Author: DARIEL TOVAR RAMIREZ

Potencial probiótico de levaduras productoras de poliaminas en el desarrollo del sistema digestivo de la lubina Europea Dicentrarchus labrax y la cabrilla arenera Paralabrax maculatofasciatus

DARIEL TOVAR RAMIREZ (2002)

"El interés por el uso de los probióticos en acuacultura se ha incrementado rápidamente. En el presente trabajo, evaluamos el potencial de algunas levaduras en el desarrollo del sistema digestivo larvario de una especie importante para la acuacultura: la lubina Europea, Dicentrarchus labrax. En primer lugar, se cuantificó la producción de las poliaminas putrescina, espermidina y espermina en 10 cepas de levadura mediante cromatografía de alta resolución (HPLC). También se evaluó la adhesión de levaduras marcadas con fluoresceína al intestino de larvas de la lubina Europea y de juveniles de la cabrilla arenera (Paralabrax maculatofasciatus) mediante microscopía de fluorescencia. Se observó que dos de ellas, la cepa CBS 8339 (Debaryomyces hansenii ) y la X2180 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) producen las tres poliaminas buscadas y mostraron la mejor capacidad de adhesión al intestino de la lubina y de la cabrilla arenera. Cuando fueron alimentadas las larvas de la lubina durante 42 días con la cepa CBS 8339, experimentaron un aumento del 8.3% en la sobrevivencia, pero no así para el peso. Se observó que la secreción de tripsina y amilasa, así como las enzimas del borde de cepillo: fosfatasa alcalina, maltasa y aminopeptidasa se incrementan en el día 27 de crecimiento en aquellas larvas alimentadas con la cepa CBS 8339. Para el día 42, no existe diferencia en la actividad de los diferentes grupos, lo que sugiere este patrón una maduración del sistema digestivo en las etapas tempranas del desarrollo larvario. En un segundo experimento se incluyó la cepa CBS 8339 a 1.1% y 5.7% en el alimento para larvas de la lubina Europea con la finalidad de conocer el nivel óptimo de inclusión y su efecto en el desarrollo de su sistema digestivo. Con 1.1% se logró obtener un mejor crecimiento, sobrevivencia y el menor número de larvas deformes. La inclusión de levadura favoreció la secreción de las enzimas tripsina y lipasa a los 26 días; mientras que los niveles de los mRNA´s codificantes para tripsina y amilasa, fueron influenciados en aquellas larvas alimentadas con levaduras los días 26 y 36 después de la eclosión, lo que sugiere un mayor desarrollo en la actividad digestiva de las larvas. Sugerimos que el desarrollo del sistema digestivo es inducido por el aporte de poliaminas secretadas por esta levadura."

"The interest in probiotics for aquaculture is increasing rapidly. In the present work we evaluated the potential of some yeast to induce the larvae gut maturation in sea bass larvae Dicentrarchus labrax. The production of polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine was quantified in ten yeast strains using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Afterwards, fluorescently labelled yeast adhesion to the intestine of sea bass larvae and the spotted sand bass (Paralabrax maculatofasciatus) was evaluated by fluorescent microscopy. Two of them, CBS 8339 strain (Debaryomyces hansenii) and X2180 strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) produce the polyamines of our interest. The same strains showed the best adhering capabilities to the sea bass and spotted sand bass intestine. Both strains were selected and introduced by pulverization into the diet of larvae. The larvae fed with CBS 8339 strain, increase survival in 8.3% but not in their weight. The secretion of trypsin and amylase as well as those from the brush border membrane: alkaline phosphatase, maltase and leucine aminopeptidase, are incresed at 27 days after hatching (dah). At 42 dah difference in the enzyme activity of the different groups does not exist, suggesting a maturation of the digestive system in early stages of larval development. A second experiment was carried out to know the effect of different levels of incorporation into the diet of CBS 8339 strain: 1.1% and 5.7%. The minimum level, 1.1% of yeast produce best growth and survival rates, as well as lower deformed larvae than those obtained by 5.7% and the control one. Both level of yeast inclusion favored the trypsin secretion and lipase activity at 26 dah. Whereas mRNA levels for trypsin and amylase were influenced by both yeast concentrations at 26 and 36 dah, which suggest a development of digestive capacity of larvae as a result of the presence of polyamines secreted by the yeast."

