Author: MARIANA LOPEZ ORTEGA

Estudio termoquímico del anhídrido 3-hidroxiftálico

MARIANA LOPEZ ORTEGA (2016)

"En el presente trabajo se determinaron experimentalmente propiedades termoquímicas del anhídrido 3-hidroxiftálico (FAOH). La capacidad calorífica (Cp), la temperatura de fusión (Tfus)y la entalpía de fusión (ΔfusH° m) se determinaron por calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC). La entalpía molar estándar de sublimación (△subHm), obtenida por el método de efusión de Knudsen y el análisis termogravimétrico. La entalpía estándar de formación en fase cristalina se determinó experimentalmente por calorimetría de combustión. Estas entalpías se utilizaron para calcular la entalpía molar estándar de formación (△fHm°) en fase gaseosa a 298.15 K. Algunas de estas propiedades también fueron estimadas utilizando dos métodos de contribución de grupos, el de Benson y de Marrero/Gani, esto con el objeto de determinar el error al utilizar estos métodos de estimación en este tipo de anhídridos."

Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla

Master thesis

Dióxido de carbono INGENIERÍA Y TECNOLOGÍA

Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in mexican older adults age and sex differences

MARIANA LOPEZ ORTEGA PEDRO ARROYO ACEVEDO (2016)

Abstract: Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54 % women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3 % in men and 4·0 % in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist–hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

Article

MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD Ciencias médicas Ciencias clínicas Geriatría Técnicas y procedimientos de diagnóstico Exámen físico Antropometría Fenómenos fisiológicos Constitución corporal Composición corporal México Diagnostic, techniques and procedures Physical examination Anthropometry Physiological phenomena Body constitution Body composition Geriatrics

El impacto de los determinantes sociales de la salud en los niños

LUIS JASSO GUTIERREZ MARIANA LOPEZ ORTEGA (2014)

Resumen: El impacto de los Determinantes Sociales de la Salud (DSS) en los niños requiere ser analizado. Al evaluar los DSS en países desarrollados se observan amplias diferencias que deben ser analizadas. México, comparado con los países de la Organización por la Co-operación y el Desarrollo Económico (OCDE), muestra bajas califi caciones en la mayoría de los indicadores de bienestar infantil. Si bien nuestra posición internacional ha mejorado, aún revela importantes defi ciencias. Destaca el impacto que los DSS tienen tanto en los ámbitos rurales como en los urbanos, en los que existen áreas de oportunidad para mejorar las condiciones de los niños. En el contexto Latinoamericano y del Caribe también existen algunos países con mejor desempeño que el nuestro. En México existen importantes diferencias en varios indicadores de bienestar infantil entre las entidades federativas, como la proporción de comunidades rurales y urbanas, la situación de la población infantil con discapacidad, la composición de las familias, el ejercicio del derecho a la identidad, las condiciones propias de la salud, la educación, la pobreza, la vivienda, el trabajo infantil y la regulación y protección del Estado sobre estos derechos. Por lo anterior, México requiere reforzar todas aquellas acciones que permitan, en el menor tiempo posible, lograr resultados más cercanos a los estándares del resto de los países de la OCDE. Para ello es indispensable una fi rme, estrecha y simultánea colaboración entre los sectores públicos, que incidan en las deficiencias en educación, vivienda, seguridad y condiciones sanitarias de las localidades, entre otras.

Article

MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD Ciencias médicas Ciencias clínicas Pediatría Políticas de control social Políticas públicas Políticas de salud Salud pública Grupos de edad Niños Determinantes sociales Pobreza Pediatrics Social control policy Public policy Health policy Public health Age groups Child Social determinants Poverty

El impacto de los determinantes sociales de la salud en los niños

LUIS JASSO GUTIERREZ MARIANA LOPEZ ORTEGA (2014)

Resumen: El impacto de los Determinantes Sociales de la Salud (DSS) en los niños requiere ser analizado. Al evaluar los DSS en países desarrollados se observan amplias diferencias que deben ser analizadas. México, comparado con los países de la Organización por la Co-operación y el Desarrollo Económico (OCDE), muestra bajas califi caciones en la mayoría de los indicadores de bienestar infantil. Si bien nuestra posición internacional ha mejorado, aún revela importantes defi ciencias. Destaca el impacto que los DSS tienen tanto en los ámbitos rurales como en los urbanos, en los que existen áreas de oportunidad para mejorar las condiciones de los niños. En el contexto Latinoamericano y del Caribe también existen algunos países con mejor desempeño que el nuestro. En México existen importantes diferencias en varios indicadores de bienestar infantil entre las entidades federativas, como la proporción de comunidades rurales y urbanas, la situación de la población infantil con discapacidad, la composición de las familias, el ejercicio del derecho a la identidad, las condiciones propias de la salud, la educación, la pobreza, la vivienda, el trabajo infantil y la regulación y protección del Estado sobre estos derechos. Por lo anterior, México requiere reforzar todas aquellas acciones que permitan, en el menor tiempo posible, lograr resultados más cercanos a los estándares del resto de los países de la OCDE. Para ello es indispensable una fi rme, estrecha y simultánea colaboración entre los sectores públicos, que incidan en las deficiencias en educación, vivienda, seguridad y condiciones sanitarias de las localidades, entre otras.

Article

MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD Ciencias médicas Ciencias clínicas Pediatría Políticas de control social Políticas públicas Políticas de salud Salud pública Grupos de edad Niños Determinantes sociales Pobreza Pediatrics Social control policy Public policy Health policy Public health Age groups Child Social determinants Poverty

El impacto de los determinantes sociales de la salud en los niños

LUIS JASSO GUTIERREZ MARIANA LOPEZ ORTEGA (2014)

Resumen: El impacto de los Determinantes Sociales de la Salud (DSS) en los niños requiere ser analizado. Al evaluar los DSS en países desarrollados se observan amplias diferencias que deben ser analizadas. México, comparado con los países de la Organización por la Co-operación y el Desarrollo Económico (OCDE), muestra bajas califi caciones en la mayoría de los indicadores de bienestar infantil. Si bien nuestra posición internacional ha mejorado, aún revela importantes defi ciencias. Destaca el impacto que los DSS tienen tanto en los ámbitos rurales como en los urbanos, en los que existen áreas de oportunidad para mejorar las condiciones de los niños. En el contexto Latinoamericano y del Caribe también existen algunos países con mejor desempeño que el nuestro. En México existen importantes diferencias en varios indicadores de bienestar infantil entre las entidades federativas, como la proporción de comunidades rurales y urbanas, la situación de la población infantil con discapacidad, la composición de las familias, el ejercicio del derecho a la identidad, las condiciones propias de la salud, la educación, la pobreza, la vivienda, el trabajo infantil y la regulación y protección del Estado sobre estos derechos. Por lo anterior, México requiere reforzar todas aquellas acciones que permitan, en el menor tiempo posible, lograr resultados más cercanos a los estándares del resto de los países de la OCDE. Para ello es indispensable una fi rme, estrecha y simultánea colaboración entre los sectores públicos, que incidan en las deficiencias en educación, vivienda, seguridad y condiciones sanitarias de las localidades, entre otras.

Article

MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD Ciencias médicas Ciencias clínicas Pediatría Políticas de control social Políticas públicas Políticas de salud Salud pública Grupos de edad Niños Determinantes sociales Pobreza Pediatrics Social control policy Public policy Health policy Public health Age groups Child Social determinants Poverty

Health-related quality of life among jewish older persons in Mexico and its determinants

MARIANA LOPEZ ORTEGA MINA KONIGSBERG FAINSTEIN (2020)

"Purpose

Aging research in Mexico has significantly increased in the past decades, however, little is known on health related quality of life (HRQoL) of older adults. The aim of this study was to expand this field by examining HRQL in a representative sample of Jewish older adults in Mexico, and to investigate its association with different factors.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of community dwelling Jewish men and women aged 60 years and older. HRQoL was measured using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Bivariate analysis was performed to estimate the association of scores of HRQoL and different characteristics of the study sample and multiple linear regression models were estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS), to explore determinant factors associated to HRQoL in this sample, for the eight domains of the SF-36 sub-scales separately.

Results

Two hundred ninety-five older persons were interviewed. Mean age was 72.7 years (SD 7.9), men made up 57% of the sample, 67% were married and 52% reported living with another person, mostly the spouse. Higher HRQoL was associated with higher educational attainment, being married, and having higher social support, while lower HRQoL was associated with being widowed, in worse financial situation, having chronic diseases and being in the oldest age groups.

Conclusions

Findings show that gender, socioeconomic level, educational attainment, marital status as well as social support & community participation are relevant factors influencing HRQoL in our study sample. With respect to the SF-36 subscales, HRQoL of Jewish older adults in Mexico present higher scores than that of adults and older adults previously found in other studies in Mexico. Further studies comparing other characteristics among them could help bring further understanding of these differentiated ageing processes."

Article

CIENCIAS SOCIALES Demografía Comunidad judía Personas mayores Envejecimiento Calidad de vida México Demography Jewish community Elderly Aging Quality of life Mexico

Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in mexican older adults age and sex differences

MARIANA LOPEZ ORTEGA PEDRO ARROYO ACEVEDO (2016)

Abstract: Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54 % women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3 % in men and 4·0 % in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist–hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

Article

MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD Ciencias médicas Ciencias clínicas Geriatría Técnicas y procedimientos de diagnóstico Exámen físico Antropometría Fenómenos fisiológicos Constitución corporal Composición corporal México Diagnostic, techniques and procedures Physical examination Anthropometry Physiological phenomena Body constitution Body composition Geriatrics

Aging in Mexico: Population Trends and Emerging Issues

Jacqueline Angel William Armando Vega MARIANA LOPEZ ORTEGA (2017)

Abstract:

Although all nations in the America’s face a common demographic reality of longevity, declining fertility rates and changes in family roles a growing body of research points to a dramatic demographic transformation in Mexico. Although Mexico’s population is relatively young, with a median age of 27.9 in 2015, it will age rapidly in coming years, increasing to 42 years by 2050. The rapid median age in the nation also reflects the growing proportion of people 65 or older, and is expected to triple to 20.2% by 2050. This article examines how the age and gender structure of Mexico offers important insights about current and future political and social stability, as well as economic development. Mexico is the world’s eleventh largest country in terms of population size and the “demographic dividend” of a large youthful population is giving way to a growing older population that will inevitably place demands on health care and social security. The shift in age structure will result in increased dependency of retirees on the working-age population in the next 20 years. Mexico does not provide universal coverage of social security benefits and less than half of the labor force is covered by any pension or retirement plan. As a result, elderly Mexicans often continue working into old age. The high total poverty rate in the country, especially among the older population magnifies the problem of the potential dependency burden. The article ends with a discussion of key public policy issues related to aging in Mexico.

Article

MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD Ciencias médicas Demografía Jubilación América Latina Políticas públicas Demography Retirement Latin america Public politics

Psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS): secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study 

MARIANA LOPEZ ORTEGA SARA TORRES CASTRO Oscar Rosas Carrasco (2016)

Abstract:

Background

The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) has been widely used and has proven to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing satisfaction with life in diverse population groups, however, research on satisfaction with life and validation of different measuring instruments in Mexican adults is still lacking. The objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in a representative sample of Mexican adults.

Methods

This is a methodological study to evaluate a satisfaction with life scale in a sample of 13,220 Mexican adults 50 years of age or older from the 2012 Mexican Health and Aging Study. The scale’s reliability (internal consistency) was analysed using Cronbach’s alpha and inter-item correlations. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed. Known-groups validity was evaluated comparing good-health and bad-health participants. Comorbidity, perceived financial situation, self-reported general health, depression symptoms, and social support were included to evaluate the validity between these measures and the total score of the scale using Spearman’s correlations.

Results

The analysis of the scale’s reliability showed good internal consistency (α = 0.74). The exploratory factor analysis confirmed the existence of a unique factor structure that explained 54% of the variance. SWLS was related to depression, perceived health, financial situation, and social support, and these relations were all statistically significant (P < .01). There was significant difference in life satisfaction between the good- and bad-health groups.

Conclusions: Results show good internal consistency and construct validity of the SWLS. These results are comparable with results from previous studies. Meeting the study’s objective to validate the scale, the results show that the Spanish version of the SWLS is a reliable and valid measure of satisfaction with life in the Mexican context.

Article

MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD Ciencias médicas Ciencias clínicas Geriatría Disciplinas de comportamiento y actividades Tests psicológicos Psicometrías Fenómenos fisiológicos Crecimiento y desarrollo Envejecimiento Salud Geriatrics Behavioral disciplines and activities Psychological tests Psychometrics Physiological phenomena Growth and development Aging Health

Psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS): secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study 

MARIANA LOPEZ ORTEGA SARA TORRES CASTRO Oscar Rosas Carrasco (2016)

Abstract:

Background

The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) has been widely used and has proven to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing satisfaction with life in diverse population groups, however, research on satisfaction with life and validation of different measuring instruments in Mexican adults is still lacking. The objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in a representative sample of Mexican adults.

Methods

This is a methodological study to evaluate a satisfaction with life scale in a sample of 13,220 Mexican adults 50 years of age or older from the 2012 Mexican Health and Aging Study. The scale’s reliability (internal consistency) was analysed using Cronbach’s alpha and inter-item correlations. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed. Known-groups validity was evaluated comparing good-health and bad-health participants. Comorbidity, perceived financial situation, self-reported general health, depression symptoms, and social support were included to evaluate the validity between these measures and the total score of the scale using Spearman’s correlations.

Results

The analysis of the scale’s reliability showed good internal consistency (α = 0.74). The exploratory factor analysis confirmed the existence of a unique factor structure that explained 54% of the variance. SWLS was related to depression, perceived health, financial situation, and social support, and these relations were all statistically significant (P < .01). There was significant difference in life satisfaction between the good- and bad-health groups.

Conclusions: Results show good internal consistency and construct validity of the SWLS. These results are comparable with results from previous studies. Meeting the study’s objective to validate the scale, the results show that the Spanish version of the SWLS is a reliable and valid measure of satisfaction with life in the Mexican context.

Article

MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD Ciencias médicas Ciencias clínicas Geriatría Disciplinas de comportamiento y actividades Tests psicológicos Psicometrías Fenómenos fisiológicos Crecimiento y desarrollo Envejecimiento Salud Geriatrics Behavioral disciplines and activities Psychological tests Psychometrics Physiological phenomena Growth and development Aging Health