Advanced search


Knowledge area




251 results, page 1 of 10

Especies de fusarium asociadas a la pudrición basal del ajo en el centro norte de México y su patogenicidad

JUAN CARLOS DELGADO ORTIZ (2013)

"En México la superficie sembrada para el cultivo del ajo es poco menos de 5,452 ha; los estados de Zacatecas, Guanajuato y Aguascalientes aportan más del 66% de la producción nacional, siendo Zacatecas el principal productor a nivel nacional. En el mundo la presencia de hongos, bacterias, virus y nematodos en los sistemas de producción de ajo ocasionan una serie de enfermedades, que dependiendo de la severidad con que se presenten causan un amplio impacto económico. Entre los hongos de suelo que provocan enfermedades en el cultivo de cebolla y ajo se encuentran diversas especies de Fusarium, que ocasionan la pudrición basal del bulbo de cebolla (Fusarium oxysporum f. s.p. cepae) y del ajo (Fusarium culmorum); provocando coloraciones café en las puntas de las hojas, que se tornan rojizas o púrpura y que se extienden hasta la base de las hojas, causando enanismo en la planta, bulbos esponjosos y una coloración ocasional purpura, los tallos presentan consistencia blanda y las raíces con coloraciones de color café a rojo. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo identificar morfológicamente y molecularmente las especies de Fusarium asociados a la pudrición basal en el centro norte de México y evaluar su patogenicidad. Se realizaron muestreos en las zonas productoras de ajo en los estados de Zacatecas, Guanajuato y Aguascalientes. De estos se aislaron e identificaron morfológicamente hasta el nivel de genero con las claves de Barnett and Hunter (1998) mientras que para especie se emplearon las claves de Domsch et al., (1980); Nelson et al., (1983) y Leslie y Summerell, (2006). La identificación molecular se realizó por medio de PCR con iniciadores específicos para cada especie, mientras que las especies que no se identificaron con los iniciadores específicos fueron identificadas mediante los ITS1/ITS4. Lográndose identificar las especies de Fusarium: F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides, F. acuminatum y F. solani, de las cuales se evaluó su patogenicidad en invernadero, inoculando plantas las cuales presentaban tres hojas verdaderas con cepas seleccionadas al azar; siendo 5 cepas de F. oxysporum, 4 de F. proliferatum y 1 de F. solani las que mostraron mayor patogenicidad."

"In Mexico the area planted with the crop of garlic is slightly less than 5,452 ha, the states of Zacatecas, Guanajuato and Aguascalientes contribute more than 66 % of domestic production, being the main producer Zacatecas nationwide. In the world the presence of fungi , bacteria, viruses and nematodes in garlic production systems cause a variety of diseases , depending on the severity with which arise cause a wide economic impact. Between soil fungi which cause diseases in growing onions and garlic are various species of Fusarium, basal rot causing onion bulb (Fusarium oxysporum f sp cepa) and garlic (Fusarium culmorum); causing the coffee stains tips of the leaves, which turn reddish or purple and extending to the base of the leaves, causing stunting plant bulbs occasional fluffy and purple color, have soft consistency stems and roots with a brown coloration red. This research aims to identify morphologically and molecularly Fusarium species associated with basal rot in north central Mexico and evaluate their pathogenicity. Were sampled in garlic-producing areas in the states of Zacatecas, Guanajuato and Aguascalientes. These were isolated and identified morphologically to genus level keys Barnett and Hunter (1998) while for species were used keys Domsch et al. (1980 ), Nelson et al. (1983), and Leslie and Summerell, (2006). Molecular identification was performed by PCR using specific primers for each species, while species not identified with specific primers were identified by the ITS1/ITS4. Fusarium species identified: F. oxysporum , F. proliferatum , F. verticillioides , F. solani and F. acuminatum, from which was evaluated in a greenhouse for pathogenicity by inoculating plants which were three true leaves with strains selected at random , being 5 strains of F. oxysporum, 4 of F. proliferatum and 1of F. solani which showed higher pathogenicity."

Master thesis

Especies de Fusarium Patogenicidad Identificación morfológica Identificación molecular CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Determination of resistance in winter wheat genotypes to the dryland root rots caused by Fusarium Culmorum in Turkey

GUL ERGINBAS ORAKCI Alexey Morgounov Abdelfattah DABABAT (2018)

Kuru alan kök (kökboğazı/dip) çürüklükleri’ne neden olan fusarium türleri tahıllara özellikle buğdaya zarar vermekte, tane sayı ve kalitesini azaltarak önemli verim kaybına neden olmaktadır. Türkiye’de kök çürüklüğü hastalık etmeni fusarium türleri içinde buğday bitkisine zarar veren başlıca etmen olarak rapor edilen tür fusarium culmorum’dur. Maalesef, günümüze kadar fusarium türlerine karşı sadece birkaç kısmi dayanıklı buğday genotipi bulunmuştur. Bu nedenle, bu çalışma fusarium hastalığının neden olduğu zararı sınırlandırmak amacıyla çeşitli buğday genotiplerinde yeni dayanıklılık kaynaklarının bulunması amacıyla yürütülmüştür. Çalışmada, uluslararası kışlık buğday geliştirme programı (iwwip) aracılığıyla 19 farklı ülke’den toplam 141 ıslah materyali (hat ve çeşit) sağlanmıştır ve türkiye’de 3 farklı ortamda (büyütme odası,sera, tarla) yerel izolat fusarium culmorum’a karşı dayanıklılıklarının belirlenmesi amacıyla 2012 yılında test edilmiştir. Dayanıklılık bakımından en iyi performansı gösteren genotipler verilerin doğrulanması amacıyla 2013 yılında tekrar test edilmiştir. Fenotiplendirme yapılan 141 genotip içinden toplam materyalin %12’ lik kısmını oluşturan 17 genotip fide ve/veya yetişkin dönemde orta dayanıklı olarak gruplandırılmıştır. Meksika kaynaklı genotipler, fide dayanıklılığı daha fazla gösteren amerika kaynaklı genotiplerin aksine yetişkin dönem dayanıklılığı göstermiştir. Yüksek dayanıklılık gösteren kışlık buğdaylar patwin yr5 ve tast/sprw//zar/5/yuandong 3/4/ppb8-68/chrc/3/pyn//tam101/amigo kök çürüklüğü’ ne karşı ıslahta ümitvar olarak görülmektedir.

Article

Wheats Fusarium Turkey Dayanıklılık Kök Çürüklüğü Buğday AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES AND BIOTECHNOLOGY WHEAT FUSARIUM DEFENSE MECHANISMS ROOT ROTS CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Antimicrobial evaluation of extracts obtained from tropical micromycetes against phytopathogens

MARTIN PABLO ANTONIO MORENO PEREZ MARIA MARCELA GAMBOA ANGULO GABRIELA PATRICIA HEREDIA ABARCA BLONDY BEATRIZ CANTO CANCHE CECILIA MONICA RODRIGUEZ GARCIA Irma Leticia Medina Baizabal LETICIA PERAZA ECHEVERRIA (2016)

Nowadays, it is highly necessary to find more and safer agrochemicals. In this sense, micromycetes are an important source of natural products which could be used to control plant diseases. Therefore with the aims to contribute in this searching of natural products with antimicrobial applications, a total of 49 fungal strains were isolated from the Yucatan Peninsula. These fungi were cultured in fermented rice, their respective organic extracts macerated in ethyl acetate (EAE) and methanol (ME) were obtained and tested against five fungal pathogens of agricultural importance. These included Alternaria chrysanthemi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, and the bacteria Erwinia carotovora and Xanthomonas campestris using microdilution assays. The 69% of fungal extracts showed antifungal or antibacterial (2000 and 200 µg/mL, respectively) against at least one of the tested target. Strains Penicillium sp. OSE-61, Fusarium sp. OH2-30, Hypocrea lixii OSN-37 and Rhizoctonia solani OSE-73 showed activity against at least three of the five study pathogens. The most active EAE were partitioned, and its low (A), medium (B) polarity and precipitated (C) were obtained and assessed. The fraction A from Fusarium KS-15 displayed the lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC ≤25 µg/mL) and bactericide effect on X. campestris; fraction B of Penicillium sp. OSE-61 was relatively greater than the previous on A. chrysanthemi (MIC ≤500 µg/mL). Last fraction also exhibited good inhibitory effect on C. gloeosporioides. Finally, fraction B of H. lixii OSN-37 displayed promissory antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides y M. fijiensis (MIC=1000 µg/mL). This research contributes to enrich the limited knowledge on the biological activity of native anamorphic fungi of the sinkholes of Yucatan and its potential use in biotechnological applications in agriculture.

