Author: Arturo González Santana
Objectives: Pancreatic duodenal homeobox factor-1 (PDX-1) and neurogenin-3 (NGN-3) are progenitor cell markers in the pancreas. The aim was to compare their serum levels in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Material and Methods: This prospective, cross-sectional study included two groups: (a) Women with normal gestation and (b) with GDM. PDX-1 and NGN-3 serum expression was determined by qRT-PCR. Student’s t-test or the Mann–Whitney U-test was used to contrast both groups and the Pearson or Spearman correlation was used. A multiple regression was done introducing body mass index and the relative expression of both genes as independent variables and glucose as dependent variable. Statistical significance was tested at P ≤ 0.05 level. Results: Thirty-eight patients (mean age was of 29.00 ± 7.74 years) were included, 22 belonged to the normal pregnancies, and 16 to GDM. Using the ΔΔCt method, the expression fold change for PDX-1 was 0.458 and for NGN-3 it was 0.361. There was a significant positive correlation between the expressions of both genes. The multiple regression was significant for both genes expression and glucose levels in case of having normal weight. Conclusion: PDX-1 and NGN-3 low serum expression could be predictors of higher glucose levels in normal pregnancies
The Obesity-associated fat mass (FTO) gene has been associated to a higher risk of obstetrical complications. The aim of this prospective, cross-sectional and comparative study was to determine if there are clinical or laboratorial differences in pregnant women with the presence/absence of FTO rs9939609 focused on threatened abortion. Pregnant women between 18 to 35 years of age were invited to participate. In all cases, it was obtained the sociodemographic information, anthropometry, clinical laboratories for obstetrical routine check-up, FTO rs9939609 positive expression, and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) indexes were also calculated. Comparisons of this type of variables between both groups were performed through Student´s T-test. Chi-Square Tests were used to contrast the GDM and threatened miscarriages percentages of cases between both groups. Pearson correlation was performed among the quantitative variables of all the study population. 57 women positive and 52 negative for the FTO rs9939609 presence were included in the study with a Gestational Diabetes Mellitus prevalence of 19.3%. When contrasting the variables by the presence/absence of FTO rs9939609 the p-values were far from being significant. As such, Chi-Square Tests did not show significant statistical difference neither for GDM nor for threatened miscarriage between both groups. Based on these results, the FTO rs9939609 presence did not reflect difference either in GDM or in threatened miscarriage. It was demonstrated in parallel, the utility of the QUICKI index in the metabolic evaluation during pregnancy. In conclusion, in Mexican women, pregnancy evolution and possible appearance of complications is not so determined by the FTO rs9939609 presence but by the overweight with which this physiological state is faced.