Doctoral thesis

Poliaminas, probióticos, larvas de pez BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA MICROBIOLOGÍA MICOLOGÍA (LEVADURAS)

Stressors Due to Handling Impair Gut Immunity in Meagre (Argyrosomus regius): The Compensatory Role of Dietary L-Tryptophan

GLORIA GERTRUDYS ASENCIO ALCUDIA Karl Andree Inmaculada Giráldez Díaz Dariel Tovar Ramírez Carlos Alfonso Álvarez González Marcelino Herrera Enric Gisbert (2019)

"In the context of intensive aquaculture, meagre (Argyrosomus regius) is one of the most important new aquaculture species in Southern Europe and several studies are focused on the optimization of its culture. Nevertheless, stressors such as handling during transport or culture maintenance may affect the immune system, thereby impairing some immune responses or provoking cellular damage. One strategy that has been used to avert this type of negative stress response is the supplementation of amino acids to improve resistance to stress. In this experiment, meagre (105.0 ± 2.6 g, mean ± standard deviation) juveniles were fed two diets for a period of 7 days, the first a commercial diet supplemented with 1% tryptophan (Trp) and second, the same commercial diet without tryptophan supplementation (control group). The effects of two types of handling stressors (air exposure and confinement/netting) on fish fed both diets was evaluated in terms of gene expression of the selected gut immunity markers, such as (1) innate immune response processes: c3 complement (c3), lysozyme (lys), and cyclooxygenase (cox2); (2) humoral immune response processes: interferon type 1 (ifn1), mx protein (mxp), interleukin 1b (il-1b), tumor necrosis factor 1a (tnf1a), and interleukin 10 (il-10); (3) antimicrobial peptides: defensin (def), hepcidin (hep), piscidin (pis), and a marker for mitochondrial respiration: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh). Samples of the anterior intestine were collected at 1 and 6 h post-stress (hps). Results showed that in fish fed 1% Trp, the air exposure resulted in an upregulation of gene expression at 6 hps for c3, lys, cox2, ifn1, mxp, il-10 and gapdh, and il-1b and pis. The confinement/netting test for fish fed 1% Trp resulted in an upregulation of c3 and mxp and a downregulation of cox2, ifn1, il-1b, tnf1a, il-10, def, hep, and gapdh at both post-stress times (1 and 6 hps). According to the present study, dietary supplementation with 1% Trp may be considered as a proper nutritional strategy for improving tolerance and/or alleviating acute response to handling stressors."

Article

Argyrosomus regius, amino acid, stress, immune response, gene expression, aquaculture, diet supplement BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA ANIMAL (ZOOLOGÍA) NUTRICIÓN NUTRICIÓN

Gene expression of digestive enzymes during the initial ontogeny of Mexican snook Centropomus poeyi

GLORIA GERTRUDYS ASENCIO ALCUDIA Dariel Tovar Ramírez Hever Latisnére Barragán rafael martinez-garcia Wilfrido Miguel Contreras Sánchez Carlos Alfonso Álvarez González (2018)

"Mexican snook (Centropomus poeyi) is one of the most important commercial species in Southeast Mexico, which has been overexploited by fisheries. For this reason, some recent studies related to its culture have been done. However, the basic biological knowledge of the digestive physiology is still unknown. In this study, the gene expression of trypsin, (TRY), bile-salt dependent lipase (BAL), amylase (AMY), and cytosolic non-specific dipeptidase (CNP) was investigated during the larval period from embryo (0 days after hatching, DAH), eleuteroembryo (1 DAH) until 25 DAH using RTq-PCR approach and was normalized with the elongation factor 1- gene (EF1-α). TRY gene expression showed the maximum peak at 17 DAH; meanwhile, BAL gene expression showed variations during larviculture, however, three peaks were observed at 10, 17 and 25 DAH, which appears to correspond to changes in live food supply (rotifers and Artemia nauplii). AMY gene expression was low detected from hatching onwards and showed a slight peak at 10 DAH when larvae were fed with Artemia nauplii. Finally, CNP gene expression had presented three peaks at 2 DAH (yolksac absorption), 19 and 23 DAH when larvae were fed with Artemia nauplii. We conclude that C. poeyi larvae showed early and high digestive enzyme expressions, especially TRY, which indicate that could be possible to start the weaning process at 25 DAH, which could be shorter compared than other Centropomid species."

Article

Centropomus poeyi, snook, larviculture, gene expression, RT-qPCR, digestive enzyme BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOQUÍMICA ENZIMOLOGIA ENZIMOLOGIA

Effect of immunomodulatory medication over the general response of juvenile Catarina scallop (Argopecten ventricosus Sowerby II, 1842)

Jesús Antonio López Carvallo Guadalupe Fabiola Arcos Ortega Dariel Tovar Ramírez MIGUEL ANGEL HERNANDEZ ONATE Fernando Abasolo Pacheco JOSE LUIS GARCIA CORONA JOSE MANUEL MAZON SUASTEGUI (2019)

"The future of the bivalve mollusk production sector worldwide is still challenged by emergence and propagation of new diseases, mainly vibriosis, and the conventional methods that have been used to eradicate pathogens from hatcheries, such as antibiotics and chemotherapies have shown collateral effects. In order to reduce the use of conventional methods, homeopathy for aquaculture emerges as a novel solution to strengthen marine organism’s defense against diseases. This study evaluated the effect of five homeopathic treatments on the immunomodulatory response and general condition index of Argopecten ventricosus juveniles, used as model organisms due to their susceptibility to vibriosis compared to other commercial bivalves. The experimental design included three replicates of five homeopathic treatments at decimal (D) or centesimal (C) dynamization (T1: ViA 1D + ViP 1D, T2: ViA 7C + ViP 7C, T3: AcF 1D + MsS 1D, T4: PhA 7C + SiT 7C and T5: ViT 31C) and three control groups (C1: Dynamized Ethanol (1C), C2: Diluted Ethanol (1:99) and C3: No medication). The maximum immunomodulatory response was attributed to treatments T1 and T2 with the highest increase in hemocyte count, catalase activity in mantle and superoxide dismutase activity in gills, followed by treatments T3 and T5. Treatment T4 did not show a definite effect on an immune response but increased energetic reserves in the mantle, muscle and the digestive gland, important storage tissues in mollusk bivalves. This study has demonstrated that some homeopathic treatments can activate an immunomodulatory response and improve the general condition index in A. ventricosus."

Article

bivalve, aquacultural homeopathy, immunomodulatory response, superoxide dismutase, catalase CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS PRODUCCIÓN ANIMAL CUIDADO Y EXPLOTACIÓN CUIDADO Y EXPLOTACIÓN

Líneas de producción de alimentos para acuicultura con tecnología de extrusión y de bajo costo

HECTOR GERARDO NOLASCO SORIA FERNANDO VEGA VILLASANTE ROBERTO CIVERA CERECEDO CARLOS ALFONSO ALVAREZ GONZALEZ DARIEL TOVAR RAMIREZ ERNESTO GOYTORTUA BORES LUIS DANIEL ESPINOSA CHAURAND (2013)

"El objetivo fue explorar el potencial de producción de alimentos para acuicultura utilizando tecnología de punta de costo relativamente bajo. Se identificaron líneas de producción de alimentos para peces y crustáceos con equipos de extrusión con capacidad para producir de 150 Kg/h a 300 Kg/h. En comparación con equipos de extrusión convencionales, de alta eficiencia, tecnología de punta, pero de muy alto costo, se propone el uso de equipos alternativos de marcas emergentes, de tecnología aceptable y de precio accesible. Se realizó un análisis, particularmente para la instalación de pequeñas empresas sociales y privadas con el propósito de producir alimentos para especies acuícolas utilizando los ingredientes disponibles en la región, con el fin de abaratar los costos de producción de alimentos y en consecuencia la de alimentación en los sistemas acuiculturales."

"The aim of this study was to explore the potential of aquafeed production using low cost technology. We identified food production lines for fish and crustaceans with extrusion equipment which capacity to produce 150 kg / h to 300 kg / h. In comparison with conventional extrusion equipment, that have high efficiency, advanced technology, but a very high cost, we propose the use of alternative equipment of emerging brands, with acceptable technology and affordable. Particularly for the installation of small social and private enterprises for food production for aquaculture species, using the local ingredients available in the region, in order to reduce the costs of feed production and consequently feed costs in aquacultural systems."

Article

alimentos, acuicultura, extrusión, bajo costo, Jinan Eagle Food Machinery Co. food, aquaculture, extrusion, low cost CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS PRODUCCIÓN ANIMAL NUTRICIÓN NUTRICIÓN

Use of Potato Starch in Diets of Tropical Gar (Atractosteus tropicus, Gill 1863) Larvae

CARLOS ALFONSO FRIAS QUINTANA CARLOS ALFONSO ALVAREZ GONZALEZ DARIEL TOVAR RAMIREZ RAFAEL MARTINEZ GARCIA SUSANA CAMARILLO COOP EMYR SAUL PEÑA MARIN MARIO ALBERTO GALAVIZ ESPINOZA (2017)

"Tropical gar, Atractosteus tropicus, is a carnivorous fish species from Southern México with high value and acceptance in local markets. Therefore, the present study aims to spare proteins in diets for larviculture of this species. An experiment was performed using three different experimental diets with increasing carbohydrate levels based on potato starch (S) and decreasing protein content (P) and total energy: 16% S (16% S–44% P), 22% S (22% S–40% P) and 28% S (28% S–36% P). Tropical gar larvae (five days post-hatching, 2.1 mm

average notochordal length) were assessed for growth, survival, degree of cannibalism, and digestive enzyme activities for 30 days. Highest growth and survival (24%), as well as the lowest cannibalism (33%), was seen in larvae fed the 28% S diet, and these larvae

also had the highest lipase, amylase and glucosidase activities (0.28, 0.56 and 0.11 units, respectively). Protease activity (alkaline protease, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and leucine aminopeptidase) was higher in the larvae fed the 22% S diet than in those given the 16% S and 28% S diets. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of potato starch at 28% S enhanced growth, survival and some digestive enzyme activities, and decreased cannibalism in the larval gar. Potato starch could replace dietary protein as a major source of energy for A. tropicus larvae, thereby reducing the cost of diets."

Article

growth, cannibalism, digestive enzymes, fish larvae, dietary carbohydrate, protein sparing BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA ANIMAL (ZOOLOGÍA) COMPORTAMIENTO ANIMAL

Líneas de producción de alimentos para acuicultura con tecnología de extrusión y de bajo costo

HECTOR GERARDO NOLASCO SORIA FERNANDO VEGA VILLASANTE ROBERTO CIVERA CERECEDO CARLOS ALFONSO ALVAREZ GONZALEZ DARIEL TOVAR RAMIREZ ERNESTO GOYTORTUA BORES LUIS DANIEL ESPINOSA CHAURAND (2013)

"El objetivo fue explorar el potencial de producción de alimentos para acuicultura utilizando tecnología de punta de costo relativamente bajo. Se identificaron líneas de producción de alimentos para peces y crustáceos con equipos de extrusión con capacidad para producir de 150 Kg/h a 300 Kg/h. En comparación con equipos de extrusión convencionales, de alta eficiencia, tecnología de punta, pero de muy alto costo, se propone el uso de equipos alternativos de marcas emergentes, de tecnología aceptable y de precio accesible. Se realizó un análisis, particularmente para la instalación de pequeñas empresas sociales y privadas con el propósito de producir alimentos para especies acuícolas utilizando los ingredientes disponibles en la región, con el fin de abaratar los costos de producción de alimentos y en consecuencia la de alimentación en los sistemas acuiculturales."

"The aim of this study was to explore the potential of aquafeed production using low cost technology. We identified food production lines for fish and crustaceans with extrusion equipment which capacity to produce 150 kg / h to 300 kg / h. In comparison with conventional extrusion equipment, that have high efficiency, advanced technology, but a very high cost, we propose the use of alternative equipment of emerging brands, with acceptable technology and affordable. Particularly for the installation of small social and private enterprises for food production for aquaculture species, using the local ingredients available in the region, in order to reduce the costs of feed production and consequently feed costs in aquacultural systems."

Article

alimentos, acuicultura, extrusión, bajo costo, Jinan Eagle Food Machinery Co. food, aquaculture, extrusion, low cost CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS PRODUCCIÓN ANIMAL NUTRICIÓN NUTRICIÓN

Transcriptome analysis of Catarina scallop (Argopecten ventricosus) juveniles treated with highly-diluted immunomodulatory compounds reveals activation of non-selfrecognition system

Jesús Antonio López Carvallo JOSE MANUEL MAZON SUASTEGUI MIGUEL ANGEL HERNANDEZ OÑATE Dariel Tovar Ramírez Fernando Abasolo Pacheco ROSA MARIA MORELOS CASTRO Guadalupe Fabiola Arcos Ortega (2020)

"Marine bivalve hatchery productivity is continuously challenged by apparition and propagation of new diseases, mainly those related to vibriosis. Disinfectants and antibiotics are frequently overused to prevent pathogen presence, generating a potential negative impact on the environment. Recently, the use of highly diluted compounds with immunostimulant properties in marine organisms has been trailed successfully to activate the self-protection mechanisms of marine bivalves. Despite their potential as immunostimulants, little is known about their way of action. To understand their effect, a comparative transcriptomic análisis was performed with Argopecten ventricosus juveniles. The experimental design consisted of four treatments formulated from pathogenic Vibrio lysates at two dilutions: [(T1) Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus 1D; (T2) V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus 7C]; minerals [(T3) PhA+SiT 7C], scorpion venom [(T4) ViT 31C]; and one control (C1) hydro-alcoholic solution (ethanol 1%). The RNA sequencing (RNAseq) analysis showed a higher modulation of differentially expressed genes (DEG) in mantle tissue compared to gill tissue. The scallops that showed a higher number of DEG related to immune response in mantle tissue corresponded to T1 (V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus lysate) and T3 (Silicea terra® - Phosphoric acid®). The transcriptome analysis allowed understanding some interactions between A. ventricosus juveniles and highly-diluted treatments."

Article

Transcriptome analysis, Catarina scallop, immunostimulants BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA INMUNOLOGÍA INMUNOLOGÍA INMUNOLOGÍA

Agricultural Homoeopathy: A New Insight into Organics

JOSE MANUEL MAZON SUASTEGUI CARLOS MICHEL OJEDA SILVERA María Araceli Avilés Quevedo Fernando Abasolo Pacheco DAULEMYS BATISTA SANCHEZ Dariel Tovar Ramírez GUADALUPE FABIOLA ARCOS ORTEGA Bernardo Murillo_Amador Alejandra Nieto Garibay Yarelys Ferrer Sánchez ROSA MARIA MORELOS CASTRO (2019)

"At present, agricultural homoeopathy is being increasingly implemented worldwide to mitigate the negative effects caused by the indiscriminate use of chemical products in conventional agricultural practices. It is a viable alternative to improve organic agriculture, since homoeopathic medicines are innocuous substances with a capability to activate measurable response mechanisms when used in plants, animals and humans. Experimental research results allow us to conclude in this chapter that agricultural homoeopathy is able to stimulate favourable biological and even genetic responses in plants (basil Ocimum basilicum L., bean Phaseolus vulgaris L., cucumber Cucumis sativus L., tomato Solanum lycopersicum L.), which shows a novelty insight for organic agriculture.”

Book part

agricultural homoeopathy, organic production CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS AGRONOMÍA FERTILIDAD DEL SUELO FERTILIDAD DEL SUELO

Aquacultural Homoeopathy: A Focus on Marine Species

JOSE MANUEL MAZON SUASTEGUI Dariel Tovar Ramírez JOAN SEBASTIAN SALAS LEIVA Guadalupe Fabiola Arcos Ortega MILAGRO RAMONA GARCIA BERNAL María Araceli Avilés Quevedo Jesús Antonio López Carvallo JOSE LUIS GARCIA CORONA LAURA ELIZABETH IBARRA GARCIA ANDRESSA TELES Fernando Abasolo Pacheco Angel Isidro Campa Córdova Pedro Enrique Saucedo Lastra JOSE DELFINO BARAJAS FRIAS María del Carmen Rodríguez Jaramillo ULYSSES BARAJAS PONCE JORGE LUIS TORDECILLAS GUILLEN FRANCISCO ANTONIO ALVAREZ GIL GUSTAVO ENRIQUE PINEDA MAHR JESUS PEIRO LOPEZ MIGUEL ROBLES MUNGARAY (2018)

"Homoeopathy is an alternative medical system proposed by Samuel Hahnemann in the eighteenth century. It uses highly diluted and agitated substances that derived from plants, minerals or animals, which have shown to be effective in human medicine, agronomy, veterinary, and as a novelty, in marine aquaculture. Aquacultural homoeopathy has developed rapidly in recent years, partially motivated by the misuse of powerful drugs (hormones, antibiotics, disinfectants) that when solving a problem generate undesirable side effects. In the last 10 years, scientific articles have been published on its application in freshwater fish native to Brazil, obtaining beneficial effects on growth, survival, hepatosomatic index, development of muscle fibres and lipid content in muscle. At Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR, Mexico: www.cibnor.mx), we have studied the effects of homoeopathy to improve the culture of economically important marine species of molluscs, fish and shrimp. In this chapter, we show a selection of different research with preliminary or advanced results, related to the use of homoeopathy and its impact on zootechnic, biochemical, genomic and transcriptomic parameters in marine molluscs, fish and crustaceans. The results obtained suggest that homoeopathy is an eco-friendly alternative applicable in aquaculture industry to improve various productive and health aspects."

Book part

homeopathic medicine, marine molluscs, crustaceans and fish, growth, survival and biomass production, physiology and reproduction, genomic, metagenomic and transcriptomic response MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD CIENCIAS MÉDICAS FARMACOLOGÍA MEDICAMENTOS NATURALES MEDICAMENTOS NATURALES