Article

BIOASSAYS FUNGAL EXTRACTS FUSARIUM HYPOCREA MICROFUNGI BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Dissecting the genetic complexity of Fusarium crown rot resistance in wheat

GUL ERGINBAS ORAKCI Jens Léon Abdelfattah DABABAT Florian M.W. Grundler (2020)

Fusarium crown rot (FCR) is one of the most important diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). FCR is mainly caused by the fungal pathogens Fusarium culmorum and F. pseudograminearum. In order to identify new sources of resistance to FCR and to dissect the complexity of FCR resistance, a panel of 161 wheat accessions was phenotyped under growth room (GR) and greenhouse conditions (GH). Analysis of variance showed significant differences in crown rot development among wheat accessions and high heritability of genotype-environment interactions for GR (0.96) and GH (0.91). Mixed linear model analysis revealed seven novel quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to F. culmorum on chromosomes 2AL, 3AS, 4BS, 5BS, 5DS, 5DL and 6DS for GR and eight QTLs on chromosomes on 3AS, 3BS, 3DL, 4BS (2), 5BS, 6BS and 6BL for GH. Total phenotypic variances (R²) explained by the QTLs linked to GR and GH were 48% and 59%, respectively. In addition, five favorable epistasis interactions among the QTLs were detected for both GR and GH with and without main effects. Epistatic interaction contributed additional variation up to 21% under GR and 7% under GH indicating strong effects of environment on the expression of QTLs. Our results revealed FCR resistance responses in wheat to be complex and controlled by multiple QTLs.

Article

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA PLANT DISEASES WHEAT FUSARIUM GENETIC RESISTANCE

The ninth regional wheat workshop for Easter, Central and Southern Africa

Thomas Payne (1996)

The Asian Regional Maize Workshop has been an important activity in the region to bring together scientists from the public and private sectors to interact and exchange results of their work through various presentations. Also, in having a field demonstration of the important and new germplasm available from each country, scientists were able to examine the performance of these materials at the time of the workshop. The previous workshops were held in Thailand, Indonesia, Pakistan, Vietnam, and China. This particular workshop was unique in a way as the Indian Council for Agricultural Research (lCAR), the Maize Directorate and the Punjab Agricultural University (PAU) took the initiative in organizing the workshop providing not only the facilities but also accommodation, food and travel to some of the participants. The first part of the workshop was held in Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana October 30-31, and the second part in the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (lAR!) in New Delhi from November 1-3, 1995.

Conference proceedings

Fusarium Pathology Quality Plant breeding Disease control Triticum aestivum Weed control Farmers CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Caracterización morfológica y molecular de especies de Fusarium causantes del tizón de la espiga del trigo en el noroeste de México.

EDITH LUNA MARTINEZ (2018)

Tesis (Maestría en Ciencias, especialista en Fitopatología).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2018.

El trigo es fuente importante de alimento. Este cultivo se ubica entre los tres principales cereales de producción a nivel mundial con el maíz y el arroz. En México sobresalen los estados de Sonora con 305, 835 Ha sembrada, de trigo Baja California con 84, 735 Ha, Sinaloa con 62, 542 Ha, Guanajuato con 55, 140 Ha, Tlaxcala con 33, 519 Ha. La fusariosis de la espiga (FHB), también llamado tizón de la espiga, es una enfermedad fúngica importante que afecta varias gramíneas como el trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) y cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.). Esta enfermedad se presenta en gran parte del mundo y se asocia con varias especies de Fusarium incluyendo a F. graminearum. Este patógeno plantea una doble amenaza a los cereales: (i) una reducción significativa de calidad de la semilla y rendimiento del grano, y (ii) contaminación con estrogénicos y micotoxinas como tricotecenos, lo que hace inadecuado el grano para la alimentación humana o animal. Los objetivos de esta investigación fue conocer la diversidad de especies de Fusarium presentes en el trigo en el Noroeste de México y determinar el quimiotipo de tricotecenos presentes. En los estados de Baja Califronia, Sinaloa y sonora se encontraron las siguientes especies asociadas a la espiga de trigo; FFSC: F. circinatum, F. temperatum, F. proliferatum y F. nygamai; FCSC: F. nelsonii, FOSC: F. oxysporum, FIESC; F. incarnatum. En Guanajuato las especies predominantes fueron FSAMSC: F. boothii y F. sporotrichioides, FIESC: F. equiseti y FTSC: F. avenaceum.En los estados de Baja California, Sinaloa y Sonora no se detecto la enfermedad. _______________ MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF FUSARIUM SPECIES CAUSANTS OF THE TIGON OF THE WHEAT SPIGE IN THE NORTHWEST OF MEXICO. ABSTRACT: Wheat is an important staple food. This crop is one of the three main cereals worldwide along with corn and rice. In Mexico, Sonora grows 305, 835 ha of wheat Baja California 84, 735 Ha, Sinaloa 62, 542 Ha, Guanajuato 55, 140 Ha, Tlaxcala 33, 519 Ha. Fusarium head blight (FHB), also called spike blight, is an important fungal disease that affects several graminea such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). This disease occurs in most of the world and it is associated to several species of Fusarium including F. graminearum. This pathogen represents a double threat to cereals: (i) a significant reduction in seed quality and grain yield, and (ii) contamination with estrogens and mycotoxins such as trichothecenes, which makes the grain unsuitable for human or animal consumption. . The goals of this research were to know the diversity of Fusarium species present in wheat in Northwest Mexico and determine the chemotype of trichothecenes present. In the states of Baja California, Sinaloa and Sonora, the following species were found associated to FHB; FFSC: F. circinatum, F. temperatum, F. proliferatum and F. nygamai; FCSC: F. nelsonii, FOSC: F. oxysporum, FIESC; F. incarnatum. In Guanajuato the predominant species were FSAMSC: F. boothii and F. poae, FIESC: F. equiseti and FTSC: F. avenaceum. In the states of Baja California, Sinaloa and Sonora the disease was not detected.

Master thesis

Fusarium Factor de elongación Tizón de la espiga Elongation factor Spike blight Fitopatología Maestría CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS FITOPATOLOGÍA HONGOS

Interaction between helicoverpa zea damage with corncub diseases on genetically modified corn in Sinaloa, Mexico

LUIS ALBERTO AGUIRRE URIBE AGUSTIN HERNANDEZ JUAREZ GUSTAVO ALBERTO FRIAS TREVIÑO MARIANO FLORES DAVILA ERNESTO CERNA CHÁVEZ JERÓNIMO LANDEROS FLORES YISA MARIA OCHOA FUENTES (2014)

"GM (genetically modified) corn with the CrylAb. mC3Aand Vip3A20 protein of Bt ( Bacillus thuringienesis ) and itsrespective isoline as control with andwithout chemicalcontrolfor corn carworn werw used in thisresearch. Fusarium corncob damague was lower on GM corn with (12.5 %and without (25.7%) insecticide treatmenas compared witthe isoline that had40.3% and 83.1 % of damaged corncobs with (12.5)and without (25.7% insecticide treatment as compared with the isoline that had 48.3% with (3.2% ) and without(6.3%insect control.respectively, Ustilago maydisseverity was also lower on Bt corn finding 0.07% and 0.25% damageon treatments withand without insect control as compared the isoline that shwedan 11.6% and a 41.4%smut rotwith and without insecticidetreatment. respectively. The authors conclude that GM corn resistantto Helicoverpa zea prevents damageby the pest, eliminating the entrance patway for Fusarium sp. and Ustilago maydis."

Article

Cornsmut Transgeneric Fusarium Bacillus thuringlensis CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA