Author: JOSE FERNANDO MENDOZA CANO

Genetic diversity of mitochondrial DNA from Litopenaeus vannamei broodstock used in northwestern Mexico

Diversidad genética del ADN mitocondrial en reproductores de Litopenaeus vannamei utilizados en el noroeste de México

JOSE FERNANDO MENDOZA CANO JOSE MANUEL GRIJALVA CHON RICARDO PEREZ ENRIQUEZ ALEJANDRO VARELA ROMERO (2013)

"Shrimp cultivation in Mexico is based on the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, with a production of about 100,320 t in 2012. Postlarvae are produced in hatcheries, where the selection process is geared towards producing lineages with better productive parameters and resistance to some diseases; however, the crossing of related organisms may reduce genetic variability, resulting in inbreeding depression. In this study we analyzed the sequences of the mitochondrial DNA control region of 425 shrimp from five hatcheries and of 29 wild whiteleg shrimp. The results suggest the presence of two dominant haplotypes in a monophyletic group of organisms used as broodstock and in wild whiteleg shrimp; this finding suggests a common origin. Low levels of genetic variability in some hatcheries highlight the importance of monitoring genetic diversity and supervising breeding programs to prevent loss of haplotypes."

"El cultivo de camarón en México se basa en el camarón blanco, Litopenaeus vannamei, con una producción de aproximadamente 100,320 t en 2012. El suministro de postlarvas proviene de laboratorios de producción cuyo proceso de selección está dirigido a producir linajes con parámetros más productivos y resistencia a ciertas enfermedades; sin embargo, la cruza de organismos emparentados puede reducir la variabilidad genética, dando como resultado una depresión endogámica. En este estudio se analizaron las secuencias de la región control del ADN mitocondrial de 425 camarones procedentes de cinco laboratorios de producción de postlarvas y 29 camarones silvestres. Los resultados evidencian la presencia de dos haplotipos dominantes en un grupo monofilético de los organismos utilizados como reproductores y en los organismos silvestres; este hallazgo sugiere la hipótesis de un origen común. Debido a los bajos valores de variabilidad genética en algunos laboratorios, se resalta la importancia de vigilar la diversidad genética y supervisar los programas de reproducción para evitar la pérdida continua de haplotipos."

Article

Broodstock, genetic diversity, mitochondrial DNA, Litopenaeus vannamei, sequence analysis Reproductores, diversidad genética, ADN mitocondrial, análisis de secuencias BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA GENÉTICA GENÉTICA DE POBLACIONES

Perkinsus marinus IN Crassostrea gigas AND Chione fluctifraga FROM KINO BAY, SONORA, MEXICO

Perkinsus marinus EN Crassostrea gigas Y Chione fluctifraga DE BAHÍA DE KINO, SONORA, MÉXICO

TANIA LIZBETH ENRIQUEZ ESPINOZA REINA CASTRO LONGORIA JOSE FERNANDO MENDOZA CANO JOSE MANUEL GRIJALVA CHON (2015)

"At present, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is the most cultivated shellfish in northwest Mexico. Nonetheless, other mollusks species such as the black clam Chione fluctifraga, which can be found along with cultured C. gigas in Sonora, represents a profitable emerging fishery resource. Since 1997, the oyster industry along the Gulf of California has been affected by severe mortality episodes disturbing almost all the farming areas. In order to evaluate the prevalence of Perkinsus marinus, a monthly sampling of 30 oysters and 30 clams was carried out during a one-year period. A total of 360 oysters and 360 clams were analyzed by Ray’s fluid thyoglicolate medium (RFTM) and PCR. The RFTM assay showed prevalence ranging from 3.3 to 60% for both oysters and clams through the study period, with infection levels from light to moderate, according to the Mackin scale. The PCR analysis was positive to P. marinus in the only one C. gigas with moderate infection in the RFTM analysis. The resulting sequence revealed 100% identity with the ITS region of P. marinus. To our knowledge, this is the first indication of Perkinsus sp. in the C. fluctifraga clam."

