Author: ANGEL GABRIEL ALPUCHE SOLIS

Análisis de la diversidad genética de agaves mezcaleros del centro de México

Analysis of genetic diversity of mezcalero agaves from central México

JOSE PABLO LARA AVILA ANGEL GABRIEL ALPUCHE SOLIS (2016)

"En el Altiplano Potosino, un ecosistema árido y semiárido, Agave salmiana Otto Salm Dick ssp. crassispina (Trel Gentry) es una especie utilizada para la recolección de insectos comestibles y para producción de mezcal, bebida alcohólica tradicional con denominación de origen. El aprovechamiento para producción de mezcal de las poblaciones silvestres de Agave salmiana ssp. crassispina carece de un sistema de explotación basado en el conocimiento biológico de la especie. Esto tiene efectos demográficos, y a su vez podría causar el deterioro de sus recursos fitogenéticos y colocar a la especie en situación de riesgo. Este trabajo analizó diversidad genética y estructura poblacional de tres poblaciones silvestres de Agave salmiana ssp. crassispina en San Luis Potosí, México, mediante polimorfismos de longitud de los fragmentos amplificados, AFLP. La evidencia mostró un alto nivel de diversidad genética dentro de las poblaciones analizadas y un bajo nivel de diferenciación entre ellas, probablemente debido a una fragmentación del hábitat producida por actividades antropogénicas. Postulamos que la diversidad genética en las poblaciones analizadas, a pesar de la constante explotación, se origina por el sinergismo entre la polinización cruzada y la actividad de elementos genéticos transponibles. El alto grado de diversidad genética encontrado en las poblaciones silvestres analizadas en San Luis Potosí demuestra la importancia agroecológica de Agave salmiana ssp. crassispina en el Altiplano Mexicano, una región geográfica que abarca casi la mitad del territorio mexicano. Sin embargo, uso descontrolado y manejo inapropiado de las magueyeras silvestres podría arriesgar los recursos fitogenéticos de Agave salmiana ssp. crassispina."

"The Potosino Upland Plateau is an arid and semiarid ecosystem. Agave salmiana Otto Salm Dick ssp. crassispina (Trel Gentry), which grows in this environment, is a species used for gathering of edible insects and for production of mezcal. Mezcal is a Mexican alcoholic beverage with denomination of origin. Production of mezcal with wild populations of Agave salmiana ssp. crassispina lacks an exploitation system based on biological knowledge of the species. The lack of organized use has demographic effects, which leads to degradation of genetic resources and risks to this species. This study analyzed genetic diversity and population structure of three wild populations of Agave salmiana ssp. crassispina from San Luis Potosí, Mexico by AFLP's (amplified fragment length polymorphism). The evidence showed a high level of genetic diversity within populations and low level of genetic differentiation among populations, probably as a result of habitat fragmentation produced by anthropogenic activities. We postulate that the genetic diversity in the wild populations analyzed, despite their constant exploitation, is originated by the synergism between cross-pollination and the activity of transposable genetic elements. The high level of genetic diversity found in the wild populations in San Luis Potosí shows agro-ecological relevance of Agave salmiana ssp. crassispina in the Mexican upland plateau. However, uncontrolled use and inappropriate management of wild populations could risk the genetic resources of Agave salmiana ssp. crassispina."

Article

Agave salmiana ssp. crassispina Diversidad genética Ecosistemas áridos Marcadores moleculares CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS AGRONOMÍA

Estudio funcional de genes de defensa contra el chancro bacteriano, mediante vectores virales en especies silvestres relacionadas al tomate

MAYRA JANETH ESPARZA ARAIZA Ángel Gabriel Alpuche Solís (2016)

