Author: ESAU RUIZ SANCHEZ

Survival of Bemisia tabaci and activity of plant defense-related enzymes in genotypes of Capsicum annuum L.

ESAU RUIZ SANCHEZ (2015)

The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889) is a major plant pest of horticultural crops from the families Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Cucurbitaceae in Neotropical areas. The exploration of host plantresistance and their biochemical mechanisms offers an excellent alternative to better understand factors affecting the interaction between phytophagous insect and host plant. We evaluated the survival of B. tabaci in landrace genotypes of Capsicum annuum L., and the activity of plant defense related enzymes (chitinase, polyphenoloxidase, and peroxidase). The landrace genotypes Amaxito, Tabaquero, and Simojovel showed resistance to B. tabaci, as we observed more than 50% nymphal mortality, while in the commercial susceptible genotype Jalapeño mortality of B. tabaci nymphs was not higher than 20%. The activities of plant defense related enzymes were significantly different among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05). Basal activities of chitinase, polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase were significantly lower or equal in landrace genotypes than that of the commercial genotype Jalapeño. The activity of plant enzymes was differential among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05). For example, the activity of chitinase enzyme generally was higher in non infested plants with B. tabaci than those infested. Instead polyphenoloxidase (‘Amaxito’ and ‘Simojovel’) and peroxidase enzymes activities (‘Tabaquero’) increased in infested plants (P < 0.05). We conclude that basal activities of plant defense related enzymes could be act through other mechanism plant induction, since plant defense related enzymes showed a different induction response to B. tabaci. We underlined the role of polyphenoloxidase as plant defense in the pepper genotype Simojovel related to B. tabaci.

Article

HOST PLANT RESISTANCE PEPPER GERMPLASM PLANT DEFENSE RELATED ENZYMES WHITEFLY BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Olfactory Response and Host Plant Feeding of the Central American Locust Schistocerca piceifrons piceifrons Walker to Common Plants in a Gregarious Zone

ESAU RUIZ SANCHEZ (2016)

The Central American locust (CAL) Schistocerca piceifrons piceifrons Walker is one of the most harmful plant pests in the Yucatan Peninsula, where an important gregarious zone is located. The olfactory response and host plant acceptance by the CAL have not been studied in detail thus far. In this work, the olfactory response of the CAL to odor of various plant species was evaluated using an olfactometer test system. In addition, the host plant acceptance was assessed by the consumption of leaf area. Results showed that the CAL was highly attracted to odor of Pisonia aculeata. Evaluation of host plant acceptance showed that the CAL fed on Leucaena glauca and Waltheria americana, but not on P. aculeata or Guazuma ulmifolia. Analysis of leaf thickness, and leaf content of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) showed that the CAL was attracted to plant species with low leaf C content.

Article

HOST SELECTION  INSECT–PLANT INTERACTION  LEAF TRAITS  OLFACTOMETER  BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Screening of Yucatecan plant extracts to control Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and isolation of a new pimarene from Acacia pennatula

SERGIO RUBEN PERAZA SANCHEZ ESAU RUIZ SANCHEZ (2005)

Screening of seven Yucatecan plant extracts to look for fungicidal activity for the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was carried out. Bioassay-directed purification of the root extract of one of the most active plants, Acacia pennatula, resulted in the isolation of the new compound 15,16-dihydroxypimar-8(14)-en-3-one (1), which in the in vitro bioassay "agar dilution" was shown to have growth, sporulation, and germination inhibition activity. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrascopic techniques were used to elucidate its structure.

Article

 ACACIA PENNATULA COLLETOTRICHUM GLOEOSPORIOIDES DITERPENE PETIVERIA ALLIACEA PIMARENE PISCIDIA PISCIPULA BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Comunidades y gremios de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) en cultivo de maíz y selva baja caducifolia circundante

Omar Orozco Peón Esau Ruiz-Sanchez JOSE TUN (2019)

