Author: JOSE SIMON MARTINEZ CASTAÑEDA

Multicausal etiology of the enteric syndrome in rabbits from Mexico

VIRGINIA GUADALUPE GARCIA RUBIO LINDA GUILIANA BAUTISTA GOMEZ JOSE SIMON MARTINEZ CASTAÑEDA CAMILO ROMERO NUÑEZ (2017)

Enteropathies in rabbits are difficult to diagnose; their etiology involves pathogens that act synergistically, causing damage to the intestine. The aim of the present study was isolate enteric pathogens from rabbits in Mexico. Using parasitological, bacteriological and molecular analyses, we screened 58 samples of the intestinal content of rabbits having a clinical history of enteric disease from the southeastern part of the State of Mexico. Out of the 58 samples analyzed, a total of 86 identifications were made, Eimeria spp. were found in 77.5%, followed by Aeromonas spp. in 15.5% and Escherichia coli in 8.6%, which were identified as enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and the presence of the following agents was also confirmed: Salmonella spp., Klebsiella spp., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Mannheimia spp. and Rotavirus. The concurrent presence of Eimeria spp. with Aeromonas was frequent (15.5%); there was statistical significance for the presence of an association between the clinical profiles and Eimeria spp. (p = 0.000), Mannheimia spp. (p = 0.001), Salmonella spp., Klebsiella spp., Streptococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. (p = 0.006).

UAEM Becaria CONACyT

Article

Enteropathies Pathogens Rabbits México BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Effect of temperature on the expression of IFN-1 (α), STAT-1 and Mx-1 genes in Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmoniformes: Salmonidae) exposed with the virus of the infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPNV)

Donald Arguedas Cortés Alex Patricio Romero Zuñiga Ricardo Enríquez JOSE SIMON MARTINEZ CASTAÑEDA CESAR ORTEGA SANTANA (2015)

The infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPNV) is the causative agent of an acute illness well characterized in salmonids worldwide. Clinical signs and mortality rates are dependent on several factors such as the viral dose, the age of the fish, the water temperature, among others. An experimental study was conducted to measure the effect of temperature on the gene expression profile of IFN-1(α), STAT-1 and Mx-1 in rainbow trout fry, exposed to IPNV. Fry (n=198) were exposed at 8, 12 and 16°C, and samples were taken for 21 days to determine the virus titer and gene expression. In the first 11 days the greatest viral titer was recorded at 8°C compared with the values obtained at 12 and 16°C. At 8°C, there was a significant increase on day 4 of mRNA Mx-1 (t-test, p<0.05), time in which the viral titer began to decrease. Furthermore, as the viral titer increased, STAT-1 and Mx-1 (r=0.91) and (r=0.96) increased, respectively. The animals were able to recover from day 4 from some of the symptoms of IPN. Clinical disease was developed only in fish exposed to 12°C and all died between days 6 and 14, despite the highly significant increase shown in the average expression level of Mx-1, compared with the values recorded at 8°C and 16°C (Tukey, p<0.0001). Additionally, the expression profiles of IFN-1(α) and STAT-1 decreased completely (~0.016) and (~0.020 times) on day 7. The highest expression level of IFN-1(α), occurred at 16°C (Tukey, p<0.0005). Fry exposed at 16°C were normal during the experiment. IFN-1(α) possibly generated a protector effect from day 2 when they showed a significant expression increase compared with the results at 8°C and 12°C (t-student, p<0.0001); however, STAT-1 was not significantly affected by temperature, although the highest average expression value was recorded at 16°C. Our research supports the expression of relevant anti-viral response genes as IFN-1(α), STAT-1 and Mx-1 are physiologically modulated by the water temperature, directly influencing the development of the IPN disease in rainbow trout. Rev. Biol. Trop. 63 (2): 559-569. Epub 2015 June 01.

Article

Biología IPNV temperature rainbow trout fry ISGs real-time PCR mortality CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Detección de los genes mecA, mecR1 y mecI en cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a meticilina de origen bovino aisladas en unidades de producción lechera familiar, México

Detección de los genes mecA, mecR1 y mecI en cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a meticilina de origen bovino aisladas en unidades de producción lechera familiar, México

MARGARITA LOPEZ VAZQUEZ JOSE SIMON MARTINEZ CASTAÑEDA Martín Talavera Rojas JUAN JOSE VALDEZ ALARCON VALENTE VELAZQUEZ ORDOÑEZ (2015)

En México como en otros países, Staphylococcus aureus es uno de los principales patógenos causantes de mastitis bovina. El tratamiento de esta enfermedad se realiza principalmente con antibióticos β -lactámicos; sin embargo, en México existen estudios de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a este tipo de antibióticos, actualmente los mecanismos moleculares de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina no han sido ampliamente estudiados. En este trabajo se identificó Staphylococcus aureus aislados de bovinos mediante la detección del gen femB , utilizando ambos métodos, microbiológicos convencionales y moleculares. La resistencia a los antibióticos β -lactámicos fue determinada por pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro y por PCR de los genes blaZ , mecA y los genes reguladores mecR1 y mecI . Los resultados mostraron una mayor resistencia de Staphylococcus aureus a los antibióticos β -lactámicos y a la eritromicina, solamente 38 (44,7%) de los aislamientos fueron positivos al gen blaZ . Por otro lado, cuatro Staphylococcus aureus fueron positivos al gen mecA considerados como SARM, los que por la detección de sus genes reguladores se agruparon de la siguiente forma: uno fue positivo a los genes mecI y mecR1 (grupo A), dos no presentaron el gen mecI ni el dominio PB del gen mecR1 (grupo C) y uno no mostró ningún gen regulador (grupo D). En conclusión, se identificó la presencia de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina en unidades de producción lechera familiar en el estado de México, y su resistencia a los antibióticos β -lactámicos. Esta resistencia podría estar regulada por diferentes genotipos de los genes mecA , mecR1 y mecI presentes en Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina.

Article

Veterinaria Staphylococcus aureus resistencia a meticilina gen mecA bovino CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Presence of Toxocara spp. in Domestic Cats in the State of Mexico

LUCILA MARILU RODRIGUEZ GALLEGOS CAMILO ROMERO NUÑEZ LINDA GUILIANA BAUTISTA GOMEZ JOSE SIMON MARTINEZ CASTAÑEDA RAFAEL HEREDIA CARDENAS (2016)

Background: Toxocara spp. is a gastrointestinal nematode with cosmopolitan distribution and is the most common parasite in domestic cats, which can deposit fertilized eggs in the environment with feces. Egg maturation starts in the soil, concluding two to three weeks after cat defecation, but eggs can remain viable in the soil for years and spread onto vegetables and into water. Infection of cats and paratenic hosts (among them humans) occurs through ingestion of infected eggs from the environment, through ingestion of paratenic hosts and, in puppies, through milk from infected mothers. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of Toxocara spp. in domestic cats. Materials Methods & Results: In this study, 229 fecal samples from domestic cats were collected in the state of Mexico, Mexico. All of cats had an owner, and fresh feline feces were collected in previously labeled sterile bottles. Coproparasitological examinations were performed on these samples using a flotation technique with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium nitrate (NaNO3), Toxocara spp. eggs were identified under the microscope, in accordance with the morphological descriptions. The data were analyzed by means of Fishers exact test in order to compare the presence of Toxocara eggs according to cat age and sex. The chi-square test was used to determine associations between variables and odds ratios (OR) were calculated to determine the risk factors. Presence of Toxocara spp. eggs was identified in 42% (96/229) of the cats, of which 23% were males and 19% females. We did find an association between cats under the age of six months (P = 0.01) and the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs, and therefore age was determined to be a risk factor (OR = 1.69) for the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in feces, cats over one year old showed a statistically significant association (P = 0.02) with the presence of parasite eggs in feces. The presence of Toxocara spp. was found to be a risk factor (OR = 1.57) among male cats aged less than 6 months, while among female cats a statistically significant association was found (P = 0.03) for the presence of Toxocara spp. Meanwhile, comparing positive cats of both sexes with age, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.02) was found regarding cats over one year old. Discussion: It were identified Toxocara spp. eggs in 42% of the feces of domestic cats from the state of Mexico. These results are similar to those reported by other studies in Mexico City, they also reported that there was a larger number of infected cats under one year of age and that males had higher infection rates. Comparison of both sexes with age showed a statistically significant association (P = 0.01) between cats under six months old and the presence of Toxocara eggs in feces. This age was also considered to be a risk factor (OR = 1.69) for parasite eggs in feces, during the first months of life, the larvae migrate and finish their cycle, but when the cat has reached its mature stage, the larvae may become entrenched and avoid finishing their life cycle. Male sex was identified as a risk factor for the presence of Toxocara spp. The prevalence of Toxocara spp. in domestic cats in the state of Mexico is high, and represents a potential risk of human toxocariasis. From the results found, it can be considered that cats are a major source of dissemination of environmental pollution and Toxocara spp.

