Author: Jose Francisco Muñoz Valle
Only a few species have been specifcally associated with periodontal disease. Most of them are Gram-negative bac teria, strict anaerobes that act in synergism. Aggregatibac ter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalishave been widely associated with the onset, progression and severity of periodontal diseases , while other species have been associated with the progression in the destruction of the
disease such as, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotellanigrescens,Campylobacter rectus, Eikenella corrodens, and Parvimonas micra.
This study evaluated the composition of periodontal microbiota with the checkerboard hybridization technique and its correlation with TNF-a, MMP-8, and MMP-9 evaluated with ELISA, of 80 patients (45 healthy, and 35 with chronic periodontitis). The frequency of the 18 species evaluated was higher in patients with bone loss compared with control group. TNF-a in gingival crevicular fuid was signifcantly higher in bone loss group (p<0.01); MMP-8 (p=0.34) by MMP-9 (p<0.05) in bone loss group obtained lower values than in control group. Positive correlation of TNF-¿ was obtained with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (rho=0.38; p<0.01), Fusobacterium nucleatum (rho=0.25; p<0.05) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (rho=0.26; p<0.05); negative correlation of MMP-8 with A. actinomycetemcomitans (rho=0.26; p<0.01), Capnocytophaga sputigena (rho=0.33; p<0.01), and F. nucleatum (rho=0.21; p<0.05); also negative correlation of MMP-9 with F. nucleatum (rho=0.23; p<0.05), P. gingivalis(rho=0.23; p<0.05), and Tannerella forsythia (rho=0.26; p<0.01). TNF-¿ increased due to the increase in each count of A. actinomycetemcomitans (¿=0.57; p=0.00). The presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans (¿=1.88; p=0.00), Campylobacter rectus (¿=0.78; p=0.01), F. nucleatum (¿=0.65; p=0.04), and P. gingivalis (¿=0.65; p=0.04) signifcantly increases TNF-¿ levels. TNF-¿ in gingival crevicular fuid, despite the minimal amounts collected, is a good biomarker of periodontal disease; since levels of TNF-a increases with the increase of the most harmful species to the periodontium.