Author: CARLOS ALFONSO ALVAREZ GONZALEZ

Aclimatación en cautiverio del sargo Archosargus probatocephalus (Perciformes: Sparidae)

Carlos Alfonso Álvarez González (2018)

El sargo (Archosargus probatocephalus) es una especie prioritaria para el desarrollo de la maricultura en el sureste mexicano.

Article

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA Aclimatación maduración sexual reproducción desove larvas

FRESHWATER ROTIFER: (PART II) A LABORATORY STUDY OF NATIVE FRESHWATER ROTIFERS Brachionus angularis AND B. quadridentatus brevispinus FROM TABASCO

JEANE RIMBER INDY LENIN ARIAS RODRIGUEZ Gabriel Márquez Couturier Carlos Alfonso Álvarez González (2012)

This study is a first report of rotifer form the South of Mexico. The rotifers were collected from the fishponds arround Biological Division, UJAT and we examined their morphometric characters, cultivated and identified them. We conducted experiment at different salt concentrations tested at 0g L–1 water (no add NaCL), 2g L–1, 4g L–1, 6g L–1, 8g L–1, 10g L–1 water. The species were identified as Brachionus angularis Gosse (1851) characterized by having two anterior spines, which are almost invisible while B. quadridentatus brevispinus Ehrenberg (1832) with six anterior spines, which can be seen clearly. Lorica size of B. angularis and B. quadridentatus brevispinus are about 12.14 and 12.8 m, respectively and the size is much smaller than B. plicatilis (Mazatlan strain).

Article

BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

FRESHWATER ROTIFER: (PART II) A LABORATORY STUDY OF NATIVE FRESHWATER ROTIFERS Brachionus angularis AND B. quadridentatus brevispinus FROM TABASCO

JEANE RIMBER INDY LENIN ARIAS RODRIGUEZ Gabriel Márquez Couturier Carlos Alfonso Álvarez González (2012)

This study is a first report of rotifer form the South of Mexico. The rotifers were collected from the fishponds arround Biological Division, UJAT and we examined their morphometric characters, cultivated and identified them. We conducted experiment at different salt concentrations tested at 0g L–1 water (no add NaCL), 2g L–1, 4g L–1, 6g L–1, 8g L–1, 10g L–1 water. The species were identified as Brachionus angularis Gosse (1851) characterized by having two anterior spines, which are almost invisible while B. quadridentatus brevispinus Ehrenberg (1832) with six anterior spines, which can be seen clearly. Lorica size of B. angularis and B. quadridentatus brevispinus are about 12.14 and 12.8 m, respectively and the size is much smaller than B. plicatilis (Mazatlan strain).

Article

BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Effect of feeding frequency on growth and survival in juvenile gar Atractosteus tropicus Gill, 1863, in culture conditions

Leonardo Martínez Cárdenas Crisantema Hernández González Luis Daniel Espinosa Chaurand MIRIAM SORIA BARRETO Carlos Alfonso Álvarez González rafael martinez-garcia (2018)

"The gar, Atractosteus tropicus is a native fish distributed in fluvial systems of the Mexican southeast, which presents aquaculture potential in the food industry and as ornamental species. However, it is necessary to deepen the knowledge for the optimization of its culture. The present study examined the effect of three feeding frequencies on the growth, survival, and condition of juveniles. The fish (90) were placed in nine 35 L tanks, (n = 10; three replicates per treatment). The feed (44% protein, 15% fat) was supplied to 2% of the biomass, divided into 2, 4 and 6 servings throughout 10 h for eight weeks. After eight weeks the standard length, wet weight, survival, Fulton K, specific growth rate, nitrogen carbon rate, the coefficient of variation and size heterogeneity were recorded, which were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA. There were no significant differences among treatments for any of the response variables. The overall results indicated that in general both the culture conditions and the three food frequencies tested were adequate for the species. The results indicate the high flexibility of the species to be cultured with minimum requirements of the food supply, which can translate into the optimization of production costs."