Article

Veterinaria Toxocara cats zoonosis risk factor CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Xantinuria: una causa rara de urolitiasis en el gato

Javier del Ángel Caraza ISRAEL ALEJANDRO QUIJANO HERNANDEZ Inmaculada Diez_Prieto CARLOS PEREZ GARCIA CLAUDIA IVETH MENDOZA LOPEZ JOSE SIMON MARTINEZ CASTAÑEDA (2012)

Xanthinuria is a very rare disease in cats. Its etiology may have a genetic origin or may be due to an iatrogenic xan- thine-dehydrogenase inhibition that nally results in urolithiasis. The present work reports two cases of xanthine uro- lithiasis in European Shorthair unrelated male and female cats. Both uroliths were analyzed by stereoscopic microsco- py, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Besides the report of these two clinical cases, a detailed pathophysiologic review and some updated recommendations for diagnosis and treatment for this condition were done.

La xantinuria es una patología que se presenta raramente en los gatos. Su etiología puede tener origen genético o de- berse a una inhibición yatrogénica de la enzima xantina deshidrogenasa, que generalmente se mani esta con urolitiasis. En este trabajo se informa el hallazgo de dos urolitos de xantina en dos gatos, un macho y una hembra, de raza Euro- pea de pelo corto, no emparentados. Los urolitos fueron analizados mediante microscopía estereoscópica, espectrosco- pía infrarroja y microscopía electrónica de barrido. Además de informar sobre estos casos clínicos, se hace una revisión detallada de la siopatología y de las recomendaciones actuales para el diagnóstico y manejo médico de esta patología.

Se agradece al Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnolo- gía de México (CONACyT) y al Programa de Mejora- miento del Profesorado de la Secretaria de Educación Pública de México 2011 (PROMEP-SEP), el apoyo complementario para la realización de este trabajo.

Article

xantinuria xanthinuria urolithiasis urolitiasis gatos cat BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Respuesta del Tumor Venéreo Transmisible Canino a Presentaciones de Vincristina de Patente y Genérica

Susana Miguel De la Cruz ISRAEL ALEJANDRO QUIJANO HERNANDEZ Javier del Ángel Caraza JOSE SIMON MARTINEZ CASTAÑEDA JOSE MAURO VICTORIA MORA MARCO ANTONIO BARBOSA MIRELES (2015)

The aim of this study was to compare the response of naturally infected dogs with transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) to treatment with two sources of vincristine: patented and generic. Twelve naturally infected dogs diagnosed with TVT by cytology and PCRwere randomly assigned to a weekly treatment with vincristine at a dose of 0.025 mg/kg until two consecutive cytological evaluations resulted negative. Cytology tests and haemograms were performed prior to vincristine applications to evaluate adverse reaction to treatment. In both groups, a maximum of five applications were applied to obtain a successful treatment. The minimum number of applications in the Patent group was four while in the Generic group was three, although without significant difference between groups in number of applications or time for healing. Dogs in both groups showed some kind of adverse reactions to the treatment but without statistical difference between groups. There was no need to discontinue the treatment in any case. It is concluded that the patent and generic presentations of vincristine are equally effective for treating TVT in dogs.

El objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar la respuesta de perros infectados naturalmente con el Tumor Venéreo Transmisible (TVTc) al tratamiento con vincristina comercial de patente y genérica. Se trabajó con 12 perros infectados naturalmente y con diagnóstico por citología y PCR. Los perros fueron asignados aleatoriamente a un tratamiento semanal con 0.025 mg/kg de vincristina de patente comercial o de tipo genérico, hasta que dos citologías consecutivas resultaran negativas. Se hicieron pruebas de citología y hemograma antes de cada aplicación para determinar reacciones adversas al tratamiento. En ambos grupos se aplicó un máximo de cinco dosis para dar por concluido el tratamiento. El mínimo de aplicaciones en el grupo Patente fue de cuatro, mientras que en el grupo Genérico fue de tres aplicaciones, aunque sin diferencia significativa en el número de dosis aplicadas ni en el tiempo de remisión. Los perros de ambos grupos presentaron algún tipo de reacción adversa ligera sin mostrar diferencia estadística entre grupos. En ningún caso hubo que descontinuar el tratamiento por este tipo de reacciones. Se concluye que las presentaciones de patente y genérica son igualmente eficacespara el tratamiento de TVTc.

Article

eficacia-seguridad toxicidad perro quimioterapéuticos BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Lipofection improves gene targeting efficiency in E14 TG2a mouse embryonic stem cells

SANDRA MARICRUZ LOPEZ HEYDECK Marcos Cajero Juárez ROGELIO ALEJANDRO ALONSO MORALES JOSE SIMON MARTINEZ CASTAÑEDA Jose Francisco Robles González ALBERTO BARBABOSA PLIEGO JUAN CARLOS VAZQUEZ CHAGOYAN (2009)

Electroporation has been the method of election for transfection of murine embryonic stem cells for over 15 years; however, it is a time consuming protocol because it requires large amounts of DNA and cells, as well as expensive and delicate equipment. Lipofection is a transfection method that requires lower amounts of cells and DNA than electroporation, and has proven to be effi cient in a large number of cell lines. It has been shown that after lipofection, mouse embryonic stem cells remain pluripotent, capable of forming germ line chimeras and can be transfected with greater effi ciency than with electroporation; however, gene targeting of mouse embryonic stem cells by lipofection has not been reported. The objective of this work was to fi nd out if lipofection can be used as effi ciently as electroporation for regular gene targeting protocols. This context compares gene targeting effi ciency between these techniques in mouse embryonic stem cells E14TG2a, using a gene replacement type vector. No differences were found in gene targeting effi ciency between groups; however, lipofection was three times more effi cient than electroporation in transfection effi ciency, which makes lipofection a less expensive alternative method to produce gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells.

Article

veterinaria gene targeting homologous recombination mouse embryonic stem cells transfection electroporation lipofection CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Respuesta del Tumor Venéreo Transmisible Canino a Presentaciones de Vincristina de Patente y Genérica

Susana Miguel De la Cruz ISRAEL ALEJANDRO QUIJANO HERNANDEZ Javier del Ángel Caraza JOSE SIMON MARTINEZ CASTAÑEDA JOSE MAURO VICTORIA MORA MARCO ANTONIO BARBOSA MIRELES (2015)

El objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar la respuesta de perros infectados naturalmente con el Tumor Venéreo Transmisible (TVTc) al tratamiento con vincristina comercial de patente y genérica. Se trabajó con 12 perros infectados naturalmente y con diagnóstico por citología y PCR. Los perros fueron asignados aleatoriamente a un tratamiento semanal con 0.025 mg/kg de vincristina de patente comercial o de tipo genérico, hasta que dos citologías consecutivas resultaran negativas. Se hicieron pruebas de citología y hemograma antes de cada aplicación para determinar reacciones adversas al tratamiento. En ambos grupos se aplicó un máximo de cinco dosis para dar por concluido el tratamiento. El mínimo de aplicaciones en el grupo Patente fue de cuatro, mientras que en el grupo Genérico fue de tres aplicaciones, aunque sin diferencia significativa en el número de dosis aplicadas ni en el tiempo de remisión. Los perros de ambos grupos presentaron algún tipo de reacción adversa ligera sin mostrar diferencia estadística entre grupos. En ningún caso hubo que descontinuar el tratamiento por este tipo de reacciones. Se concluye que las presentaciones de patente y genérica son igualmente eficaces para el tratamiento de TVTc.

Article

Veterinaria Toxicidad quimioterapéuticos perro eficacia seguridad MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD

Las presentaciones genéricas de vincristina son eficaces al tratar TVTc

ISRAEL ALEJANDRO QUIJANO HERNANDEZ Susana Miguel De la Cruz Javier del Ángel Caraza JOSE SIMON MARTINEZ CASTAÑEDA JOSE MAURO VICTORIA MORA MARCO ANTONIO BARBOSA MIRELES (2014)

El Tumor Venéreo Transmisible canino (TVTc) es una enfermedad cosmopolita que afecta genitales cánidos, principalmente en países tropicales y subtropicales, el tratamiento de la enfermedad puede ser costoso y está basado en la administración semanal de antineoplásicos como la vincristina. Actualmente se encuentran disponibles presentaciones genéricas de vincristina de bajo costo, sin embargo, la falta de información sobre la utilización de las mismas hace que los clínicos indiquen anecdóticamente que estas son más tóxicas y menos eficaces para tratar el TVTc, llegando a requerir hasta 7 aplicaciones. Para definir la eficacia y toxicidad se evaluaron 12 perros infectados naturalmente con TVTc, el diagnóstico fue citológico y confirmado por PCR. Se administraron aleatoriamente dosis de 0.025mgkg-1 de vincristina con dos diferentes productos comerciales (de patente ygenérico) de forma semanal, mientras se evaluaba la historia clínica, citología y hemogramas para evaluar la mielosupresión y respuesta clínica al tratamiento. Se determinó que la mediana de aplicaciones utilizadas fue de 4 para la remisión clínica, un perro del grupo genérico requirió sólo 3 aplicaciones. No se observó diferencia significativa en el número de aplicaciones hasta la remisión. En ambos grupos de perros tratados se presentaron reacciones adversas tanto gastrointestinales como hematológicas, sin haber diferencias estadísticas significativas entre grupos. Un mes posterior a la última aplicación se realizó muestreo y confirmación de ausencia de TVTc por PCR en todos los casos evaluados. La presentación genérica de vincristina resultó apta e igualmente eficaz para tratar el TVTc en perros, ya que no mostró desarrollar más efectos adversos graves que la presentación de patente, pero, disminuyendo considerablemente los costos. Los seguimientos citológico y hematológico son fundamentales para establecer la respuesta a la terapia. Las herramientas biotecnológicas como la PCR son nuevas formas de confirmar la remisión total del TVTc.

3181/2012CHT

Article

quimioterapia perros Mielosupresión efectos adversos PCR Chemotherapy Myelosupression adverse effects CIENCIAS SOCIALES

Direct-fed microbes: A tool for improving the utilization of low quality roughages in ruminants

MONA MOHAMED MOHAMED YASSEEN ELGHANDOUR Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed Salem JOSE SIMON MARTINEZ CASTAÑEDA LUIS MIGUEL CAMACHO DIAZ Ahmed E. Kholif JUAN CARLOS VAZQUEZ CHAGOYAN (2014)

Due to probable toxicity problems to the host animals, these feed additives are not routinely used (Salem et al. 2014a, b). Recently, a great awareness from public health aspects such as residues of these chemicals in milk and meat, and bacterial resistance to antibiotics as a result of increased use in the food chains prohibits their use as feed additives (Barton 2000). These supplements have been criticized by the consumers’ organizations on the ground of product safety and quality. The consumers’ demands have stimulated to search for natural alternatives to chemical feed additives. Supplementation with probiotics that can survive in the rumen has become a suitable alternative (Fon and Nsahlai 2013).

For many years, ruminant nutritionists and microbiologists have been interested in manipulating the microbial ecosystem of the rumen to improve production efficiency of different ruminant species. Removal and restriction of antibiotics subtherapeutic uses from ruminant diets has amplified interest in improving nutrient utilization and animal performance and search for more safe alternatives. Some bacterial and fungal microorganisms as a direct-fed microbial (DFM) can be the most suitable solutions. Microorganisms that are commonly used in DFM for ruminants may be classified mainly as lactic acid producing bacteria (LAB), lactic acid utilizing bacteria (LUB), or other microorganism’s species like Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Propionibacterium, Megasphaera elsdenii and Prevotellabryantii, in addition to some fungal species of yeast such as Saccharomyces and Aspergillus. A definitive mode of action for bacterial or fungal DFM has not been established; although a variety of mechanisms have been suggested. Bacterial DFM potentially moderate rumen conditions, and improve weight gain and feed efficiency. Fungal DFM may reduce harmful oxygen from the rumen, prevent excess lactate production, increase feed digestibility, and alter rumen fermentation patterns. DFM may also compete with and inhibit the growth of pathogens, immune system modulation, and modulate microbial balance in the gastrointestinal tract. Improved dry matter intake, milk yield, fat corrected milk yield and milk fat content were obtained with DFM administration. However, the response to DFM is not constant; depending on dosages, feeding times and frequencies, and strains of DFM. Nonetheless, recent studies have supported the positive effects of DFM on ruminant performance.

Article

Research Subject Categories BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA