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188 páginas. Maestría en Diseño y Visualización de la Información.
La presente tesis se estructura en cinco capítulos de los que se hablará en términos generales a continuación. En el capítulo I, se describe la introducción a esta investigación. El capítulo II, titulado “E-HEALTH Y TELE-MEDICINA”, está orientado a hacer un estado de la cuestión que permita al lector tener mayor claridad en cuanto a la proveniencia de los términos involucrados, así como el desarrollo de la telemedicina y sus vertientes hasta la llegada de la tele-rehabilitación y los proyectos más relevantes a consideración del autor, que han permitido mostrar en la comunidad médica la eficiencia en términos de mejoría de pacientes que han tenido los desarrollos de esta naturaleza. “LAS LESIONES DE MANGUITO ROTADOR” es el título del Capítulo III, que está dedicado a la clarificación de los aspectos más relevantes del padecimiento para la comprensión del lector interesado. Entre estos aspectos se abordan temáticas como la población que es más propensa a padecer lesiones de hombro y algunas experiencias que se han tenido para tratar lesiones de hombro. De igual importancia es la mención de las limitantes más comunes presentadas en el tratamiento no sólo de lesiones de hombro, sino de lesiones físicas en general, y hacer del conocimiento general que dichas limitaciones en ocasiones están relacionadas con la administración de las instituciones de los servicios de salud, con la sobresaturación de los sistemas de provisión de servicios de salud, así como de factores exógenos a los sistemas como condiciones económicas o geográficas de las instituciones de salud y de los pacientes. Luego, en el Capítulo IV se presenta el marco metodológico que consiste en presentar la experiencia empírica del proyecto a través de dos casos de estudio exploratorios siguiendo una línea de investigación ex-post facto. El primero de los casos de estudio mencionados es el trabajo desarrollado entre la UAM y el INR para definir e implementar el primer Sistema de Tele-rehabilitación para Pacientes con Lesión de Manguito Rotador. Particula mente, mi rol en este fue diseñar la interfaz gráfica de usuario, así como la producción de contenido. Dicho proceso de creación se desarrolló de manera multidisciplinaria, en el que intervinieron investigadores, ingenieros, médicos, diseñadores industriales y diseñadores gráficos. El segundo caso de estudio presentado en este capítulo, evidencia la experiencia en la que, con la intención de dar seguimiento al proyecto en niveles no sólo académicos, la Dra. Diana Vásquez Sotelo, el Dr. Marco Vinicio Ferruzca Navarro y el autor del presente trabajo participan como equipo de Salud y Diseño (SyD) en la convocatoria para el programa ICORPS del 2014. Dicho programa es organizado por la Fundación México-Estados Unidos para la Ciencia (FUMEC) en colaboración con el Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología de México (CONACYT) con el fin de lanzar al mercado proyectos académicos vinculados a la tecnología. El programa ICORPS es un programa de generación de Startups, cuya principal intención es vincular los centros de investigación con la iniciativa privada para que la investigación y sus proyectos de innovación se transformen en una empresa tecnológica con mayores probabilidades de éxito. Por lo tanto, en este capítulo se hace una descripción de la experiencia adquirida por el equipo a través de esta iniciativa orientada a valorar la posibilidad de que el “Sistema de Tele-rehabilitación para Pacientes con Lesión Parcial de Manguito Rotador” fuera lanzado como un producto-- servicio con potencial de éxito en el mercado. El capítulo final de este trabajo de investigación es el número V, correspondiente a las conclusiones y titulado de la misma manera, en el que se plasman las ideas resultantes del proceso anteriormente descrito, así como los puntos más destacables de aprendizaje y consideraciones del autor desde la perspectiva del Diseño de la Comunicación Gráfica.
Rehabilitation technology. Telecommunication in medicine. Shoulder joint--Rotator cuff. Tecnología de la rehabilitación. Rehabilitación médica. Articulación escápulohumeral -- Manguito de los rotadores. RM950 HUMANIDADES Y CIENCIAS DE LA CONDUCTA CIENCIAS DE LAS ARTES Y LAS LETRAS
Muscular system function could be ffected by neurological disorders such as cerebral strokes, injuries and neurological disorders. Healthcare experts usually relay on their experience to diagnose and recommend a specific treatment. However, there exist technological devices capable to measure the electrical activity in the muscle improving the diagnostic; also there exist devices capable to aid on the rehabilitation of the muscle known as Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulators. Nevertheless, these devices are only available on laboratories or well-equipped clinics due mainly to the relatively expensive cost. This manuscript presents a low-cost device capable not only to measure the electromyographic activity but also is capable to stimulate the muscles in order to improve the rehabilitation of the muscle. Data could be visualized on a generic computer using the sound card as a data acquisition. This paper presents the development of such devices and preliminary results.
Arnulfo Ramos_Jimenez (2017)
Objective: To search for evidence that supports electro-stimulation as a treatment for Bell’s palsy.
Methods: An update (2000-2014) review of randomized and controlled clinical trials (inclusion criteria) was done
in the following databases: Cochrane, Ebsco, Elsevier, Google Scholar, Imbiomed, Medigraphic, PEDro and
PubMed, with these keywords alone and combined: electro-stimulation, Bell’s palsy, physiotherapy, facial paralysis,
parálisis facial and electro estimulación.
Results: 3512 reports of electro-stimulation alone or combined with other therapies in humans were included,
however only five met all inclusion criteria. Electro-stimulation alone or combined with other therapies gives no major
benefits than conventional treatments for Bell’s paralysis.
Conclusion: There is insufficient evidence to support electro-stimulation as an effective method to treat Bell’s
Khondoker Mottaleb (2018)
Adoption of new agricultural technologies is always at the center of policy interest in developing countries. In reality, despite the visible benefits of many of the new agricultural technologies, including machinery and management practices, farmers either do not adopt them or it takes a long time to begin the adoption process and scaling up. To enhance the provision of irrigation using surface water and to enhance irrigation efficiency, Bangladesh has been trying to introduce the axial-flow-pump (AFP) appropriate for surface water irrigation, which can lift up to 55% more water, conditional on the water head, than a conventional centrifugal pump. Despite the visible benefits of the AFP, the uptake of the AFP for irrigation is low in the targeted zone of Bangladesh. The present study demonstrates that the new technology must be modified to adapt to local demand and specifications. Most importantly, the price of the new technology must be competitive with the prices of the existing available substitute technologies to ensure a rapid uptake and scaling up of this new agricultural technology.
Developing Countries Technology Farmers Adoption Axial-Flow-Pump Centrifugal Pump Farmer Irrigation Low-Lift-Pump Perception Price Society PUMPING IRRIGATION FARMERS TECHNOLOGY CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA
Alexey Morgounov (2005)
The objective of the First Central Asian Wheat Conference, held on 10-13 June 2003 in Almaty, Kazakhstan, was to assess the current status of wheat research and cooperation in Central Asia, particularly in the areas of wheat breeding, genetics, plant protection, biotechnology, and agronomy. Also evaluated were the achievements of regional cooperation in promoting winter and spring wheat varieties, seed production activities, and the exchange of information among academics and specialists from Central Asia and foreign countries.
John Connell (1998)
Urbanization has led to increased wheat imports by non-traditional, wheat producing countries. Globally, Southeast Asia has had the most rapid increase in wheat consumption. Over the past decade, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Laos, and Vietnam have attempted to assess the feasibility of initiating domestic wheat production to substitute or supplement their imports of wheat. All of these countries have areas suitable for wheat production, but no production experience, indigenous consumption, or marketing structures for wheat to provide a base for expansion. Despite the appeal of developing domestic wheat production, it must be considered essentially an experimental venture. Thus while it has been possible to gain the enthusiasm of technical people, it may not necessarily rate high on the list of government priorities. The main difficulties of developing wheat in Thailand have surprisingly not been technical issues, such as poor plant development, pests, and diseases. Instead, the unfamiliarity of the crop amongst scientists, extension workers, and farmers has been the key constraint. Functionally this has resulted in a number of problems in unexpected areas; • Identifying the areas where wheat would have a comparative advantage over other crops was not clear for some time. As a result, early extension efforts were scattered and shifted from area to area. • The recommended technology for planting wheat was too intensive and liable to misinterpretation by farmers, which led to repeated crop failures in the early years of the program. Easily adopted technologies that allowed reliable crop establishment by farmers took some time to evolve. • Local grain merchants had no knowledge of wheat and were not prepared to purchase small volumes from isolated groups of farmers. This created a lack of confidence in the crop among farmers and extension workers. These issues were recognized as being significant once the production program was in the progress and they had to be dealt with as they were encountered. The program in Thailand is notable in that it has not been structured as a pilot project with a specific pilot area for production; special fund allocations; or any program to buy back the crop from farmers. Instead, the program has been implemented within existing planning, budgeting, and operating procedures of the various government institutions involved. This has had inherent difficulties, but has also led to some innovative initiatives. In the long run, these have given the program greater strength and sustainability: • The difficulty of marketing small quantities of the crop was initially addressed by attempting to promote local use of the crop. • The Department of Agricultural Extension (DOAE) has begun to develop a market structure for wheat ased on local independent grain merchants. This should expand dynamically with a minimal input of government funds. • A wide range of institutions has been involved in the program, which gave the program access to inspiration and initiatives from different directions.This has helped maintain momentum to a greater degree than if only one institution were involved. • Finally, the problem of developing appropriate production technologies for a diverse production environment, was solved through a process of cross-fertilization between researchers on-farm trials, and farmers' informal trials. This interaction between research and extension evolved through a "participatory extension" approach that engaged farmers in the process of fine tuning the technologies to their particular situation. Most of the major crops that have been introduced to Thailand since World War II (i.e., maize, cassava, soybean, and tobacco) have been export-driven, with the private sector playing an active role in supplying farmers with inputs, production technologies, and a waiting market. Wheat, on the other hand, is competing with efficiently produced imports, with all stages of the program for developing production; technology development, seed supply, and marketing, being led by the govemment sector. This offers a unique opportunity to draw useful lessons. At this point, the technical viability of wheat production has been established. Dynamic expansion of the crop has yet to occur and will depend on the program's successful transition from being government-sponsored to the private sector. Final establishment of the crop will also depend on factors outside of the program's control, such as world prices for wheat. This Report focuses on the processes and dynamics of wheat's introduction and its expansion, the underlying constraints and imperatives, and the roles and interactions of the various cooperating institutions. The three chapters covering these topics are briefly summarized below. Chapter I. Promoting "Local Use" of Wheat as a Strategy for Developing Crop Production Extension efforts to introduce wheat to small farmers in northern Thailand began in the early 1980s. The program was immediately faced with the problem of disposing of the small output being generated by scattered groups of farmers. To escape this problem, local use of the wheat was promoted as a substitute for selling it. This was intended to allow farmers time to begin to obtain reasonable yields so that it would be economic for them to produce and permit production volume to increase sufficiently so that local grain merchants could purchase and ship the harvest to the flour mills in Bangkok. Local use was promoted on two levels: direct consumption within farm families to supplement their staple diet of rice, and sale of locally milled whole-wheat flour to food vendors. Whole-wheat flour was selected due to the simple grinding process involved and the feasibility of blending it with commercial white flour. The program developed several ways of preparing food that allowed wheat to be included in the food habits of local Thai farmers and the ethnic hilltribe people. These dishes were readily accepted on the basis of taste, but the long preparation and/or cooking time prohibited their ready adoption into the farm family diet. However, there are some indications that ethnic hilltribe people could fit the more basic preparations into their diets and daily routines. The was a consistent interest among farmers' housewives to use wheat for various types of snacks. A number of small bakeries started using methods of milling and baking, based on locally available technologies and materials. In the end, the main obstacle to widespread replication of such enterprises was not poor market acceptance or the lack of appropriate technologies, but the lack of middlemen who would maintain a stock of wheat in the village. Without material readily available, there was little opportunity for potential entrepreneurs to begin trial operations. Overall, the local use effort was not successful in its main objective of generating home consumption in the place of selling the crop. However, there were indications that local use of wheat could develop in certain situations once production became more commonplace. While unsuccessful in this primary goal, the effort di help to popularize the new crop among women farmers. The interest and cooperation that the program engendered was significant. Therefore, when trying to stimulate interest in a new crop, the local use concept should not be rejected out of hand. Chapter II. Developing Production: Initiatives and Constraints The current program to establish wheat production is the latest attempt to do so over the past 50 years. The Department of Agricultural Extension (DOAE) initiated the program with a series of multilocation trials, beginning in the 1983/84 cool season. A wdespread wheat promotion campaign began four years later (1987/88 cool season). As a key element of the campaign, the DOAE has provided free seed and fertilizer. Where substantial production areas developed, mobile threshers were made available free of charge. Production has been promoted in ,both rainfed and irrigated environments. A rough estimate of the area in these two production domains is 110,000 and 55,000 ha, respectively. Extension efforts have alternately targeted rainfed and irrigated environments as the expectation of success in the two domains changed. By 1990/91 season, "production centers" of wheat had been established in six of Thailand's eight provinces. The production area in 1995/96 had reached a modest 742 ha and 720 ha for rainfed and irrigated areas, respectively, with a total of about 1500 ha. Early extension efforts were plagued by consistent crop failure due to farmers' unfamiliarity with the crop. In irrigated areas, farmers consistently over-irrigated, over-seeded, or left seed uncovered. Rainfed areas had similar problems of over-seeding and poor seed-cover. In rainfed production the seeding date has to coincide with the last storms of the wet season. As the pattern of these late storms changes from year to year, this has necessarily prolonged the learning curve for rainfed farmers. Thus the yields for rainfed production have been slower to rise. Such a set of management errors is typical for any extension program introducing a new crop. But in the case of wheat, the technology extended to farmers played a major role in their onsistent crop failures. It was not until more appropriate technologies were developed that extension began to achieved any success he severity of these management errors has been reduced (but not eliminated) so that the average yields for the 1996 harvest were approximately 1 t/ha and 0.64 t/ha for irrigated and rainfed areas, respectively. This is still below the calculated "break-even" point of 1.2 and 0.82 t/ha for irrigated and rainfed areas, respectively. However, farmers with a number of years experience growing the crop are achieving double these yields. Marketing has been a major issue for wheat. The DOAE made a concerted effort to develop a market structure based on independent local grain merchants. They acted at two levels. In Bangkok, guaranteed prices of 7.4 Bt/kg (0.30 US$/kg) at the mill door and procedures for handling the crop were established with mill representatives. At the local level, extension workers selected local grain merchants and introduced them to farmers. The two groups held yearly marketing meetings before crop harvest. The system has some rough spots, but the network of local grain merchants purchasing the crop is increasing each season. This structure should expand dynamically as production expands without continued coordination by government institutions. This attempt to engage the private sector, should it prove effective, will have been achieved with minimal government expenditure. The crop is at its "watershed" in Thailand. There are expanding centers of production in both rainfed and irrigated areas, appropriate technologies are available, and marketing links with flour mills in Bangkok have been established. However, dynamic expansion is yet to occur. Government support of free seed has reached the limit of its usefulness now and is beginning to inhibit dynamic expansion. Average yields are still depressed by the typical management errors noted in the early years of extension, and by market links, which are not yet responsive. All of these problems can be managed. However, the overall constraint is the lack of any real drive from the mills as the end users. The government sector has succeeded in establishing the basis for wheat production in northern Thailand. Its job is more or less done. At some point the private sector will need to become a driving force. When the program began in early 1980s, wheat prices were low, but they have risen substantially since, so that domestic wheat should now be cheaper than imported wheat. Chapter III. Developing Appropriate Technologies in a Diverse Production Environment The initial research effort was confined to experiment stations where scientists themselves had to become familiar with the crop's characteristics. The original recommended technology was time-and labor-intensive, and was open to misinterpretation by traditional rice farmers. It is unlikely that any extension program based on this technology would have been successful. Most of the more appropriate technologies that are now being adopted were identified through fairly informal on-farm trials. The research program has changed considerably over the last 12 years. Research is now strictly oriented towards production problems and has a strong on-farm component. In addition, scientists are beginning to examine the focus ofthe research program in the context of the diversity of the production environments. Since the beginning of widespread promotion of the crop to farmers in the 1987/88 season, there have been dramatic shifts in the preferred technology used. Perhaps as few as 10% of the farmers are still using the originally recommended technology. Broadcasting instead of row seeding, minimum tillage instead of soil preparation, and the use of mulch to alter the micro-climate of the crop are some of the changes that promise to increase yields and/or reduce inputs. There have been several stages in the evolution of appropriate production technologies, and the specific technology preferred at a particular site varies according to local conditions. Farmers themselves have played an active role in adapting and innovating appropriate technologies. This is perhaps to be expected with a new crop. An extension approach in which farmers are presented with a number of alternative technologies appears to be effective in engaging them to evaluate and adapt the technologies. Because there is a definite contributing role for the farmers with this extension approach, it is called "participatory." This participatory approach could offer a way around the impasse that farming systems research (FSR) faces; in diverse production environments where any technology developed will be necessarily site specific, the need for repeated trials for each environment places a load on institutionalized FSR that it will never be able to meet. Participatory extension prompts the farmers to fine-tune the technologies themselves and should allow FSR to focus on issues that are beyond farmers' resources to deal with. Tviability of institutional adoption of participatory extension was investigated through an action research program funded by Canada's International Development Research Center (IORC) within the existing Thai Wheat Program.