En áreas tropicales se conoce poco sobre la diversidad de parasitoides, especialmente en cultivos; donde se ha demostrado que estos insectos son sensibles al aumento de la superficie agrícola. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la diversidad y composición de especies de parasitoides en cultivos de maíz de diferente superficie con selva baja caducifolia circundante. Se colocaron seis trampas Malaise: dos en un cultivo de maíz de 10 ha, dos en maíz de 50 ha y dos en selva, que funcionaron durante el ciclo fenológico del maíz, en las que se realizaron colectas semanales. Se recolectaron 1 149 individuos, que representan 43 géneros de los que 21 son nuevos registros para el estado de Campeche, México. No se encontraron diferencias en el número de géneros presentes en los sitios yl acomposición de comunidades fue similar, lo que refleja la migración de géneros entre la selva y los agroecosistemas; pero si presentaron diferencias en los géneros dominantes, lo que sugiere que los parasitoides responden al hábitat. Se encontraron siete gremios de parasitoides, dominando los parasitoides que atacan fitófagos ocultos. La diversidad de géneros fue similar entre la selva y maíz de 50 ha, la diversidad de gremios se relaciona con el tamaño del hábitat, áreas de mayor tamaño, tienen mayor biodiversidad. Los géneros que dominaron las comunidades fueron Eiphosoma, Pristomerus, Microcharops y Casinaria, los cuales, con excepción del último, han sido registrados como controladores biológicos de Spodoptera frugiperda en maíz.

Article

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA Campeche diversidad enemigos naturales nuevos registros Zea mays

Efecto de abonos orgánicos sobre el rendimiento, valor nutritivo y capacidad antioxidante de tomate verde (Physalis ixocarpa)

Effect of sheep manure on yield, nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of green tomato (Physalis ixocarpa)

ARTURO AGUIÑAGA BRAVO KATI BEATRIZ MEDINA DZUL RENE GARRUÑA HERNANDEZ Luis Latournerie Moreno ESAU RUIZ SANCHEZ (2020)

Se evaluó en tomate verde el efecto de la adición de bocashi o estiércol de ovino mezclado con 50% de fertilizantes sintéticos. Se estudiaron variables fisiológicas, de producción de biomasa, rendimiento de fruto y contenido de minerales en el follaje, valor nutritivo y capacidad antioxidante del fruto. La biomasa y rendimiento de fruto no presentaron diferencias entre tratamientos, excepto la biomasa de raíz. La acumulación de N fue mayor en el follaje de plantas con estiércol de ovino + fertilización química 50% (EO-FQ 50%), la tasa de transpiración fue mayor y la conductancia estomática menor. La acumulación de P y K no varió entre tratamientos. Los contenidos de grasa, Ca, K, Fe y fenoles totales fueron mayores en frutos con EO-FQ 50%. La adición de abono orgánico con fertilización química al 50% igual a los rendimientos y mejora la calidad de fruto de tomate verde (P. ixocarpa).

The effect of the addition of bocashi or sheep manure, mixed with 50% of synthetic fertilizers was evaluated in green tomato. Physiological variables, biomass production, fruit yield, and mineral foliar content, nutritive value and antioxidant capacity of the fruit were studied. The biomass and the yield of the fruit do not present differences between the treatments, except for the root biomass. The accumulation of N was greater in the foliage of plants with sheep manure + chemical fertilization 50% (SM-ChF 50%), the transpiration rate was higher, and the stomatal conductance was lower. The accumulation of P and K did not vary between treatments. The contents of fat, Ca, K, Fe, and total phenols were higher in fruits with SM-ChF 50%. The addition of organic fertilizer with 50% chemical fertilization equals yields and improves the quality of the green tomato (P. ixocarpa).

Article

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS Bocashi Estiércol de ovino Tomate verde (Physalis Ixocarpa) Calidad de fruto Antioxidantes Sheep manure Green tomato (Physalis ixocarpa) Fruit quality Antioxidants

Insecticidal effects of plant extracts on immature whitefly Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyroideae)

ANGEL EMMANUEL CRUZ ESTRADA MARIA MARCELA GAMBOA ANGULO ROCIO DE LOURDES BORGES ARGAEZ ESAU RUIZ SANCHEZ (2013)

The whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) is a widely distributed and highly harmful plant pest species. The management of B. tabaci has been typically carried out by chemical pesticides. In the last decade however, there has been an increasing interest in natural products, particularly those of plant origin, to control this pest species. In the present work, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of native plants from the flora of the Yucatán peninsula (Acalypha gaumeri,Annona squamosa, Carlowrightia myriantha, Petiveria alliaceae and Trichilia arborea) and the introduced plant Azadirachta indica were collected and evaluated for insecticidal activity against eggs and nymphs Bemisia tabaci.