"El ostión japonés Crassostrea gigas es el molusco más cultivado en el noroeste de México, y la almeja negra Chione fluctifraga representa una pesquería comercial emergente, la cual cohabita con C. gigas cultivado en Sonora. Desde 1997, el cultivo de ostión se ha visto afectado por mortalidades en casi todos los sitios de cultivo a lo largo del Golfo de California. Con el fin de evaluar la prevalencia de Perkinsus marinus, un muestreo mensual de 30 ostiones y 30 almejas se llevó a cabo durante un año. Un total de 360 ostiones y 360 almejas fueron analizados por medio de cultivo de tejido en Tioglicolato (RFTM) y por PCR. La prueba de RFTM mostró prevalencias que van desde 3.3 a 60% tanto para ostiones como almejas en todos los meses muestreados y con niveles de infección muy ligero, a moderado, de acuerdo a la escala de Mackin. El análisis de PCR resultó positivo a P. marinus sólo en el ostión que presentó infección moderada en el análisis de RFTM. La sequencia resultante reveló 100% de identidad con la region ITS de P. marinus. Hasta donde sabemos, este es el primer indicio de Perkinsus sp. en la almeja C. fluctifraga."

Article

Perkinsus marinus, Crassostrea gigas, Chione fluctifraga, mollusk diseases, aquaculture enfermedades de moluscos, acuacultura BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA ANIMAL (ZOOLOGÍA) PATOLOGÍA

A preliminary evaluation of the San Pedro daisy (Lasianthaea podocephala) tuber powder, as a feed additive on the intensive culture of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under laboratory conditions

Evaluación preliminar del polvo de tubérculo de San Pedro daisy (Lasianthaea podocephala), como aditivo alimenticio en el cultivo intensivo de camarón (Litopenaeus vannamei) bajo condiciones de laboratorio

MARCEL MARTINEZ PORCHAS LUIS RAFAEL MARTINEZ CORDOVA JOSE ANTONIO LOPEZ ELIAS JOSE FERNANDO MENDOZA CANO MARIA ELENA LUGO SANCHEZ (2013)

"An experimental study was carried out during seven weeks to preliminarily evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion of powder from the tuber Lasianthaea podocephala, commonly known as the San Pedro daisy or pionilla, as a feed additive on the production parameters, food consumption, and nutritional condition of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, intensively farmed under laboratory conditions. Hypothetically, the additive should improve these parameters as it does when used for humans. The powder was included at different levels (0 [Control], 0.2 [T1] and 1 g kg-1 [T2]) in a commercial shrimp feed. The tuber powder exhibited a free amino acid profile being arginine (8.59 mg g-1) and glutamine (3.36 mg g-1) the most abundant. Feed consumption was not influenced by any treatment; however, the survival and the overall production responses were higher in both treatments using the powder (T1 and T2) compared to the control. No significant differences were detected in muscle concentrations of lactate and glucose, although higher protein and lower cholesterol concentrations were observed in shrimp reared in the control. The lower cholesterol concentration of shrimp from the control could be associated to a poor nutritional status. In conclusion, addition of the powder of San Pedro daisy did not improve the feed consumption, but apparently had a positive effect on survival, production response and nutritional status of shrimp. These responses could be associated to an hypothetic effect of some plant components at a nutritional-molecular level, or to a possible antimicrobial effect; however, further specific studies are needed."

"Se realizó un experimento durante siete semanas para evaluar, de manera preliminar, el efecto de la inclusión dietaria del polvo de tubérculo Lasianthaea podocephala, comúnmente conocida como San Pedro daisy o pionilla, como aditivo alimenticio, sobre los parámetros de producción, consumo de alimento, y condición nutricional del camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei), cultivado bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Hipotéticamente, el aditivo debiera mejorar estos parámetros como lo hace cuando es usado en humanos. El polvo fue incluido a diferentes niveles (0 [Control], 0,2 [T1] y 1 g kg-1 [T2]), en un alimento comercial para camarón. El polvo de la planta mostró un perfil de aminoácidos donde la arginina (8,59 mg g-1) y glutamina (3,36 mg g-1) fueron los más abundantes. El consumo de alimento no fue influenciado por alguno de los tratamientos; sin embargo, la supervivencia y, en general, las respuestas productivas fueron mejores en ambos tratamientos que utilizaron el polvo (T1 y T2) en comparación con el control. No se detectaron diferencias significativas en las concentraciones musculares de lactato y glucosa, aunque se observaron altas y bajas concentraciones de proteína y colesterol en camarones criados en el tratamiento control. La baja concentración de colesterol en los camarones del tratamiento control podría estar asociada a un pobre estado nutricional. La inclusión del polvo de la planta San Pedro daisy no incrementó el consumo de alimento, pero aparentemente tuvo un efecto positivo en la supervivencia, respuesta productiva y estado nutricional del camarón. Estas respuestas podrían asociarse a un hipotético efecto de algún componente de la planta a nivel nutricional molecular, o a un posible efecto antimicrobiano; sin embargo, se necesitan estudios específicos adicionales."

