Author: IVAN OROS ORTEGA

Efecto de la micorrización y defoliación en la tasa de crecimiento de cedro rojo (Cedrela odorata L.) y diagnóstico de plantaciones

IVAN OROS ORTEGA (2009)

Tesis (Maestría en Ciencias, especialista en Agroecosistemas Tropicales).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2009.

En plántulas de C. odorata cultivadas en vivero se evaluó el efecto de seis tratamientos (TS) en la tasa de crecimiento en altura (TCA), diámetro (TCD) y tasa de crecimiento relativo (TCR), peso fresco y seco de las plántulas. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con un arreglo factorial (2 x 3), los TS consistieron de una combinación de los factores: porcentaje de defoliación (0, 50 y 90) e inoculación con Glomus intraradices (con y sin inoculación). Además, se diagnosticó el estado actual de plantaciones de cedro en la zona de influencia del Campus Veracruz a través de una apreciación rural rápida. A los seis meses del experimento plantas de TS con inoculación, independientemente del nivel de defoliación, presentaron mayor TCD (F= 100.45, p<0.001) que los TS sin inoculación. Los TS inoculados, con los diferentes porcentajes de defoliación, presentaron la mayor TCA (F= 556.57 p< 0.001) a los tres meses. No obstante, de los tres a seis meses la interacción inoculación/defoliación (50 y 90 %) promovió los mayores valores de TCA (F= 4.22 P< 0.01), así como significativo crecimiento en el peso fresco y seco de tallos, hojas y raíz. La inoculación produjo alta colonización micorrízica en raíces de cedro a los seis meses. Además la defoliación al 90 % disminuye significativamente la colonización de hifas y vesículas. Durante los primeros tres meses los TS inoculados presentaron las mayor TCR, sin embargo en los últimos tres meses el tratamiento sin inoculación y defoliación al 90 % mostró la más alta TCR.____________The effect of six treatments (TS) in growth rates height (TCA), diameter (TCD) and relative growth rate (TCR) and weight fresh and dry of C. odorata seedlings established in a nursery was evaluated. A completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement (2 x 3) was applied; the TS consisted of a combination of the factors: percentage of defoliation (0, 50 and 90) and inoculation of Glomus intraradices (with and without inoculation). The actual situation of cedar spanish plantations in the influence area of the Campus Veracruz was diagnosticated by making a rural rapid appraisal. At the six months of the experiment, the seedlings of TS with inoculation, regardless of the percentage of defoliation applied, had more TCD (F= 100.45, p<0.001) than without inoculation TS. The inoculated TS, with the different level of defoliation, showed the most TCA (F= 556.57 p< 0.001) at three months. However the last three months the defoliation/inoculation interaction (50 and 90 %) induced the most values of TCA (F= 4.22 P< 0.01), and a significant growth in the fresh and dry weight of steams, leaves and roots. The inoculation produces high levels of mycorrhizal colonizations in roots of cedar Spanish at six months. The defoliation at 90 % reduce significantly the hyphae and vesicle colonization. Durant the first three months the inoculated TS showed the most TCR, however in the last three months the treatments without inoculation and defoliation at 90 % percentage showed the highest TCR.

Master thesis

Cedrela odorata Micorriza arbuscular Glomus intraradices Defoliación CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Forage and tuber yield and nutritional composition of Manihot esculenta Crantz meal with organic fertilization

VICTOR FRANCISCO DIAZ ECHEVERRIA AMELIA CEN HOY IVAN OROS ORTEGA (2017)

El objetivo fue evaluar la producción y composición nutricional de la harina de yuca (Manihot escu-

lenta Crantz), bajo diferentes niveles de fertilización orgánica. Se establecieron 20 parcelas de 10 10 m sembradas

con yuca a las que se les aplicó 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 y 1.5 kg planta1 de composta de residuos de cachaza de caña (Saccharum

offcinarum L.).

The objective was to evaluate the production and nutritional composition of cassava (Manihot esculenta

Crantz) meal under di erent organic fertilization rates. Twenty 10 10 m plots were planted with cassava and fertilized

with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kg plant1 of sugarcane lter cake (part of the waste left after processing). The variables

measured were fresh and dry forage yield (FFY and DFY), fresh and dry tuber yield (FTY and DTY), meal yield (MY)

and their nutritional composition. The results indicate that the organic fertilization signi cantly increased the FFY,

DFY, FTY, DTY and MY compared to the control. Applying 1.5 kg of organic fertilizer signi cantly improved crude

protein content (CP, 3.37%). Organic fertilization with 1.5 kg plant1 of compost improved forage and tuber yield,

and CP content.

Article

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA Forage alternative sugarcane filter cake compost nutritional value

Forage and tuber yield and nutritional composition of Manihot esculenta Crantz meal with organic fertilization

VICTOR FRANCISCO DIAZ ECHEVERRIA AMELIA CEN HOY IVAN OROS ORTEGA (2017)

El objetivo fue evaluar la producción y composición nutricional de la harina de yuca (Manihot escu-

lenta Crantz), bajo diferentes niveles de fertilización orgánica. Se establecieron 20 parcelas de 10 10 m sembradas

con yuca a las que se les aplicó 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 y 1.5 kg planta1 de composta de residuos de cachaza de caña (Saccharum

offcinarum L.).

The objective was to evaluate the production and nutritional composition of cassava (Manihot esculenta

Crantz) meal under di erent organic fertilization rates. Twenty 10 10 m plots were planted with cassava and fertilized

with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kg plant1 of sugarcane lter cake (part of the waste left after processing). The variables

measured were fresh and dry forage yield (FFY and DFY), fresh and dry tuber yield (FTY and DTY), meal yield (MY)

and their nutritional composition. The results indicate that the organic fertilization signi cantly increased the FFY,

DFY, FTY, DTY and MY compared to the control. Applying 1.5 kg of organic fertilizer signi cantly improved crude

protein content (CP, 3.37%). Organic fertilization with 1.5 kg plant1 of compost improved forage and tuber yield,

and CP content.

Article

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA Forage alternative sugarcane filter cake compost nutritional value

Stephanospora mayana (Stephanosporaceae, Russulales), a new sequestrate fungus from Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico

JAVIER ISAAC DE LA FUENTE LOPEZ GONZALO GUEVARA GUERRERO IVAN OROS ORTEGA ROMEO ALEJANDRO SANCHEZ ZAVALEGUI IVAN ISIDRO CORDOVA LARA JESUS GARCIA JIMENEZ (2019)

Stephanospora mayana is presented as a new species from the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. This species is distinguished by the yellowish pileus, basidiospores with a small corona (4–6 × 1–2.5 µm), and variable size (8.0–17.0 × 6.0–11.0), thin pileus (21–40 µm) and the ecological association to lowland forest with Haematoxylum campechianum, Gymnopodium floribundum, Coccoloba diversifolia, Metopium brownei and Pinus caribaea. It differs from the American species of Stephanospora, like S. michoacanensis and S. chilensis, by its larger basidiospores. Descriptions, photographs and discussions are presented.

Article

CAMPECHE MACROFUNGI QUINTANA ROO TROPICAL TRUFFLES TRUFFLE-LIKE FUNGI BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Ectomycorrhizal ecology, biotechnology and taxonomy for the conservation and use of Abies religiosa in temperate areas of Mexico

Ecología, biotecnología y taxonomía de ectomicorriza para la conservación y aprovechamiento de Abies religiosa en zonas templadas de México

IVAN OROS ORTEGA ANTONIO ANDRADE TORRES LUIS ALBERTO LARA PEREZ RUBEN FERNANDO GUZMAN OLMOS FERNANDO CASANOVA LUGO LUIS ALFONSO SAENZ CARBONELL IVAN ISIDRO CORDOVA LARA (2017)

Endemic populations of Abies religiosa (fir, oyamel) have great economic, ecological and social importance; in addition, they form different interactions with edaphic microorganisms, mainly with ectomycorrhizal fungi. Currently, isolated populations (i. e. fir) are threatened by deforestation, agricultural expansion and global warming; therefore, it is urgent to understand the ecological and evolutionary interactions with ectomycorrhizal fungi. The objective of the present research was to analyze the use of molecular ecology, taxonomy and biology of ectomycorrhizal fungi to understand the role that these fungi play in A. religiosa trees in Mexico. Areas of research are presented as well as the main information gaps in the morphological/molecular characterization, taxonomy and evolution of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in A. religiosa. For the above, we collected information of 108 taxa of potentially ectomycorrhizal fungi obtained from different fir populations. The taxa with high potential to inoculate A. religiosa are Sebacina dimitica, Clavulina cf. cinerea, Membranomyces sp., Thelephoraceae, Russula spp., Ramaria spp., Lactarius spp. e Inocybe spp. Finally, we discuss issues that remain unresolved to determine their potential for use, management and conservation of A. religiosa in temperate areas of Mexico. This problem can be solved by combining molecular tools with the morphological and histological description of ectomycorrhizal morphotypes. In addition, methodologies are required to standardize results to come to more robust conclusions about mycorrhizal interactions.

Article

TEMPERATE FORESTS MYCORRHIZAL STATUS FOREST ITS BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA