presence of encrypted peptides with several biological functions, among which the inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) stands out. Amaranth seeds also contain an oily fraction rich in squalene, an unsaturated hydrocarbon, which has been attributed diverse beneficial health effects. Up to date, only cultivated species have been analysed and no information exists about bioactive peptides and lipid composition of wild amaranths. The aim of this work was to carry out the morphological and biochemical comparison of cultivated species A. hypochondriacus (waxy and non-waxy cultivars) and A. cruentus with the wild species A. powellii and A. hybridus. The highest protein and fat contents were observed in A. powellii, but A. cruentus showed the highest squalene content. The electrophoretic protein profile showed differences in protein accumulation among species. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion was used to release the encrypted peptides and their inhibitory action against DPPIV and ACE activities was evaluated. Our results showed that peptides from A. hypochondriacus cv Opaca presented the highest inhibition against both DPPIV and ACE activities. This information is valuable for the design of strategies to obtain new amaranth varieties with higher nutraceutical quality."
"Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are the most prevalent and serious metabolic diseases affecting people worldwide. However racial and ethnic disparities seems to be a risk factor for their development. Mexico has been named as one of the largest populations with the highest prevalence of diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to identify novel T2D-associated proteins in Mexican patients. Blood samples were collected from 62 Mexican patients with T2D and they were grouped according to their body mass index (BMI). A panel of 10 diabetes and obesity serum markers was determined using MAGPIX. A comparative proteomics study was performed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) followed by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We detected 113 spots differentially accumulated, in which 64 unique proteins were identified, proteins that were involved in metabolism pathways, molecular transport, and cellular signalling. Four proteins (14-3-3, ApoH, ZAG, and OTO3) showing diabetes-related variation and also changes in relation to obesity were selected for further validation by western blotting. Our results reveal new diabetes related proteins present in the Mexican population. These could provide additional insight into the understanding of diabetes development in Mexican population and may also be useful candidate biomarkers."
José Ángel Huerta Ocampo María Soledad García Muñoz AIDA JIMENA VELARDE SALCEDO Eric Edmundo Hernández Domínguez JORGE LUIS GONZALEZ ESCOBAR Alberto Barrera Pacheco ALICIA GRAJALES LAGUNES Ana Paulina Barba de la Rosa (2018)
"The larvae of escamolera ant (Liometopum apiculatum Mayr) have been considered a delicacy since Pre-Hispanic times. The increased demand for this stew has led to massive collection of ant nests. Yet biological aspects of L. apiculatum larvae remain unknown, and mapping the proteome of this species is important for understanding its biological characteristics. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis was used to characterize the larvae proteome profile. From 380 protein spots analyzed, 174 were identified by LC-MS/MS and homology search against the Hymenoptera subset of the NCBInr protein database using the Mascot search engine. Peptide de novo sequencing and homology-based alignment allowed the identification of 36 additional protein spots. Identified proteins were classified by cellular location, molecular function, and biological process according to the Gene Ontology annotation. Immunity- and defense-related proteins were identified including PPIases, FK506, PEBP, and chitinases. Several hexamerin proteoforms were identified and the cDNA of the most abundant protein detected in the 2-DE map was isolated and characterized. L. apiculatum hexamerin (LaHEX, GeneBank accession no. MH256667) contains an open reading frame of 2199?bp encoding a polypeptide of 733 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 82.41?kDa. LaHEX protein is more similar to HEX110 than HEX70 from Apis mellifera. Down-regulation of LaHEX was observed throughout ant development. This work represents the first proteome map as well as the first hexamerin characterized from L. apiculatum larvae."