Article

dietary attractants, plant tuber, plant additives, vegetal additives, shrimp nutrition, muscle parameters atractantes dietarios, tubérculo de planta, aditivos de plantas, aditivos vegetales, nutrición de camarón, parámetros musculares CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS PRODUCCIÓN ANIMAL NUTRICIÓN

Evidencia molecular del parásito protozoario Marteilia refringens en Crassostrea gigas y Crassostrea corteziensis del Golfo de California

Molecular evidence of the protozoan parasite Marteilia refringens in Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea corteziensis from the Gulf of California

JOSE MANUEL GRIJALVA CHON REINA CASTRO LONGORIA TANIA LIZBETH ENRIQUEZ ESPINOZA ALFONSO NIVARDO MAEDA MARTINEZ JOSE FERNANDO MENDOZA CANO (2015)

"La búsqueda de patógenos exóticos relacionados con brotes de enfermedades y en muestreos de vigilancia de las granjas ostrícolas de México es una actividad reciente, realizada por instituciones académicas y comités estatales de sanidad acuícola, con resultados notables. En muestras de Crassostrea gigas colectadas en diciembre 2009, enero 2010 y noviembre 2010 y de C. corteziensis en septiembre 2011, se detectó por PCR el protozoario Marteilia refringens por primera vez en el Golfo de California. Los ostiones portadores provenían de cultivos sin mortalidades anormales, por lo cual, el uso de histología, hibridación in situ y microscopía electrónica de transmisión son necesarios para determinar si M. refringens se ha establecido en los cultivos de ostras del Golfo de California. La detección de la presencia de M. refringens es de gran preocupación para la industria ostrícola."

"The search for exotic pathogens related to the outbreaks and in surveillance samplings of the Mexican oyster farms, is a recent activity achieved by academic institutions and state committees for Aquatic Animal Health, with remarkable results. In samples of Crassostrea gigas collected through December 2009, January 2010 and November 2010, and of C. corteziensis in September 2011, the protozoan Marteilia refringens was detected for the first time in the Gulf of California. The carrier oysters were from cultures without abnormal mortality rates, whereby, the use of histology, in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy studies are necessary to determine if M. refringens has become established in the Gulf of California oyster cultures. Detection of M. refringens is of great concern to the global oyster farming industry."

Article

Marteilia refringens, Crassostrea gigas, Crassostrea corteziensis, Golfo de California. Marteilia refringens, Crassostrea gigas, Crassostrea corteziensis, Gulf of California. BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA ANIMAL (ZOOLOGÍA) ZOOLOGÍA MARINA

Experimental Infection and Detection of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis Bacterium in the American Lobster Homarus americanus

LUZ ANGELICA AVILA VILLA TERESA GOLLAS GALVAN MARCEL MARTINEZ PORCHAS JOSE FERNANDO MENDOZA CANO JORGE HERNANDEZ LOPEZ (2012)

"Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB) is an obligated intracellular bacteria causing severe hepatopancreatic damages and mass mortalities in penaeid shrimp. The worldwide distribution of penaeid shrimp as alien species threatens the life cycle of other crustacean species. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of experimentally infecting the American lobster (Homarus americanus) with NHPB extracted from shrimp hepatopancreas. Homogenates from infected shrimp were fed by force to lobsters. Other group of lobsters was fed with homogenates of NHPB-free hepatopancreas. After the 15th day from initial inoculation, the presence of NHPB was detected by polymerase chain reaction in feces and hepatopancreas from lobsters inoculated with infected homogenates. Necrotized spots were observed in the surface of lobster hepatopancreas. In contrast, lobsters fed on NHPB-free homogenates resulted negative for NHPB. Evidence suggests the plasticity of NHPB which can infect crustacean from different species and inhabiting diverse latitudes. Considering the results, the American lobster could be a good candidate to maintain available NHPB in vivo."

Article

Homarus americanus, Hepatopancreatitis Bacterium BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA ANIMAL (ZOOLOGÍA) PATOLOGÍA ANIMAL

Antibacterial effect of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) infected with necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHP-B)

Martín Rodrigo Acedo Valdez JOSE MANUEL GRIJALVA CHON Eduardo Antonio Larios Rodríguez AMIR DARIO MALDONADO ARCE José Fernando Mendoza Cano José Arturo Sánchez Paz Reina Castro Longoria (2017)

"The shrimp necrotizing hepatopancreatitis is caused by a pleomorphic Gram-negative Rickettsialike bacteria known as NHP-B. It is well known that silver is an effective bactericidal, but experiments with aquatic organisms are scarce, even more at nanoparticle level. The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) against NHP-B in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. For this, AgNO3 was used as source of silver, and extracts of dried leaves of green tea Camellia sinensis and neem tree Azadirachta indica as reducing agents. Different lots of infected shrimp received 0,5 and 35 μg of AgNP by forced feeding. The differences between the number of bacterial nodules in shrimp hepatopancreas and shrimp mortality relative to the amount of AgNP demonstrated to be effective against this pathogen."

Article

Litopenaeus vannamei, Azadirachta indica, Camellia sinensis, necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium, Pacific white shrimp, silver nanoparticles. BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA ANIMAL (ZOOLOGÍA) PARASITOLOGÍA ANIMAL PARASITOLOGÍA ANIMAL

Optimización de la supervivencia y respuesta inmune de Litopenaeus vannamei alimentado con dietas ricas en carotenos e infectado con el Síndrome de Mancha Blanca

Improvement of survival and immune response in Litopenaeus vannamei infected with White Spot Syndrome Virus and fed diets enriched with carotene

JOSE ANTONIO LOPEZ ELIAS DIANA MEDINA FELIX ANGEL ISIDRO CAMPA CORDOVA LUIS RAFAEL MARTINEZ CORDOVA JORGE HERNANDEZ LOPEZ JOSE FERNANDO MENDOZA CANO MARTHA ELISA RIVAS VEGA (2016)

"El virus del síndrome de mancha blanca (WSSV) es un virus con capacidad de réplica muy rápida y es extremadamente virulento, produciendo un impacto negativo en los cultivos de Litopenaeus vannamei donde provoca mortalidades de 80 a 100%. La inmunoestimulación se proyecta como una alternativa para disminuir este impacto. Bajo condiciones de estrés Dunaliella sp. es capaz de producir altas cantidades de carotenos, que tienen actividad antioxidante, desactivando radicales libres en los organismos y mejorando la respuesta ante una infección. Se realizó un experimento para evaluar la actividad de lisozimas, aglutinina, α-2-macroglobulina (A2M), fenoloxidasa (FO) y profenoloxidasa (PFO) en el camarón blanco, alimentado con dietas con 1 y 2% de Dunaliellasp. e infectados con WSSV. Los resultados mostraron que algunos componentes de la respuesta inmune como la actividad de lisozima, aglutinina, fenoloxidasa y profenoloxidasa, así como la resistencia a infecciones experimentales con WSSV en juveniles de L. vannamei fueron mejoradas por la adición de carotenos."

"The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has the capacity to replicate quickly and is extremely virulent, producing a great negative impact in the farming of Litopenaeus vannamei, because the massive mortalities (80 to 100%) it may provoke. The immune stimulation is considered a viable alternative to diminish that impact. Under stress conditions, Dunaliella sp. is capable to produce large amounts of carotenoids, these compounds have antioxidant activity by reducing the free radicals and improving the response of the consumers to face infections. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the activity of lysozymes, agglutinins, α-2-macroglobuliln (A2M), phenoloxidase (PO), pro-phenoloxidase (PPO) in white shrimp fed diets containing 1 and 2% of carotenoids from Dunaliella sp. and infected with WSSV. The results showed that some components of the immune response as lysozymes, agglutinins, phenoloxidase and pro-phenoloxidase, and the resistance of shrimp to experimental infections with Vibrio parahemolyticus, were improved by the inclusion of the carotenoids."

Article

Litopenaeus vannamei, Dunaliella sp., antioxidantes, respuesta inmune, WSSV, acuicultura. Litopenaeus vannamei, Dunaliella sp., antioxidants, immune response, WSSV, aquaculture. CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Y DEL ESPACIO OCEANOGRAFÍA OCEANOGRAFÍA ACUICULTURA MARINA

Effect of supplementing heterotrophic and photoautotrophic biofloc, on the production response, physiological condition and post-harvest quality of the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

Marcel Martínez Porchas Josafat Marina Ezquerra Brauer José Fernando Mendoza Cano JESUS ENRIQUE CHAN HIGUERA ARMANDO FRANCISCO VARGAS ALBORES Luis Rafael Martínez Córdova (2020)

"The effect of supplementing biofloc produced under heterotrophic and photoautotrophic conditions, on the production response, physiological condition and postharvest quality of juvenile L. vannamei, intensively farmed under greenhouse conditions was assessed. Heterotrophic bioflocs were produced under a restricted light condition, using an unspecific marine consortium as inoculum and maintaining the C:N ratio around 10-12. The photoautotrophic biofloc were produced under direct light exposition; using Navicula incerta as inoculum and maintaining the C:N ratio around 2-3. No significant differences on the water quality variables were observed among treatments except for TAN which was higher in the control. The production response was affected and a lower survival and higher FCR were recorded with heterotrophic bioflocs. The hemolymph parameters were similar in shrimp between groups, except for cholesterol which increased by more than 4-fold in the control. The postharvest quality of shrimp was qualified as good in general terms, without significant differences between groups, but the mean of the total qualifiers was slightly better in the treatment with photoautotrophic biofloc. The results of the study suggest that supplementation of both types of biofloc has not negative effect on the wáter quality, on the physiological condition of shrimp and on their postharvest quality."

Article

Heterotrophic biofloc, Autotrophic biofloc, Pacific white shrimp, BFT system, Postharvest quality, Shrimp physiology, Microbial-based systems BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA ANIMAL (ZOOLOGÍA) CRECIMIENTO ANIMAL CRECIMIENTO ANIMAL

Early Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Isolated Hemocytes of Litopenaeus vannamei

ARIADNE HERNANDEZ PEREZ Rossanna Rodríguez Canul EDGAR TORRES IRINEO JOSE FERNANDO MENDOZA CANO DANIEL EDUARDO CORONADO MOLINA JESUS ALEJANDRO ZAMORA BRISEÑO JORGE HERNANDEZ LOPEZ (2017)

"To date, White Spot Syndrome (WSS) produced by the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) causes one of the most severe diseases infecting penaeid shrimps worldwide. Although a vast amount of studies has elucidated pathogenesis in live infection models, there is still little information about the interaction of WSSV infections using in vitro models in the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei ) hemocytes. In this study, a WSSV infection kinetics was performed using total hemocytes isolated from healthy L. vannamei organisms and maintained in in vitro conditions using isotonic solution for shrimp (ISS). The infected experimental cells received ≈ 0,000 viral copies of WSSV. The viability of the hemocytes (control and infected group) was measured during the kinetics with trypan blue exclusion method and cells were maintained up to 6 hpi (post-infection) with non-significant differences of viability between both groups. WSSV replication was assessed using RTPCR at the RNA expression level of the early viral gene Ie1 and transcripts were detected as early as 30 min pi. Hemocytes from WSSV group showed disrupted integrity, degranulation and irregular shape. This study provides evidence of the capability of WSSV to infect and replicates in L. vannamei hemocytes using in vitro assays in short times as 30 min."

Article

WSSV, Litopenaeus vannamei , Ie1 Gene, Hemocytes, In Vitro Infection, GLS BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA ANIMAL (ZOOLOGÍA) VIROLOGÍA

Respuesta fisiológica e inmune de Litopenaeus vannamei durante la fase aguda de la enfermedad de la necrosis hepatopancreática y posteriormente tratado con oxitetraciclina y FF

Physiological and immune response of Litopenaeus vannamei undergoing the acute phase of the necrotizing hepatopancreatitis disease and after being treated with oxytetracycline and FF

Luis Rafael Martínez Córdova TERESA GOLLAS GALVAN ESTEFANIA GARIBAY VALDEZ Rocío Aracely Valenzuela Gutiérrez Marcel Martínez Porchas Marco Antonio Porchas Cornejo José Arturo Sánchez Paz José Fernando Mendoza Cano (2016)

"Se evaluaron respuestas fisiológicas e inmunes de camarones adultos (Litopenaeus vannamei) durante la fase aguda de la enfermedad de la necrosis hepatopancreática, y la eficacia de oxitetraciclina (OXI) y florfenicol (FF) para eliminar el patógeno causante de la enfermedad. Se consideraron cuatro grupos de camarones: tres grupos infectados con NHP-B (tratado con OXI, con FF y un control positivo) y un grupo no infectado (control negativo). Se monitoreó la concentración hemolinfática de glucosa, lactato, acilglicéridos, colesterol, proteína total, aminotransferasas, superóxido dismutasa (SOD), y la expresión de varios genes relacionados con el sistema inmune durante la etapa aguda de la enfermedad y 15 y 20 días después de la administración de antibióticos (dda). Los camarones del control positivo registraron una mortalidad de 100%. La mayoría de los parámetros evaluados se incrementó en camarones infectados antes del uso de antibióticos. Al día 15 dda, lactato y SOD siguieron registrando altos niveles en ambos camarones tratados, mientras que se detectaron altos niveles de transcripción de proteína de coagulación, proteína unidora de lipopolisacáricos, serin proteasa, peroxidasa, lisozima y proteínas del choque térmico 60 y 70, en camarones tratados con OXI. Al día 20 dda NHP-B se siguió detectando en camarones tratados con FF, pero no en los tratados con OXI. Se sugiere que aunque ninguno de los antibióticos per se eliminó a la bacteria, ambos tuvieron un efecto negativo sobre su virulencia. Además, es posible que OXI haya tenido un mejor efecto, permitiendo que los camarones integraran una mejor respuesta inmune a los 15 dda. "

"The physiological and immune responses of adult shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) undergoing the acute phase of the necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) disease and the efficiency of oxytetracycline (OXI) and florfenicol (FF) to eliminate the pathogen were evaluated. Four shrimp groups were considered: three groups infected with necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacteria (NHP-B) (two treated with antibiotics and a positive control) and one group non-infected (negative control). Hemolymph concentration of glucose, lactate, acylglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, aminotransferases, superoxide dismutase, and the transcriptional expression of several immune related genes were monitored at the acute phase of the disease, and at 15 and 20 days after administration of antibiotics (daa). Shrimp from the positive control registered a mortality of 100%. NHP-B infection affected the immu-nophysiological response of shrimp; herein, most of the parameters were significantly up regulated in infected shrimp before the use of antibiotics, compared to the negative control. Increased transcriptional levels of clotting protein, lipopolysaccharide and β-1-3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), serine protease, peroxinectin, lysozyme, heat shock proteins (HSP) 60 and 70 were detected in shrimp treated with OXI. At 20 daa NHP-B was still detected in FF-treated shrimp, but not in OXI-treated shrimp. It is hypothesized that despite none of the antibiotics per se eliminated the bacterium, both had a negative effect on its virulence. OXI seems to have a greater effect, allowing shrimp to integrate a better immune response at 15 daa."

Article

Litopenaeus vannamei, enfermedad del camarón, necrosis hepatopancreática, sistema inmune, Rickettsia, patógeno intracelular. Litopenaeus vannamei, gene expression, shrimp disease, necrotizing hepatopancreatitis, immune system, Rickettsia, intracellular pathogen, necrosis. BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA ANIMAL (ZOOLOGÍA) PATOLOGÍA ANIMAL PATOLOGÍA ANIMAL