Author: CYNTHIA EUGENIA MONTOYA MARTINEZ
"En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la inclusión de aceite de langostilla roja (Pleuroncodes planipes) sobre el crecimiento, supervivencia y pigmentación del tegumento de crías de carpa koi (Cyprinus carpio var. haematopterus). El estudio consistió en tres experimentos: experimento 1, con fotoperiodo de 4 h L / 20 h O y aguas claras; experimento 2, con fotoperiodo 12 h L/ 12 h O y aguas claras, y, experimento 3, cuyo fotoperiodo fue de 12 h L /12 O y aguas con algas. En estos experimentos, dos variedades de crías de carpa koi -naranjas y con manchas oscuras- fueron alimentadas con dietas adicionadas con aceite de langostilla a diferentes porcentajes de inclusión (0, 1, 2 y 3 %), con el 5% de alimento con relación a la biomasa de cada unidad experimental. Al final de cada uno de los experimentos se tomaron fotografías de los organismos y se analizó la coloración con el modelo de matiz-saturación-brillantez de cuatro regiones anatómicas en ambas variedades de crías y en los experimentos 1 y 2 se evaluaron parámetros biológicos: supervivencia, ganancia en longitud y en peso, y porcentaje de incremento en peso y en longitud. Las dietas adicionadas con aceite de langostilla roja no fueron rechazadas por los organismos, y no se observaron efectos negativos en las variables evaluadas. En general, la inclusión de aceite influyó en la pigmentación de las crías de color naranja y en el crecimiento y la coloración de los organismos con manchas oscuras, particularmente cuando el fotoperiodo fue de 12 L/ 12 O."
"In this study the effect of the inclusion of red crab (Pleuroncodes planipes) oil, was evaluated on growth, survival and pigmentation of the integument of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio var. haematopterus) fry. The study consisted of three experiments: Experiment 1, with photoperiod of 4 h L/ 20 h D and clear waters; Experiment 2, with photoperiod of 12 h L /12 h D and clear waters, and experiment 3, with photoperiod of 12 h L/ 12 h D and green water (with natural production of microalgae). In these experiments, two varieties of koi fry (orange color and orange color with dark spots) were fed with diets containing inclusions at different percentages (0, 1, 2 and 3%) of red crab oil, according to the 5% of total biomass of each experimental unit. At the end of each experiment, pictures of every fish were taken and analyzed with the HSV color model, in four anatomical regions. In the experiments one and two, biological parameters were survival, length and weight gain, and percentage of increase in weight and length were evaluated. Diets with added red crab oil were not rejected by organisms, and no adverse effects were observed in the variables evaluated. In general, the inclusion of oil increases the pigmentation of the orange color fish and growth and coloration of black spot fishes, particularly when the light conditions were adjusted to a photoperiod of 12 h L/12 h D."
"La producción de alimentos para la acuicultura requiere la búsqueda de otras fuentes o ingredientes proteínicos como alternativas potenciales en la formulación de piensos para la acuicultura, debido a la escasez y alto precio de las fuentes de proteínas utilizadas con mayor frecuencia. El objetivo de este análisis fue evaluar la relación entre los aminoácidos esenciales de 13 tipos de proteínas disponibles en el mercado con aminoácidos esenciales presentes en el músculo de cuatro de las más importantes especies de langostinos cultivadas del género Macrobrachium (M. amazonicum, M. rosenbergii, M. americanum y M. tenellum). Los resultados obtenidos muestran los aminoácidos limitantes de cada ingrediente para cada especie, lo que permite la formulación de alimentos comerciales que satisfagan las necesidades nutricionales para apoyar el crecimiento óptimo de estos langostinos en cultivo. En conclusión, existe una diferencia entre los aminoácidos que con más frecuencia se presentan como primer limitante entre las fuentes de origen animal y vegetal. De este modo, es posible evaluar complementaciones entre estas fuentes para lograr un perfil de aminoácidos cercano al de las especies de Macrobrachium"
"Food production for aquaculture requires finding other protein sources or ingredients as potential alternatives in the formulation of aquaculture feeds, due to the shortage and high price of protein sources that are most commonly used. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the relationship between the essential amino acids in 13 types of proteins available in the market with the essential amino acids found in the muscle of four of the most important farmed prawn species of the genus Macrobrachium (M. amazonicum, M. rosenbergii, M. americanum and M. tenellum). The results obtained showed the limiting amino acids of each ingredient for each species, thereby allowing for formulation of commercial foods that meet the nutritional needs to support optimal growth of these prawns in culture. In conclusion, there is a difference in the amino acids most often present as first limiting between sources of animal and plant origin. Thereby, it is possible evaluate complementarities between these sources to achieve an amino acids profile close to that of Macrobrachium species."
