Author: RUBI ROMERO ROMERO
MARTHA AZALEA ROMERO RUBIO (2019)
Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de, 1547-1616 / Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda
Crítica e interpretación
This chapter aims to present the fundamentals, important variables, and pharmaceuticals removed by ozonation and Fenton, which are only two of the current existing advanced oxidation processes. Some toxicological information regarding pharmaceuticals oxidized by ozonation is also included. Some strategies to improve such processes, like adding a catalyst, light, or electrical current, are also analyzed. Thus, this chapter intends to present general but fundamental aspects of the aforementioned processes.
In order to improve the enzymatic production of biodiesel, the reuse of an immobilized preparation of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) was assayed under di ff erent conditions. The improvement included: (1) reuse of CALB in the presence of ethanol (EtOH), (2) reuse of CALB in the presence of methanol (MeOH), (3) blended alcohols at di ff erent molar ratios (0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 80:20 and 100:0, %EtOH:%MeOH), and employing second generation raw materials: waste cooking oil (WCO) and castor oil (CO). When the first strategy was carried out the FAEE (fatty acid ethyl ester) content achieved was 96% in a first cycle but after four cycles the percentage decreased to 32%. For the second strategy the FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) content attained was 63% in a first cycle but after four cycles the percentage was only 13.5%. When the blended alcohols were tested, the negative e ff ect of MeOH was evident for higher concentrations regardless the type of oil used.
with the addition of molecular sieves (MS) at different addition times (3, 9, 12 and 15 h) and loads (2.5, 5, 10 and 15%, based on the total weight of substrates), the enrichment of GLA from evening primrose oil (EPO) and 1- butanol (BtOH) was improved via Candida rugosa lipase-catalysed esterification reactions. Secondly, the GLAenriched fraction was separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) to be further set to react during the third step in the presence of glycerol and Candida antarctica fraction B (CALB), under different enzyme loadings (5, 10, 15 and 20%, based on the total weight of substrates), temperatures (30, 40, 50 and 60 ◦C) and substrates molar ratios (1:1, 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1, GLA:glycerol). 60% of STAG containing 49 wt% of GLA were produced by using 15% of CALB at 60 ◦C and a 3:1 molar ratio.
Conacyt: Beca no. 328716 UAEMex: Proyecto 3866/2015/PIC
This study presents an iron-pillared clay (Fe-PILC) ion-exchanged with copper (Cu/Fe-PILC), as an efficient catalyst to conduct the mineralization of paracetamol through photo-Fenton process at near to neutral pH without precipitation of Fe complexes and without adding any chemicals to modify the initial pH. The specific surface area of the catalyst was of 110m2 g−1 and with the following phases FeO, Fe3O4, Cu2O, CuO determined by XPS analyses. Around 80% of mineralization was reached either by conducting the process at acidic and circumneutral pH conditions, and the efficiency was not significantly higher at pH=2.7. The intermediate reaction products generated at both pH conditions essayed and detected by LC–MS were hydroquinone, acetamide and oxamic acid. Catalyst Cu/Fe-PILC showed an iron leaching of about 3% after reaction while the reusability of the catalyst involved a decrease in mineralization of only 3% under circumneutral conditions. The final TOC of about 20% can be ascribed to the presence of acetamide that was found to be the most reluctant towards oxidation.
CONACYT 269093 PRODEP (511-6/178590) CONACYT (Estancia sabática) 266149
Background: Recent evidence points to the apparent increase of HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men
(MSM) in different settings with concentrated epidemics, including the Latin American region. In 2011, Mexico implemented
an ambitious HIV prevention program in all major cities, funded by the Global Fund to Fight Aids, Tuberculosis Malaria.
The program was intended to strengthen the prevention response for the most at risk populations: MSM injecting drug
users. This paper presents the HIV prevalence results of a nationally representative baseline survey in 24 Mexican cities
throughout the 5 regions in the country reports the socio demographic sexual risk behaviors that predict the
probability of infection.
Methods: The survey was implemented in two phases. We first identified characterized places where MSM gather in
each city then conducted in a second phase, a seroprevalence survey that included rapid HIV testing a selfadministered
questionnaire. The prevalence of HIV was estimated by adjusting for positive predicted value. We applied a
probit model to estimate the probability of having a positive result from the HIV test as a function of socio demographic
characteristics self reported sexual risk behaviors.
Results: We found an overall HIV prevalence among MSM gathering in meeting points of 16.9% [95% CI: 15.6–18.3],
significantly higher than previously reported estimates. Our regression results suggest that the risk of infection increases
with age, with the number of sexual partners, among those who play a receptive sexual role, the risk decreases
with higher education.
Discussion: Our findings suggest a higher HIV prevalence among MSM than previously acknowledged that a significant
regional variability exist throughout the country. These two findings combined, signal an important dynamic in the
epidemic that should be better understood promptly addressed with strong prevention efforts targeted at key
We thank the strengthening program graduate high with file number: I010/455/2013 C- 677/2013 of UAGro. Serafín-Higuera I was recipient of a Doctoral fellowship with file number 222252 from CONACYT, México.
Cervical cancer (CC) is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide with an estimated 528,000 new cases in 2012. The same year México had an incidence of 13,960 and a mortality of 4769 cases. There are several diagnosis methods of CC; among the most frequents are the conventional Pap cytology (Pap), colposcopy, and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), histopathological examination, tests of imaging and detection of high-risk papilloma virus (HR-HPV) with molecular tests (PCR, hybridization, sequencing). Proteomics is a tool for the detection of new biomarkers that can be associated with clinical stage, histological type, prognosis, and/or response to treatment. In this study we performed a comparative analysis of CC cells with normal cervical cells. The proteomic analysis was carried out with the fluorescent two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) technique to subsequently identify differential protein profiles using Decyder Software, and the selected proteins were identified by Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF).