Author: Alejandro de las Peñas Nava
"The invention discloses an in vitro method for the identification of Candida parapsilosis, the sequences associated to said identification, as well as diagnosis kits for identifying Candida parapsilosis."
"La invención describe un método in vitro de identificación de Candida parapsilosis , las secuencias asociadas a dicha identificación, así como kits de diagnóstico para identificar Candida parapsilosis."
"The invention discloses an in vitro method for the identification of Candida tropicalis, the sequences associated to said identification, as well as diagnosis kits for identifying Candida tropicalis."
"La invención describe un método in vitro de identificación de Candida tropicalis, las secuencias asociadas a dicha identificación, así como kits de diagnóstico para identificar Candida tropicalis."
"The invention discloses an in vitro method for the identification of Candida albicans, the sequences associated to said identification, as well as diagnosis kits for identifying Candida albicans."
"La invención describe un método in vitro de identificación de Candida albicans, las secuencias asociadas a dicha identificación, así como kits de diagnóstico para identificar Candida albicans."
"La presente invención describe y reclama un método in vitro para la identificación de Candida glabrata, las secuencias asociadas a dicha identificación, así como kits de diagnóstico para identificar a C. glabrata y el uso de los mismos."
"The present invention describes and claims an in vitro method for the identification of Candida glabrata, the sequences associated with said identification, together with diagnostic kits for identifying C. glabrata and the use thereof."
"The human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is causing more and more problems in hospitals, as this species shows an intrinsic antifungal drug resistance or rapidly becomes resistant when challenged with antifungals. C. glabrata only grows in the yeast form, so it is lacking a yeast-to-hyphae switch, which is one of the main virulence factors of C. albicans. An important virulence factor of C. glabrata is its capacity to strongly adhere to many different substrates. To achieve this, C. glabrata expresses a large number of adhesin-encoding genes and genome comparisons with closely related species, including the non-pathogenic S. cerevisiae, which revealed a correlation between the number of adhesin-encoding genes and pathogenicity. The adhesins are involved in the first steps during an infection; they are the first point of contact with the host. For several of these adhesins, their importance in adherence to different substrates and subsequent biofilm formation was demonstrated in vitro or in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of C. glabrata adhesins during adhesion and biofilm formation both, under in vitro and in vivo conditions."
"Candida glabrata is a haploid opportunistic fungal pathogen that is phylogenetically related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Even though C. glabrata has no known sexual cycle, it contains, like S. cerevisiae, three mating type-like loci (MTL) called MTL1, MTL2, and MTL3, as well as most of the genes required for mating, meiosis, and sporulation. MTL1 is localized at an internal position on chromosome B and is thought to be the locus corresponding to the MAT locus in S. cerevisiae. MTL2 and MTL3 are localized close to two telomeres on different chromosomes (29.4 kb from Chr E-L and 10.5 kb from Chr B-L, respectively). By using URA3 reporter gene insertions at the three MTL loci, we found that in contrast to the case for S. cerevisiae, only MTL3 is subject to transcriptional silencing while MTL2 is transcriptionally active, and this is in agreement with previously reported data. We found that the silencing of MTL3 is nucleated primarily at the left telomere of chromosome B and spreads over 12 kb to MTL3, rather than nucleating at flanking, closely positioned cis-acting silencers, like those flanking HMR and HML of S. cerevisiae. Interestingly, the silencing of MTL3 absolutely requires the yKu70, yKu80, and Rif1 proteins, in sharp contrast to the silencing of the HM loci of S. cerevisiae. In addition, we found that several cell type-specific genes are expressed in C. glabrata regardless of the presence, or even absence, of mating type information at any of the MTL loci."
"In this work we characterized the occurrence of killer activity in 64 Candida glabrata clinical isolates under different conditions. We found that only 6.25 % of the clinical isolates tested were positive for killer activity against a Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303 sensitive strain. Sensitivity of killer activity to different values of pH and temperatures was analyzed. We found that the killer activity presented by all isolates was resistant to every pH and temperature tested, although optimal activity was found at a range of pH values from 4 to 7 and at 37ºC. We did not observe extrachromosomal genetic elements associated with killer activity in any of the positive C. glabrata isolates. The killer effect was due to a decrease in viability and DNA fragmentation in sensitive yeast."
"Candida glabrata is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that can cause severe invasive infections and can evade phagocytic cell clearance. We are interested in understanding the virulence of this fungal pathogen, in particular its oxidative stress response. Here we investigated C. glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans responses to two different oxidants: menadione and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP). In log-phase, in the presence of menadione, C. glabrata requires Cta1p (catalase), while in a stationary phase (SP), Cta1p is dispensable. In addition, C. glabrata is less resistant to menadione than C. albicans in SP. The S. cerevisiae laboratory reference strain is less resistant to menadione than C. glabrata and C. albicans; however S. cerevisiaeclinical isolates (CIs) are more resistant than the lab reference strain. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae CIs showed an increased catalase activity. Interestingly, in SP C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae are more resistant to CHP than C. albicans and Cta1p plays no apparent role in detoxifying this oxidant."
"Candida glabrata, a common opportunistic fungal pathogen, adheres efficiently to mammalian epithelial cells in culture. This interaction in vitro depends mainly on the adhesin Epa1, one of a large family of cell wall proteins. Most of the EPA genes are located in subtelomeric regions, where they are transcriptionally repressed by silencing. In order to better characterize the transcriptional regulation of the EPA family, we have assessed the importance of C. glabrata orthologues of known regulators of subtelomeric silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To this end, we used a series of strains containing insertions of the reporter URA3 gene within different intergenic regions throughout four telomeres of C. glabrata. Using these reporter strains, we have assessed the roles of SIR2, SIR3, SIR4, HDF1 (yKu70), HDF2 (yKu80), and RIF1 in mediating silencing at four C. glabrata telomeres. We found that, whereas the SIR proteins are absolutely required for silencing of the reporter genes and the native subtelomeric EPA genes, the Rif1 and the Ku proteins regulate silencing at only a subset of the analyzed telomeres. We also mapped a cis element adjacent to the EPA3 locus that can silence a reporter gene when placed at a distance of 31 kb from the telomere. Our data show that silencing of the C. glabrata telomeres varies from telomere to telomere. In addition, recruitment of silencing proteins to the subtelomeres is likely, for certain telomeres, to depend both on the telomeric repeats and on particular discrete silencing elements."
"Candida glabrata is the second most common cause of candidemia, and its ability to adhere to different host cell types, to microorganisms, and to medical devices are important virulence factors. Here, we consider three characteristics that confer extraordinary advantages to C. glabrata within the host. (1) C. glabrata has a large number of genes encoding for adhesins most of which are localized at subtelomeric regions. The number and sequence of these genes varies substantially depending on the strain, indicating that C. glabrata can tolerate high genomic plasticity; (2) The largest family of CWPs (cell wall proteins) is the EPA (epithelial adhesin) family of adhesins. Epa1 is the major adhesin and mediates adherence to epithelial, endothelial and immune cells. Several layers of regulation like subtelomeric silencing, cis-acting regulatory regions, activators, nutritional signaling, and stress conditions tightly regulate the expression of many adhesin-encoding genes in C. glabrata, while many others are not expressed. Importantly, there is a connection between acquired resistance to xenobiotics and increased adherence; (3) Other subfamilies of adhesins mediate adherence to Candida albicans, allowing C. glabrata to efficiently invade the oral epithelium and form robust biofilms. It is noteworthy that every C. glabrata strain analyzed presents a unique pattern of CWPs at the cell surface."
Candida glabrata Cell wall proteins Adherence Virulence Fluconazole resistance Genome plasticity Subtelomeric silencing Clinical isolates BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA MICROBIOLOGÍA MICROBIOLOGÍA