Macrobrachium, langostinos, crustáceos, aminoácidos, proteínas, nutrición. Macrobrachium, prawns, crustacean, amino acid, protein, nutrition. BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA ANIMAL (ZOOLOGÍA) NUTRICIÓN
"The present work evaluates the attractant and palatable potential of six ingredients of animal origin in longarm river prawn Macrobrachium tenellum juveniles in a Y type maze system. Ingredients were pelletized for the first bioassay and included in neutral gelatin (in wet base) in the second bioassay. The ingredient to evaluate was placed in one of the Y-maze arms, allowing the free movement of prawn for 15 min. On both bioassays, attractability was evaluated by quantifying the time required for the first prawn to enter the region where the feed was found and the total of prawns which entered that region. In the second bioassay, also evaluated the palatability quantifying the time for the first prawn to have contact with the ingredient, the total of prawns which had contact with it and the time they remained feeding. No significant differences were obtained between treatments in the first bioassay. Significant differences were found in the second bioassay showing that pork meal, fish meal, feather meal and shrimp meal have greater attractability due to the number of prawns attracted, results also show significant differences in palatability, where fishmeal, shrimp meal and pork meal stimulating a higher number of organisms and promoting a longer consumption time."
"Previous studies have shown that crustacean feed attractability has an enormous importance, because the consumption, quality and feed conversion rate can be improved, by reducing the time of residence pre-ingestion and the leaching of nutrients. For this reason, different protocols and methods has been developed to measure feed attractability. This study evaluated the use of maze type Y, and rectangular systems to determine the attractant power of a commercial feed on longarm river prawn Macrobrachium tenellum. The Y type maze system without barriers, and with three different types of barriers (with or without access to the area where a commercial feed) was evaluated. Ten prawns were placed in the acclimation chamber of the system at 28°C for 60 min before the start of the experiment. To start the test, commercial feed (20% of prawn biomass) was placed into the system feeding area, then the acclimation chamber was open to allow for the free prawn movement, evaluating the feed attractability by measuring the time for the first “hit”, total number of hits, and the number of prawns which entrances to the feeding area during 15 min. Similar tests were performed with a rectangular type maze system, comparing the atractability results obtained in both systems. The results presented here highlight the importance of the genus behavior and the selection of protocols and systems, as well as the materials used in its maze system construction, for attractability testing in M. tenellum."
"Due to the cost of raw materials, the need to formulate balanced feeds with highly digestible ingredients is indispensable for the aquaculture feed industry. For this reason, the protein in vitro digestibility, assessed by the pH-stat method, of ingredients with potential of using them on the balanced feed for Macrobrachium tenellum, were evaluated. The relative protein digestibility was assessed in twelve feed ingredients, including animal (pork meal, feather poultry meal, prime poultry meal, turkey meal, fish meal, shrimp meal), vegetal (coconut paste, chickpea meal, soybean meal, wheat gluten) and microbial (yeast and Spirulina meal); casein (Hammerstein grade) was used as the reference protein. The highest relative protein digestibility was found in: Spirulina meal (52.6%); following by pork meal (45.6%), and feather poultry meal (39.6%). The lowest digestibilities were found in soybean meal (15.9%), chickpea meal (12.1%), and fish meal (11.6%). The protein digestibility value should be considered for selecting potential ingredients for the formulation of balanced feeds for M. tenellum."
PABLO SIMITRIUS HERNANDEZ HURTADO Héctor Gerardo Nolasco Soria olimpia victoria carrillo farnés HELIOS HERNÁNDEZ HURTADO Rafael Garcia de Quevedo Machain GUSTAVO CASAS ANDREU CYNTHIA EUGENIA MONTOYA MARTINEZ fernando vega villasante (2018)
"In this work we evaluated the essential amino acid profile of muscle Crocodylus acutus and calculated their chemical score of main proteins used in their diet in captivity. The separation and identification of amino acids was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescence detector. The calculation of chemical score was obtained by dividing the value of each essential amino acid between the same amino acid of the reference protein. The lowest value of the relationships is the chemical score. The amino acids present in greater quantities in the tail muscle are glutamic acid, lysine and leucine (16.96, 9.84 and 8.87 g amino acid per 100 g of protein, respectively), whereas histidine, methionine and tryptophan (2.99, 2.93 and 0.59 g amino acid per 100 g of protein) were the lowest. The chemical score obtained results showed that the proteins of animal origin, preferably marine fish and supplemented with terrestrial animals ingredients, including beef liver appear to be the most effective. The incorporation of plant proteins in diets for C. acutus does not appear as a viable alternative due to deficiencies in several essential amino acids such as methionine, lysine and threonine."