Article

aquarium, pellets, condition, carbon, nitrogen rate, moisture content, aquaculture BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA ANIMAL (ZOOLOGÍA) NUTRICIÓN NUTRICIÓN

Use of Potato Starch in Diets of Tropical Gar (Atractosteus tropicus, Gill 1863) Larvae

CARLOS ALFONSO FRIAS QUINTANA CARLOS ALFONSO ALVAREZ GONZALEZ DARIEL TOVAR RAMIREZ RAFAEL MARTINEZ GARCIA SUSANA CAMARILLO COOP EMYR SAUL PEÑA MARIN MARIO ALBERTO GALAVIZ ESPINOZA (2017)

"Tropical gar, Atractosteus tropicus, is a carnivorous fish species from Southern México with high value and acceptance in local markets. Therefore, the present study aims to spare proteins in diets for larviculture of this species. An experiment was performed using three different experimental diets with increasing carbohydrate levels based on potato starch (S) and decreasing protein content (P) and total energy: 16% S (16% S–44% P), 22% S (22% S–40% P) and 28% S (28% S–36% P). Tropical gar larvae (five days post-hatching, 2.1 mm

average notochordal length) were assessed for growth, survival, degree of cannibalism, and digestive enzyme activities for 30 days. Highest growth and survival (24%), as well as the lowest cannibalism (33%), was seen in larvae fed the 28% S diet, and these larvae

also had the highest lipase, amylase and glucosidase activities (0.28, 0.56 and 0.11 units, respectively). Protease activity (alkaline protease, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and leucine aminopeptidase) was higher in the larvae fed the 22% S diet than in those given the 16% S and 28% S diets. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of potato starch at 28% S enhanced growth, survival and some digestive enzyme activities, and decreased cannibalism in the larval gar. Potato starch could replace dietary protein as a major source of energy for A. tropicus larvae, thereby reducing the cost of diets."

Article

growth, cannibalism, digestive enzymes, fish larvae, dietary carbohydrate, protein sparing BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA ANIMAL (ZOOLOGÍA) COMPORTAMIENTO ANIMAL

Stressors Due to Handling Impair Gut Immunity in Meagre (Argyrosomus regius): The Compensatory Role of Dietary L-Tryptophan

GLORIA GERTRUDYS ASENCIO ALCUDIA Karl Andree Inmaculada Giráldez Díaz Dariel Tovar Ramírez Carlos Alfonso Álvarez González Marcelino Herrera Enric Gisbert (2019)

"In the context of intensive aquaculture, meagre (Argyrosomus regius) is one of the most important new aquaculture species in Southern Europe and several studies are focused on the optimization of its culture. Nevertheless, stressors such as handling during transport or culture maintenance may affect the immune system, thereby impairing some immune responses or provoking cellular damage. One strategy that has been used to avert this type of negative stress response is the supplementation of amino acids to improve resistance to stress. In this experiment, meagre (105.0 ± 2.6 g, mean ± standard deviation) juveniles were fed two diets for a period of 7 days, the first a commercial diet supplemented with 1% tryptophan (Trp) and second, the same commercial diet without tryptophan supplementation (control group). The effects of two types of handling stressors (air exposure and confinement/netting) on fish fed both diets was evaluated in terms of gene expression of the selected gut immunity markers, such as (1) innate immune response processes: c3 complement (c3), lysozyme (lys), and cyclooxygenase (cox2); (2) humoral immune response processes: interferon type 1 (ifn1), mx protein (mxp), interleukin 1b (il-1b), tumor necrosis factor 1a (tnf1a), and interleukin 10 (il-10); (3) antimicrobial peptides: defensin (def), hepcidin (hep), piscidin (pis), and a marker for mitochondrial respiration: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh). Samples of the anterior intestine were collected at 1 and 6 h post-stress (hps). Results showed that in fish fed 1% Trp, the air exposure resulted in an upregulation of gene expression at 6 hps for c3, lys, cox2, ifn1, mxp, il-10 and gapdh, and il-1b and pis. The confinement/netting test for fish fed 1% Trp resulted in an upregulation of c3 and mxp and a downregulation of cox2, ifn1, il-1b, tnf1a, il-10, def, hep, and gapdh at both post-stress times (1 and 6 hps). According to the present study, dietary supplementation with 1% Trp may be considered as a proper nutritional strategy for improving tolerance and/or alleviating acute response to handling stressors."

Article

Argyrosomus regius, amino acid, stress, immune response, gene expression, aquaculture, diet supplement BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA ANIMAL (ZOOLOGÍA) NUTRICIÓN NUTRICIÓN

Growth and development of herbaceous plants in aquaponic systems

Crecimiento y desarrollo de plantas herbáceas en sistemas acuapónicos

ELVIA AZUCENA ESPINOSA MOYA Carlos Alfonso Álvarez González Pedro J. Albertos_Alpuche RAFAEL GUZMAN MENDOZA ALICIA DEL ROSARIO MARTINEZ YAÑEZ (2018)

La acuaponía integra la producción acuícola e hidropónica utilizando los desechos de los peces como nutrientes para diversos cultivos vegetales. Las herbáceas como la albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L.), la menta (Mentha piperita L.) y la hierbabuena (Mentha spicata L.), tienen gran demanda por sus propiedades, sin embargo, existe poca información sobre su comportamiento en acuaponía. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el crecimiento y desarrollo de estas especies cultivadas en acuaponía. De acuerdo a los resultados, las herbáceas evaluadas se adaptan a las condiciones del cultivo y pueden ser utilizadas como parte de los filtros biológicos de sistemas acuapónicos para la producción de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. var. Stirling). La calidad del agua se mantuvo en rangos adecuados tanto para la producción de tilapia como herbáceas. La hierbabuena fue la que tuvo mayor productividad, sugiriendo que esta planta asimila de forma más eficiente los nutrientes producidos en este tipo de sistema

Aquaponics integrates aquaculture and hydroponic production using fish waste as nutrients for various vegetable crops. Herbaceous plants such as basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) are in great demand due to their properties; however, there is very little information about their behavior in aquaponics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and development of these species under aquaponic conditions. According to the results, the evaluated herbaceous plants suit crop conditionsand they can be used as part of the biological filters in aquaponic systems with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. var. Stirling) production. Water quality could be maintained within appropriate ranges for both fish and plant production. Spearmint was the plant where the highest productivity was observed, suggesting that it assimilates the nutrients produced in this type of system more efficiently

Article

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA Acuaponía Albahaca Hierbabuena Menta Filtros biológicos Aquaponics Basil Peppermint Spearmint Biological filters

DIGESTIBILIDAD in vitro DE INGREDIENTES PROTEÍNICOS EN LA MOJARRA CASTARRICA Cichlasoma urophthalmus

CARLOS ALBERTO CUENCA SORIA CARLOS ALFONSO ALVAREZ GONZALEZ ROCIO GUERRERO ZARATE JOSE LUIS ORTIZ GALINDO MARTHA ALICIA PERERA GARCIA RAUL ENRIQUE HERNANDEZ GOMEZ HECTOR GERARDO NOLASCO SORIA (2013)

"El cultivo de Cichlasoma urophthalmus ha observado un lento desarrollo, ya que actualmente no dispone de un alimento balanceado que contenga los ingredientes apropiados para su crecimiento. En este estudio se determinó el grado de hidrólisis (GH, %) de 29 ingredientes proteínicos animales y vegetales, mediante el sistema pH STAT, además de calcular la liberación de aminoácidos totales (ALT, μg ml−1), utilizando extractos multienzimáticos de estómago e intestino de juveniles de C. urophthalmus. De todos los ingredientes probados, los valores GH ácido / alcalino óptimos fueron los de la carne y vísceras de pollo (9.6 ± 1.8 / 22.7 ± 4.3), carne de cerdo (22.0 ± 0.52 / 31.6 ± 2.2) y pasta de coco (10.4 ± 1.5 / 21.6 ± 5.2), siendo significativamente mayores (p < 0.05) con respecto a los GH ácido/alcalino de ingredientes de referencia, hemoglobina/caseína (6.9 ± 1.8 / 2.2 ± 0.5). Paralelamente, los valores ALT ácido/alcalino de estos mismos ingredientes fueron estadísticamente iguales (p > 0.05) (793.9 ± 21.1/1587.8 ± 13.0, 310.5 ± 33.0/1013.2 ± 20.3, 591.9 ± 4.1 / 574.6 ± 11.9 respectivamente) a los de los ingredientes ácido / alcalino de referencia (hemoglobina 1293.1 ± 24.1 y caseína 943.3 ± 14.7). Se concluye que los ingredientes de prueba mencionados pueden ser fuentes potenciales de proteína, como base de una fórmula estándar en el cultivo de C. urophthalmus."

"The commercial culture of Cichlasoma urophthalmus has not been developed, because there is not any commercial balanced food available with the ingredients required for the species. This study determined the degree of hydrolysis (GH, %) of 29 animal and plant protein ingredients using the pH STAT system, and calculated the total free amino acid content (ALT, µg ml−1) using multienzymatic extracts obtained from the stomach and intestine of C. urophthalmus juveniles. Of all the tested ingredients, the optimum acid/alkaline GH values were those of the poultry-by products and meat (9.6 ± 1.8 / 22.7 ± 4.3), pork meal (22.0 ± 0.52/31.6 ± 2.2) and coconut paste (10.4± 1.5/21.6 ± 5.2), and they were signi˝cantly greater (p < 0.05) than the acid/alkaline GH values of the reference ingredients hemoglobin/casein (6.9 ± 1.8 / 2.2 ± 0.5). Concurrently, the acid/alkaline ALT values for these same ingredients were statistically equal (p > 0.05) (793.9 ± 21.1/1587.8 ± 13.0, 310.5 ± 33.0/1013.2 ± 20.3, 591.9± 4.1/574.6 ± 11.9 respectively) to those of the acid/alkaline reference ingredients (hemoglobin 1293.1 ± 24.1 and casein 943.3 ± 14.7). It is concluded that the test ingredients may reference ingredients (hemoglobin 1293.1 ± 24.1 and casein 943.3 ± 14.7). It is concluded that the test ingredients may constitute strong sources of proteins, as the base of a standard formula for C. urophthalmus culture."

Article

Acuicultura, cíclido nativo, harinas, nutrición Aquaculture, native cichlid, meal, nutrition CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS PRODUCCIÓN ANIMAL NUTRICIÓN

Caracterización parcial de proteasas digestivas del chucumite (Centropomus parallelus)

Partial characterization of digestive proteases of fat snook (Centropomus paralellus)

FIDEL JESUS RAMIREZ CARLOS ALFONSO ALVAREZ GONZALEZ HECTOR GERARDO NOLASCO SORIA EMYR SAUL PEÑA MARIN RAFAEL MARTINEZ GARCIA SUSANA CAMARILLO COOP Kevin Conway CAMILO POHLENZ CASTILLO (2017)

"Diversos estudios han abordado la caracterización de las diversas enzimas digestivas, lo cual es esencial para entender los tipos, modos de acción y nivel de actividad de dichas enzimas. Objetivos. La caracterización parcial de las proteasas digestivas se estudió en juveniles del chucumite (Centropomus parallelus, Poey 1869). Métodos. Se utilizaron técnicas bioquímicas y electroforéticas para la caracterización de proteasas. Resultados. La actividad de proteasas ácidas (estomacales) fue mayor a las proteasas alcalinas (intestinales). Asimismo, la actividad de la quimotripsina fue superior a la actividad de la tripsina. El pH óptimo para las proteasas estomacales fue de 2 con una alta estabilidad en el rango de pH 2-8, mientras que las proteasas intestinales mostraron dos picos con actividad a pH 8 y 10, siendo altamente estables a los pH 8 y 12. Las temperaturas óptimas se obtuvieron a 45 y 55 °C para proteasa estomacales e intestinales, respectivamente. Mediante el uso de inhibidores de proteasas se comprobó la presencia de pepsina en los extractos estomacales y de diversas serina proteasas en los extractos intestinales. Los zimogramas mostraron cinco bandas con actividad proteolítica alcalina (79.5, 48.9, 37.0, 29.0 y 22.5 kDa), las cuales fueron fuertemente inhibidas con PMSF, SBT1 y ovoalbúmina. Conclusiones. Por lo anterior, se considera que C. parallelus tiene una alta capacidad digestiva similar a otros peces marinos carnívoros estrictos."

"Several studies have addressed the characterization of various digestive enzymes, which is essential to understanding the types, modes of action, and level of activity of these enzymes. Goals. The partial characterization of the digestive proteases was studied in fat snook juveniles (Centropomus parallelus, Poey 1869). Methods. Characterization was performed using electrophoretic and biochemical techniques. Results. Acidic proteases activity (stomach) is higher than alkaline proteases activity (intestine); also, chymotrypsin activity was superior to the trypsin activity. The optimal pH was 2 for stomach proteases with high stability in a wide range of pH 2-8, while the intestinal proteases showed two peaks with activity at pH 8 and 10 with stability at a pH of 8-12. Optimal temperatures were obtained between 45 to 55 °C for stomach and intestine proteases, respectively. Using proteases inhibitors, the presence of an aspartic protease (pepsin) was tested from stomach extracts and diverse serine proteases from intestine extracts. The zymograms showed 5 bands with alkaline proteolytic activity (79.5, 48.9, 37.0, 29.0, and 22.5 kDa), which were highly inhibited with PMSF, SBT1, and ovalbumin. Conclusions. C. parallelus is considered to have a high digestive capacity similar to those reported for other strictly carnivorous marine fish."

Article

Centropomus parallelus, pepsina, tripsina, inhibidores inhibitors, pepsin, trypsin BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOQUÍMICA ENZIMOLOGIA