Plant Production Production Data Rain Fed Farming CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA TRITICUM WHEAT CROP PRODUCTION FOOD PRODUCTION FOOD CONSUMPTION PRODUCTION FACTORS PRODUCTION ECONOMICS PRODUCTION POLICIES TRADE POLICIES MARKETING POLICIES STRUCTURAL POLICIES ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ECONOMIC TRENDS TECHNOLOGY
The low agricultural productivity of key crops and food insecurity continue to be key issues in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Tanzania. The growing population, depleting resources, and changing climate further amplify these issues. Globally, many agricultural technologies (AgTs) are available as pathways for improved agricultural productivity and food security, however, they have had relatively little success in SSA and Tanzania. This is because the uptake of AgTs is a complex process, which is highly localized, involving multiple actors, stages, and spatial and time dimensions. Smallholder farmers often experience issues of sustainability, constraints for adoption, and scaling-up throughout the uptake process of AgTs, all of which vary by region. This indicates a need for a systematic and simultaneous understanding of sustainability, constraints for adoption, and scaling-up of AgTs to better guide agricultural strategy and policy interventions in SSA and Tanzania. Moreover, in order to understand the local settings better, a consideration of the perceptions of the farmers themselves, who are the primary actors in the uptake process of AgTs, is key. Acknowledging this, the study takes on a case study approach, using the scaling-up assessment (ScalA) method and three focus group discussions with a total of 44 smallholder farmers to systematically and simultaneously assess the sustainability, constraints for adoption, and scaling-up of three AgTs (use of fertilizers, improved seeds, and small-scale irrigation) in Tanzania. The study finds that the farmers perceive all three AgTs to be sustainable for the study region. Adoption rates are perceived to be medium for use of fertilizers, high for improved seeds, and low for small-scale irrigation. The most significant constraints for adoption experienced by the farmers are lack of technical physical inputs, marketing facilities, and know-how. Scaling-up is perceived to be well fulfilled for use of fertilizers and improved seeds, but only partially fulfilled for small-scale irrigation, which is the most limited of the three AgTs. The most significant constraints for scaling-up experienced by farmers are a lack of confidence in the added value of the AgTs beyond project activities, marketing facilities, and technical physical inputs. The overall success potential is high for the use of fertilizers and improved seeds, and the average for small-scale irrigation. The farmers’ perceptions partially indicate why the bundle of AgTs is lacking in the study region and provide a basis for discussing targeted agricultural and policy interventions in Tanzania.
En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de determinantes tecnológicos en las decisiones de inversión de las empresas manufactureras mexicanas. Se utilizan estimaciones de eficiencia obtenidas a partir del Análisis Envolvente de Datos (DEA, por sus siglas en inglés), así como indicadores tecnológicos para las regresiones a través de Mínimos Cuadrados Ordinarios (MCO). El análisis se realiza partiendo de datos de corte transversal. La evidencia empírica sugiere que la eficiencia técnica a partir de los factores productivos capital y trabajo puede incentivar los niveles de inversión.
The influence of technological determinants on the investment decisions of Mexican manufacturing firms is discussed in this work. Efficiency estimates obtained from the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and technology indicators for the regressions through Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) are used to develop the study. The analysis is based on cross-sectional data. Empirical evidence suggests that the technological efficiency that arises from productive factors (capital and labor) may encourage investment.
En este artículo se plantea que el estudio sobre el fenómeno de la tecnología es un área de investigación que las humanidades y las ciencias sociales deben estudiar. Sin embargo, el estudio social y humanístico de la tec-nología frecuentemente está impedido por diversos obstáculos epistemológicos que surgen en el transcurso de la investigación. Acto seguido, se plantea con mayor profundidad uno de esos obstáculos epistemológicos: la di-versidad de corrientes de estudio del fenómeno tecnológico procediendo a la identificación de esas mismas cor-rientes. Finalmente, se expone la necesidad de un encuadre emergente que ofrezca una epistemología pluralista e integre las corrientes presentadas de modo que el fenómeno de la diversidad de perspectivas en lugar de rep-resentar un obstáculo se convierta en una herramienta más en el estudio humanístico y social de la tecnología.
This paper argues that the study on the phenomenon of technology is an area of research that the humanities and social sciences should study. However, the social and humanistic study of technology is often obstructed by various epistemological obstacles that emerge in the course of the investigation. Then, one of these epistemo-logical obstacles is presented in greater depth: the diversity of currents of study of the technological phenom-enon, proceeding with the identification of those same currents. Finally, the need for an emerging framework that offers a pluralistic epistemology and integrates the presented currents is provided so that the phenomenon of the diversity of perspectives, instead of representing an obstacle, becomes an additional tool in the humanistic and social study of technology.
HUMANIDADES Y CIENCIAS DE LA CONDUCTA Tecnología Humanidades Ciencias sociales Ciencias de la complejidad Pluralismo epistemológico Technology Humanities Social sciences Sciences of complexity Epistemological pluralism
Presented at the 30th International Conference of Agricultural Economists (ICAE), Vancouver, Canada, held on July 29, 2018.