Article

ANNONA SQUAMOSA BEMISIA TABACI BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES PLANT EXTRACTS PETIVERIA ALLIACEAE BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Efecto del ácido salicílico y la nutrición mineral sobre la calidad de plántulas de chile habanero

ADOLFO ALBERTO GUZMAN ANTONIO LIZETTE DEL CARMEN BORGES GOMEZ LUIS LEONARDO PINZON LOPEZ ESAU RUIZ SANCHEZ JOSE JUAN ZUÑIGA AGUILAR (2012)

"Efecto del ácido salicílico y la nutrición mineral sobre la calidad de plántulas de chile habanero. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del ácido salicílico y la fertilización con N, P y K en el crecimiento y estado nutricional en plántulas de chile habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq). La investigación se desarrolló en Yucatán, México en noviembre de 2008 y diciembre de 2009. Se evaluó el efecto del ácido salicílico y la fertilización química utilizada por productores de plántulas de chile habanero con cuatro

tratamientos: T1) sin ácido salicílico y sin fertilización; T2) aplicación de 10-8 M de ácido salicílico; T3) aplicación de 190 mg/l de cada nutrimento de NPK y T4) aplicaciones de 10-8 M de ácido salicílico más 190 mg/l de NPK. La calidad de las plántulas se evaluó midiendo características de crecimiento de vástago (hojas + tallo) y raíz. Se analizó también N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn y Mn en la plántula completa. Se estimó la esbeltez y el índice de calidad de Dickson. Los resultados mostraron diferencias (P≤0,05) en las variables del vástago. La fertilización favoreció la acumulación de materia seca. En cuanto a altura, número de hojas, diámetro de tallo y área foliar, T3 y T4 fueron iguales. En raíz, se observaron diferencias en densidad de peso y de longitud, materia seca, área y

longitud específica reportando valores altos con T3, excepto longitud específica; siendo T4 quien mostró mayor valor. El análisis nutrimental fue significativo (P≤0,05); T3 mostró mayor contenido de N, P, Ca, Mg y Mn. Para K, Zn y Fe los tratamientos T3 y T4 fueron iguales, solamente Cu fue mayor con T4. En conclusión, la aplicación de ácido salicílico favoreció algunas características de crecimiento pero no mejoró significativamente la calidad de las plántulas."

Article

CAPSICUM CHINENSE COMPOSICIÓN NUTRIMENTAL BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Effect of Eugenia winzerlingii extracts on Bemisia tabaci and evaluation of its nursery propagation

ANGEL EMMANUEL CRUZ ESTRADA ESAU RUIZ SANCHEZ Irma Leticia Medina Baizabal Eduardo Balam Uc MARIA MARCELA GAMBOA ANGULO (2019)

The development of plant-derived products to control Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an urgent need for production of horticultural crops. Plant extracts and essential oils of several species of the genus Eugenia (Myrtaceae) have shown insecticidal activity. In southern Mexico, leaf extracts from Eugenia winzerlingii showed nematicidal effect but its insecticidal properties have not been explored. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal effect of aqueous and organic extracts from E. winzerlingii leaves on B. tabaci egg, nymph and adult stages, and else to explore its nursery propagation. Then, extracts of this species were obtained by maceration with different polarity solvents. Bioassays were carried out on Capsicum chinense leaves. Mortality assays showed that aqueous and total crude ethanol (TCE) extracts necrosed the eggs (LC50 = 0.21% w/v and 4.68 mg/mL, respectively), whereas hexane, ethyl acetate (ETA), residual ethanol and TCE extracts affected the nymphs (LC50 = 0.25 - 4.85 mg/mL). In adults, oviposition inhibition by free choice assay indicated that TCE and ETA extracts had major activity (EC50 = 14.62 and 27.86 µg/cm2 , respectively). On other hand, the sexual and vegetative propagation of E. winzerlingii showed that this species can be easily cultivated by seeds. In conclusion, extracts of E. winzerlingii leaves are highly effective in controlling B. tabaci. TCE extract, in particular, was toxic to three stages of B. tabaci. This plant could be a potential alternative to develop a novel botanical insecticide to manage this destructive pest.