"El tomate, Solanum lycopersicum, representa uno de los cultivares de mayor consumo a nivel mundial, su producción se ha visto afectada por diversos patógenos, siendo el más importante Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm). La enfermedad causada por Cmm se conoce como chancro bacteriano, contra la cual no se tiene tratamiento efectivo actualmente; sin embargo, se han identificado especies silvestres relacionadas al tomate, que son resistentes a Cmm, estas representan una fuente de genes que podrían transferirse a la especie susceptible. En este trabajo se analizó la función de genes potencialmente involucrados en la resistencia a Cmm mediante su silenciamiento inducido por virus (VIGS) y el subsecuente reto con el patógeno. Se analizaron dos genes en particular, uno que codifica a la enzima de conjugación SUMO E2 (SCEI), y otro que codifica para un transportador de la familia ABC, que confiere resistencia a drogas pleiotrópicas (PDRI). Se diseñó un vector VIGS con base en el Virus Moteado del Tomate (ToMoV), para el análisis funcional. El silenciamiento del gen SCEI en S. peruvianum no produjo ningún fenotipo aberrante, lo que permitió su análisis subsecuente en experimentos de inoculación con Cmm. Las plantas silenciadas y retadas con Cmm mostraron un incremento en la susceptibilidad a este patógeno, lo que nos permite sugerir la participación de SCEI en el mecanismo de defensa. Por otra parte, el silenciamiento del gen PDRI en S. habrochaites realizado mediante un vector TRV, no alteró significativamente la respuesta de las plantas al reto con Cmm, lo que sugiere que este gen no juega un papel crucial en la resistencia a este patógeno o el silenciamiento no fue eficiente. Sin embargo, el silenciamiento del mismo gen con el vector derivado de ToMoV resultó en un ligero aumento en la susceptibilidad a Cmm, aunque el nivel de daño no fue significativo estadísticamente. La sobreexpresión de los genes SCEI y PDRI en plantas susceptibles puede ser una estrategia de control del cáncer bacteriano."

"Tomato, S. lycopersicum, is one of the crops most consumed worldwide, and its production is affected by several pathogens, among these the most important is the bacteria Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm). The disease caused by Cmm is known as bacterial canker and currently there is no effective treatment, however, there are reports where wild tomato relatives show some resistance to Cmm, thus representing a source of genes that could be transferred to susceptible species. In this study, were analyzed the function of genes potentially involved in the resistance to Cmm by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) and the subsequent challenge with the pathogen. Two genes in particular where analyzed, the first one encodes the SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme (SCEI); and the second encodes an ABC family transporter that confers, pleiotropic drug resistance (PDRI). A VIGS vector was designed based on the Tomato Mottle Virus (ToMoV). SCEI gene silencing in S. peruvianum did not showed any aberrant phenotype, which allowed its subsequent analysis of inoculation experiments with Cmm. Plants that were silenced for SCEI gene and then challenged with Cmm showed increased susceptibility to this pathogen, suggesting its role in the defense mechanism against Cmm. On the other hand, PDRI gene silencing in S. habrochaites performed by TRV vector, did not alter significantly the response of the plants to the challenge with Cmm, which suggests either that this gene is not implicated in the resistance to this pathogen or the silencing with TRV was not efficient. However, the silencing of the same gene with the vector derived from ToMoV resulted in a slight increase on the susceptibility to Cmm; however, the level of damage was not statistically significant. Overexpression of the SCEI and PDRI genes in susceptible plants can be a control strategy against bacterial canker."

Doctoral thesis

Silenciamiento inducido por virus (VIGS) Enzima de conjugación SUMO E2 (SCEI) Resistencia a drogas pleiotrópicas (PDRI) TRV ToMoV BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR

Plantas transgenicas que expresan un polipeptivo novedoso codificado por un gen sintético que contiene secuencias inmunoprotectoras de las exotoxinas de corinebacterium diphteriae, bordetella pertussis y clostridium tetani

Transgenic plants expressing a novel polypeptide which is encoded by a synthetic gene that contains immunoprotective sequences from corinebacterium diphteriae, bordetella pertussis and clostridium tetani exotoxins

RUTH ELENA SORIA GUERRA SERGIO ROSALES MENDOZA RUBEN HIPOLITO LOPEZ REVILLA ANGEL GABRIEL ALPUCHE SOLIS (2016)

"La presente invención se refiere a una vacuna producida en plantas contra difteria tos ferina y tétanos conocida como vacuna triple DPT. La vacuna incluye un complejo inmunogénico a partir de la transformación de jitomate con un gen quimérico optimizado para expresarse en plantas, que codifica un nuevo polipéptido recombinante el cual no existe en la naturaleza y que contiene los principales epítopos inmunoprotectores de difteria, tos ferina y tétanos. También se describen los métodos para construir el vector de transformación genética y los métodos de regeneración mediante cultivo de tejidos vegetales. Asimismo se presentan los resultados de la producción de anticuerpos en pruebas realizadas en ratones los cuales pueden ser útiles para la inmunización de mamíferos."

"Provided is a plant produced vaccine acting against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus, which is best known as DPT vaccine. The vaccine includes an immunogenic complex resulting from the transformation of tomatoe with a chimeric gene optimised to be expressed in plants, which encodes a novel recombinant polypeptide that is not available in nature and which contains the main immunoprotective epitopes of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus. In addition, methods for building the genetic transformation vector are described, as well as regeneration methods based on the culture of vegetable tissues. The results of the antibody production in tests performed to mice are also shown, which may be useful for the mammals immunisation."

Patent

C12N15/00 BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Morphological and genetic characteristics allow the identification of a collection of garlic cultivars in the North-Central region of Mexico

Características morfológicas y genéticas permiten la identificación de cultivares de ajo en las regiones Norte y Central de México

HECTOR SILOS ESPINO CATARINO PERALES SEGOVIA JUAN FRANCISCO GOMEZ LEYVA ANGEL GABRIEL ALPUCHE SOLIS (2008)

"The objective of this study was to compare the yield and genetic relationships between two Perla garlic selections, obtained by individual selection of cloves, and commercial varieties and cultivars adapted to diverse regions of Mexico (which did not have a selection process). Varieties with fewer cloves showed higher yields. Coreano and California produced 20 ton/ha (fresh weight) and Perla selections between 17-1.9 ton/ha (fresh weight). Six primers of the series OPB were tested for frenetic characterization and OPB-17 was selected. With the. amplified DIVA fragments, a binary matrix was generated; afterwards, a dissimilarity matrix and dendrogram were developed. High genetic diversity was found among all varieties, which were separated into two groups through differential analysis. Varieties of smaller yield were included in one group. The other group was constituted by the best production varieties with fewer cloves per plant (Perla, California, Coreano and Chino). Dissimilarity was found among Perla varieties. The selection method used to obtain plants with better yield characteristics can be applied to the genetic improvements of garlic."

Article

RAPDs Allium sativum Selection Yield BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Identification and evolutionary relationships of partial gene sequences from dehydrin group in three species of cacti

Identificación y relaciones evolutivas de secuencias parciales de genes del grupo dehidrina en tres especies de cactáceas

SANDRA HERNANDEZ CAMACHO EUGENIO MARTIN PEREZ MOLPHE BALCH ANGEL GABRIEL ALPUCHE SOLIS JOSE FRANCISCO MORALES DOMINGUEZ (2017)

"Dehydrins or Group 2 Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins play an important role in the response and adaptation to different types of abiotic stresses such as droughts, high salinity and low temperatures. Using PCR techniques, we identified three gene fragments that encoded dehydrin-like proteins in three cacti species Opuntia ficus-indica (OpfiDHN-like), Leuchtenbergia principis (LepDHN-like) and Mammillaria bombycina (MabDHN-like). Bioinformatic sequence analysis showed an identity between 96 and 97% with the Opuntia streptacantha dehydrin 1 (OpsDHN1) gene, demonstrating that the amplified fragments corresponded to dehydrin- like gene sequences, and that the designed oligonucleotides were effective for similar gene amplification in different cacti genera. Multiple OpfiDHN-like, LepDHN-like and MabDHN-like alignments showed that they possessed three repetitions of the conserved K segment. Also, a histidine rich motif was found, which is believed to facilitate the binding of these proteins with metal ions that probably evolved differently in the Opuntioidea and Cactoidea subfamilies of the Cactaceae family. Bioinformatic tools demonstrated that each of the three partial amino acid sequences corresponded to acidic, highly hydrophilic, and disordered protein fragments, which are characteristics of dehydrin proteins. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony, indicated that cacti dehydrins-like proteins were monophyletic, as well as those of other families."

"Las dehidrinas o proteínas abundantes de la embriogénesis tardía (LEA) del grupo 2 juegan un rol importante en la respuesta y adaptación a diferentes tipos de estrés abiótico como deshidratación, alta salinidad y bajas temperaturas. Usando técnicas de PCR, se identificaron tres fragmentos de genes que codifican para proteínas tipo dehidrina de tres especies de cactus: Opuntia ficusindica (OpfiDHN-like), Leuchtenbergia principis (LepDHN-like) y Mammillaria bombycina (MabDHN-like). El análisis bioinformático de las secuencias mostró que poseen una identidad entre el 96 y 97% con la secuencia del gen dehidrina 1 (OpsDHN1) de Opuntia streptacantha, demostrando que los fragmentos amplificados corresponden a secuencias de genes tipo dehidrina, y que los oligonucleótidos diseñados fueron efectivos para la amplificación de genes similares en diferentes géneros de cactáceas. El alineamiento múltiple de OpfiDHN- like, LepDHN-like y MabDHN-like mostró que poseen tres repeticiones del segmento K conservado. También se encontró un motivo rico en histidinas, el cual se cree que facilita la unión de estas proteínas con iones metálicos que probablemente evolucionaron de manera diferente en las subfamilias Opuntioidea y Cactoidea de la familia Cactaceae. Se demostró mediante técnicas bioinformáticas que cada una de las tres secuencias de aminoácidos parciales son ácidas, altamente hidrofílicas y desordenadas, las cuales son características de las proteínas tipo dehidrina. El análisis filogenético usando máxima parsimonia demuestra que las proteínas tipo dehidrina de las cactáceas son monofiléticas, así como las de otras familias de plantas."

Article

LEA Hydrophilins Alignment; Clade Disordered proteins BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR

Efecto de citocininas en la propagación in vitro de agaves mexicanos

Effect of cytokinins on the in vitro propagation of Mexican agaves

ANGEL GABRIEL ALPUCHE SOLIS NORA LILIA VASCO MENDEZ EUGENIO MARTIN PEREZ MOLPHE BALCH (2008)

"La falta de sistemas eficientes de propagación es un factor que limita el aprovechamiento racional de varias especies de Agave, que en muchos casos han tenido una reducción peligrosa de sus poblaciones debido a la sobreexplotación de materiales silvestres. En este estudio se desarrollaron protocolos para la propagación in vitro de Agave cupreata, A. difformis, A. karwinskii, A. obscura y A. potatorum. Como explantes se utilizaron tejidos meristemáticos extraídos de plántulas germinadas in vitro. Se logró la formación de brotes múltiples en explantes basales en medio MS adicionado con 30 g L-1 de sacarosa, 8 g L-1 de agar y varios tratamientos con citocininas [6- bencilaminopurina (BA), 6-γ,γ-dimetilalilaminopurina (2iP), cinetina (Cin), tidiazurón (TDZ) y meta-topolina o N6-(metahidroxibencil) adenina (MT)]. Las eficiencias más altas en producción de brotes en A. cupreata y A. karwinskii se obtuvieron con 1.5 y 1 mg L-1 de BA, donde se generaron 10.5 y 6.1 brotes por explante, respectivamente. En A. difformis y A. obscura las mejores respuestas se obtuvieron con 0.2 mg L-1 TDZ con 8.5 y 11 brotes por explante, respectivamente. En A. potatorum la mejor respuesta ocurrió con 3 mg L-1 Cin, en el que se produjeron 6.9 brotes por explante. El enraizamiento de los brotes generados in vitro se alcanzó en medio MS basal con eficiencias entre 80 y 100 %, y la frecuencia de supervivencia de las plantas una vez transferidas a suelo fue de 72 % en promedio."

"The lack of efficient propagation systems is one factor limiting the rational use of several species of Agave, which in many cases have had a dangerous reduction of their populations due to the over-exploitation of wild materials. In this work in vitro propagation protocols were developed for Agave cupreata, A. difformis, A. karivinskii, A. obscura and A. polatorum. Meristematic tissues front in vitro germinated seedlings were used as explants. Multiple shoot formation from basal explants was achieved oil MS medium supplemented with 30 g L(-1) sucrose, 8 g L(-1) agar and various treatments with cytokinins [6-benzylaminopurine (BA) 6-gamma,gamma-dimethylallylaminopurine (2iP), kinetin (Kin), thidiazuron (TDZ) and meta-topolin or N(6)-(meta-hydroxylbenzyl)adenine (M)]. The highest shoot production efficiencies for A. cupreata and A. karivinskii were obtained with 1.5 and 1 mg L(-1) BA, which rendered 10.5 and 6.1 shoots per explant, respectively. In A. difformis and A. obscura the best responses were obtained with 0.2 mg L(-1) TDZ, which yielded 8.5 and 11 shoots per explant, respectively. In A. potatorum the best response occurred with 3 mg L(-1) Kill where 6.9 shoots per explant were produced. Rooting of the in vitro generated shoots was achieved on MS basal media with frequencies ranging from 80 to 100%, and survival of plants transferred to soil was 72%, on the average."

Article

Agave spp Citocininas Micropropagación CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Antitumor and immunostimulatory activities of a genotype V recombinantattenuated veterinary Newcastle disease virus vaccine

OSCAR ANTONIO ORTEGA RIVERA J. Luis Quintanar Susana del Toro Arreola Ángel Gabriel Alpuche Solís MAYRA JANETH ESPARZA ARAIZA Eva Salinas (2018)

"Antitumor conventional treatments including chemo/radiotherapy result in several side effects and non-specificity. Therapies including the use of oncolytic viruses, particularly the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), have emerged as an attractive alternative due to their capacity to kill cancer cells directly or through stimulation of the immune system. In the present study, a commercial vaccine composed of a recombinant attenuated NDV strain P05 (rNDV-P05) was assessed for antitumor and immunostimulatory activity. Firstly, hemagglutination activity was evaluated at different pH and temperature conditions. Then, cancer cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were co-cultured with or without rNDV-P05 and cytoplasmic nucleosomes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as an apoptosis indicator. Antitumor cytokines produced by PBMC in response to the virus were analyzed by ELISA and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Characterization ofrNDV-P05 indicates that the virus is slightly sensible to acid and basic pH, and stable at temperatures no greater than 42 degrees C. The majority of cell lines developed apoptosis in co-culture with rNDV-P05 in a dose-time dependent manner. The highest level of HeLa, HCC1954 and HepG2 cell apoptosis was at 48 h/50 hemagglutination units (HU), and HL-60 was 24 h/50 HU.A549 cell line and PBMC did not show sensitivity to apoptosis by the virus. PBMC from healthy donors stimulated with the rNDV-P05 increased significantly the levels of interferon (IFN)-alpha, IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and soluble TNF-related apoptosis-inducing I igand in culture supernatants, as well as their mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that the pro-apoptotic effect ofrNDV-P05 and its magnitude is specific to particular tumor cell lines and is not induced on PBMC; and the virusstimulates the expression of several key antitumor cytokines. This study promotes the use of rNDV-P05 in an alternate application of different viral strains during virotherapy with NDV."

Article

Newcastle disease virus Antitumor activity Immunostimulatory activity Genotype V Strain P05 MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD

Impact of Carbon Nanomaterials on the Antioxidant System of Tomato Seedlings

YOLANDA GONZALEZ GARCIA ELSY RUBISELA LOPEZ VARGAS Gregorio Cadenas Pliego Adalberto Benavides Mendoza SUSANA GONZALEZ MORALES ARMANDO ROBLEDO OLIVO Ángel Gabriel Alpuche Solís ANTONIO JUAREZ MALDONADO (2019)

"Tomato is one of the most economically important vegetables worldwide and is constantly threatened by various biotic and abiotic stress factors reducing the quality and quantity in the production of this crop. As an alternative to mitigate stress in plants, carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) have been used in agricultural areas. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the antioxidant responses of tomato seedlings to the application via foliar and drench of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene (GP). Different doses (10, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg L−1) and a control were evaluated. The results showed that the fresh and dry root weight increased with the application of CNMs. Regarding the antioxidant responses of tomato seedlings, the application of CNMs increased the content of phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, glutathione, photosynthetic pigments, activity of the enzyme’s ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase as well as the content of proteins. Therefore, the use of carbon-based nanomaterials could be a good alternative to induce tolerance to different stress in tomato crop."

Article

Carbon nanotubes Graphene Antioxidant compounds Enzymatic activity Oxidative stress BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOQUÍMICA BIOQUÍMICA

Bacterial wilt and canker of tomato: fundamentals of a complex biological system

EMMANUEL MARTINEZ CASTRO RAMON JARQUIN GALVEZ Ángel Gabriel Alpuche Solís MOISES ROBERTO VALLEJO PEREZ JUAN GUALBERTO COLLI MULL JOSE PABLO LARA AVILA (2018)

"Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is well-known as a model for study of plant–pathogen interactions, since it is a crop of global relevance and susceptible to multiple bacterial, fungal, viral and nematode pathogens. Among bacterial phytopathogens, the actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) is the causal agent of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato, considered a quarantine disease at international level. The tomato–Cmm interaction has been studied to decipher the pathogenicity mechanisms in Cmm, susceptibility mechanisms in tomato, molecular basis of resistance to Cmm in wild species relative to domesticated tomato, and the level of genetic variability in Cmm. The objective of this review is to discuss recent advances in tomato–Cmm compatible interaction, which can be integrated for application in early diagnosis and biological control of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. Further study of plant–microorganism interactions is a promising field for improvements in tomato pathogen resistance."

Article

Genetic diversity Plant disease resistance Plant–pathogen interaction CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Evaluation of a SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme involved in resistance to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in Solanum peruvianum, through a tomato mottle virus VIGS assay

MAYRA JANETH ESPARZA ARAIZA BERNARDO BAÑUELOS HERNANDEZ GERARDO RAFAEL ARGUELLO ASTORGA JOSE PABLO LARA AVILA DULCE ALEJANDRA ROUGON CARDOSO ANGEL GABRIEL ALPUCHE SOLIS (2015)

"Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) causes bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. Currently, no Solanum lycopersicum resistant varieties are commercially available, but some degree of Cmm resistance has been identified in Solanum peruvianurn. Previous research showed up regulation of a SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme (SCEI) transcript in S. peruvianum compared to S. lycopersicum following infection with Cmm. In order to test the role of SCEI in resistance to Cmm, a fragment of SCEI from S. peruvianum was cloned into a novel virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) vector based on the geminivirus, Tomato Mottle Virus (ToMoV). Using biolistic inoculation, the ToMoV-based VIGS vector was shown to be effective in S. peruvianum by silencing the magnesium chelatase gene, resulting in leaf bleaching. VIGS with the ToMoV_SCEI construct resulted in 61% silencing of SCEI in leaves of S. peruvianum as determined by quantitative RT-PCR. The SCEI -silenced plants showed unilateral wilting (15 dpi) and subsequent death (20 dpi) of the entire plant after Cmm inoculation, whereas the empty vector-treated plants only showed wilting in the Cmm-inoculated leaf. The SCEI-silenced plants showed higher Cmm colonization and an average of 4.5 times more damaged tissue compared to the empty vector control plants. SCEI appears to play an important role in the innate immunity of S. peruvianum against Cmm, perhaps through the regulation of transcription factors, leading to expression of proteins involved in salicylic acid dependent defense responses."

Article

SUMO-conjugating enzyme Virus-induced gene-silencing Tomato Mottle Virus Bacterial canker Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA