Author: Eduardo Padilla Camberos
EDUARDO PADILLA CAMBEROS (2015)
Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an
aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE) was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme
was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia
was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of TritonWR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia,
the groups were treated with an AOE (500mg/kg) and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively.
Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE
significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated
at concentrations from 60 to 1000 𝜇g/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 𝜇g/mL. The AOE had a
high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase
inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds.
EDUARDO PADILLA CAMBEROS (2010)
Epidemiological studies link increased garlic (Allium sativum) consumption with a reduced incidence of cancer
in various human populations. Experimental carcinogenesis studies in animal models and in cell culture systems
indicate that several allium-derived compounds exhibit inhibitory effects and that the underlying mechanisms may
involve apoptosis. To provide a better understanding of the effects of allium derivatives regarding prevention of
cancer, we examined antitumoral activity of allicin, a major component of garlic, in L5178Y lymphoma bearing
mice. For in vitro studies, we utilized cell proliferation and apoptosis in the same tumor cell line. We found that
allicin inhibited the growth of tumor cells at doses two fold superior to that in normal splenocytes. Allicin also
induced apoptosis, and this was associated with an increase in caspase3 activity.
EDUARDO PADILLA CAMBEROS (2017)
El uso de sustancias bioactivas obtenidas de productos naturales para el tratamiento de diversas enfermedades se ha basado principalmente en el conocimiento empírico, documentado por varias culturas a lo largo de la historia de la humanidad. En la actualidad, ese conocimiento se ha tratado de retomar para otorgarle validez científica y poder así llevar este tipo de productos a su aplicación en la prevención o tratamiento de enfermedades. La búsqueda de sustancias bioactivas a partir de productos naturales para el tratamiento de enfermedades donde no se ha logrado un tratamiento idóneo, es justificable, debido a que la naturaleza ofrece una gran diversidad de estructuras químicas con un posible efecto biológico. Este potencial de actividad biológica en los productos naturales apenas comienza a conocerse, de hecho, se estima que menos del 10% de la biodiversidad ha sido evaluada para conocer su potencial actividad biológica (Dias et al., 2012).
"Epidemiological studies link increased garlic consumption with a reduced incidence of cancer in various human populations. Experimental carcinogenesis studies in animal models and in cell culture systems indicate that several allium-derived compounds exhibit inhibitory effects. To provide a better understanding of the effects of allium derivatives on the prevention of cancer, we examined allicin, the major component of garlic, for their effects on antitumoral activity in vitro and in L5178Y lymphoma bearing mice. We found that allicin decreased the growth of tumor cells whereas in vivo, the compound shown an antitumor effect in murine L5178Y lymphoma. Allicin enhanced the secretion of IL-2, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha cytokines from mouse plasma. These cytokines are associated with the beneficial Th1 antitumor response, which is characteristic of effective cancer immunotherapies".
"The control of allergens in the food industry involves a series of activities aimed at avoiding the health problems in consumers; international legislation emphasizes the labeling of food allergens however it differs between countries. It is relevant due to the incremental food exchange around the world. This review focuses on the strategic points where companies must take more care for the proper management of allergens."
The concern for the well-being and health of the consumers are the main motivation of the modern food industry (Parada & Aguilera, 2007), which intends to create food with any biological effect, called functional. However, to develop a good functional food, it need to ensure that ingredient, who has the biological effect, reaches the absorption site in the intestine and it is absorbed. Like all citrus, bitter orange and sweet lime are a rich source of flavonoids like hesperidin (Hesp), eriocitrin (Erio), naringin (Nar) and neohesperidine (NH) and others, which coupled with its perfumed notes make them interesting as nutraceutical ingredient or functional food. However, both flavonoids such as volatile compounds are unstable to temperature, pH changes, presence of ion, or other factors of the process, formulation or handling and storage. (Barreca et al., 2011 a,b) To industrialize a product, it is essential to add some substances that contribute to stability and maintain or potentializing sensory characteristics, these factors are determinants for consumption and acceptance. One substance widely used for stabilizing flavor, masking undesirable flavors or protect labile compounds, is the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). It is also known that pectins have a masking effect on the bitter taste of the flavonoid (Le Bourvellec et al., 2005). Few studies have focused on understanding and quantifying the interaction between these compounds.
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the polyphenol structure (Procyanidin B2, (+)- Catechin and chlorogenic acid), pectin (high (HM), low methoxyl (LM)), the acidifying medium (citric acid and malic), pH (3 and 4) and the presence of ions (KCl) on the formation of pectin-polyphenol complex in a model solution system that simulates a functional beverage matrix; and the impact of the formation of this complex in the biological effect of the beverage. The evaluation of the formation of pectin-polyphenol complex was performed by determining the% inhibition of DPPH radical and free polyphenols profile by HPLC in model solutions. The evaluation of the biological effect was performed by postprandial testing in mice Balb/c which were induced hyperglycemia with maltose. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a 95% confidence. It was determined that the physicochemical parameters such as pH, the presence of ions and type of acidifying if they have a significant effect on the formation of pectin-polyphenol complex, and that the impact of these parameters depend on both the functional groups of the polyphenol as pectin that are in solution. Biological tests show that it is possible to determine the impact of pectin-polyphenol complex functional properties of a food, this allows us to lay the groundwork for the development of new functional foods where it is relevant to interactions with other nutraceuticals components of a food matrix
"Eupatorium aschenbornianum is a plant used for the treatment of gastric ulcer, therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the safety of this dehydrated plant in order to find the appropriate doses for further human studies. Male Wistar rats were fed with different incremental doses dehydrated plant from 200 to 1000 mg/kg bw in a subchronic test during 45 days. Animals were sacrificed, then the clinical, hematological and biochemical changes were assessed and compared with the control group. The behavior, weight and feed consumption of the rats was normal. Also the biochemical parameters were normal except the uric acid and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase showing elevated levels in the group treated with the highest dose. The dose of 800 mg/kg bw could be considered as no observed adverse effect level and could be used in further clinical trials in a safe manner".
"Context: Musa paradisiaca has several biological activities within them wound healing, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial,
antioxidant, among others. However, these properties in peel have been poorly explored. Aims: Evaluate the wound healing activity induced by an incision wound model using methanolic, hexanoic and chloroformic extracts from M. paradisiaca peel.
Methods: Dehydrated M. paradisíaca peel was mixed with methanol, hexane, and chloroform. The presence of bioactive substances of the M. paradisiaca peel extracts was carried out by the Trease and Evans methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Acute toxicity was realized according to up and down OECD procedure in BALB/c mice. Wound healing activity was evaluated in male Wistar rats. Histological analyses of tissues were made by microscopy using staining methods of hematoxylin and eosin and Masson-trichrome.
Results: Treated groups with methanolic and hexanoic extracts of M. paradisiaca peel showed better wound healing activity in comparison with the group treated with chloroformic extract, with an inhibition of DPPH radical bleaching of 89-90%. It may be due to the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and phenols as principal constituents by conferring antioxidant capacity. The extract did not induce any toxicity.
Conclusions: The findings showed the wound healing and antioxidant capacity of M. paradisiaca peel extract. It was observed that depending on the extraction solvent; there is a variation in the antioxidant capacity that also affects the effectiveness of the restoration of tissue, suggesting that the antioxidant capacity could play a major role in the process of wound healing".
"Introduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterised by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which results in dopamine depletion, leading to a number of motor and non-motor symptoms.
Development: In recent years, the development of new animal models using nuclease-based genome-editing technology (ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases) has enabled the introduction of custom-made modifications into the genome to replicate key features of PD, leading to significant advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease.
Conclusions: We review the most recent studies on this new generation of in vitro and in vivo PD models, which replicate the most relevant symptoms of the disease and enable better understanding of the aetiology and mechanisms of PD. This may be helpful in the future development of effective treatments to halt or slow disease progression."