Article

BIOASSAYS EUGENIA WINZERLINGII OVIPOSITION INHIBITION PLANT PROPAGATION BEMISIA TABACI BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR DE PLANTAS BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR DE PLANTAS

Population fluctuation of Schistocerca piceifrons piceifrons (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in the Yucatan Peninsula and its relation with the environmental conditions

MARIO ANTONIO POOT PECH ESAU RUIZ SANCHEZ MARIA MARCELA GAMBOA ANGULO Horacio Salomón Ballina Gómez ARTURO REYES RAMIREZ (2018)

The Central American Locust Schistocerca piceifrons piceifrons is one of the most damaging plant pest in Mexico and Central America. The present work was carried out to evaluate the seasonal population fluctuation of S. p. piceifrons and vegetation diversity and their association with weather factors and edaphic conditions in the gregarious zone of the Yucatán Península. The study was performed in seven sites during three seasons: North-wind (December 2013), rainy (June 2014) and dry (April 2014). The locust density was sampled in transect of 100 m2, as well as the vegetation in 16 m2: plant species richness (PSR) and relative species density (RSD), and analyzed by generalized linear models. Additionally, soil samples were obtained at 10 cm depth into a 4 × 6 m quadrat, land use in the sites was classified and temperature, precipitation and evaporation of each site were obtained from the database and they were analyzed with multiple factor analysis. The population density of S. p. piceifrons was higher in the sites Panaba, Tizimin, Tunkas and Cenotillo (F= 74.3, P < 0.0001). Characterization of vegetation showed that PSR and RSD were higher during the rainy season relative to those in the dry season (F= 50.4, P < 0.0001). RSD was identified as the most important group associated with locust density (0.86), followed by isotherm/isohyets (0.63), maximum precipitation and temperature (0.60), as well as the land use (0.65); no correlation between locust density and soil characteristics was found. Locust density was positively correlated with the abundance of the grass Panicum maximum (Sr2= 0.85, PC5= 0.87). This work shows that the population of S. p. piceifrons is high in the rainy season and influenced primarily by the abundance of the grass P. maximum and the precipitation. The results indicate that surveys for early detection and control of the locust on the Yucatán Península can focus on areas with the grass P. maximum to predict risk areas and target survey efforts. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(1): 403-414. Epub 2018 March 01.

Article

LOCUST DENSITY PLANT COMMUNITY PLANT-INSECT INTERACTION SOIL CONDITIONS WEATHER FACTORS BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Insect deterrent and nematicidal screening of microfungi from Mexico and anti-aphid compounds from Gliomastix masseei

Evaluación de la actividad disuasiva de insectos y nematotóxica de microhongos de México y compuestos anti-áfidos de Gliomastix masseei

ANA LILIA RUIZ JIMENEZ AZUCENA GONZALEZ-COLOMA MARIA FE ANDRES ESAU RUIZ SANCHEZ GABRIELA PATRICIA HEREDIA ABARCA SERGIO RUBEN PERAZA SANCHEZ Irma Leticia Medina Baizabal MARIA MANUELA DE JESUS REYES ESTEBANEZ Blondy Beatriz Canto Canché MARIA MARCELA GAMBOA ANGULO (2017)

Fungal metabolites are promising alternatives for the development of biorational pesticides. In this sense, microfungi from tropical regions are valuable sources of natural compounds for pest management. With the aim of broadening the search for new eco-friendly products to manage plant pests, this study was carried out to evaluate the biological activity of 23 tropical fungal extracts on three species of phytophagous insects and a plant parasitic nematode. In addition, the active principles of the most effective extract were identified. The insect deterrent activity of fungal extracts was evaluated on the settling of aphids Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi, and on the feeding of lepidoptera larva Spodoptera littoralis; the nematostatic activity was evaluated on the mobility of Meloidogyne javanica. Active metabolites from Gliomastix masseei were identified by GC-MS techniques and by comparison with commercial standards. Results showed seven extracts with strong effect on the settling of M. persicae and R. padi (settling inhibition >80%). The calculated median of effective concentration (EC50) values ranged from 8 to 38μg/cm2 for the extracts of Clonostachys rosea and G. masseei, respectively. Bioassay-guided separation of the ethyl acetate extract of G. masseei revealed the presence of fatty acids and their derivatives, where methyl 9-octadecenoate was the most active compound with EC50 values of 16μg and 35μg/cm2 for M. persicae and R. padi, respectively. Extracts of C. rosea and G. masseei could be a promising option in the control of pest aphids in agriculture.

Article

CLONOSTACHYS ROSEA FATTY ACIDS GLIOMASTIX MASSEEI MYZUS PERSICAE RHOPALOSIPHUM PADI BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOQUÍMICA ACIDOS GRASOS ACIDOS GRASOS