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Comparación del conocimiento sobre el manejo de residuos peligrosos biológico-infecciosos Entre médicos, enfermeros y servicios generales.

JUSTINIANO GONZÁLEZ GONZÁLEZ MAXIMINO REYES UMANA (2017)

Abstract¿ The objective was to compare the knowledge of the dangerous biological-infectious wastes between doctors, nurses and general services of a public Hospital of Acapulco, Guerrero, in 2016. An inferential, transversal, quasiexperimental and quantitative study was made. Where was used a simple aleatory sample. The size of the sample was of 479. Furthermore, there was an evaluation of the knowledge about the use of the dangerous biological-infectious wastes. The Nursery personal got 6.6316. The Doctor got 6.4103. And the personal of the general services got in the evaluation 3.0815. Finally, we assume that doctors and nurses have more knowledge than those from general service but a low level barely approved the norm NOM-087 SEMARNAT-SSA-2002.

Article

biological infectious wastes BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA

Adult plant resistance to stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Pakistani advanced lines and wheat varieties

Gina Brown-Guedira Matthew Rouse sridhar bhavani Ravi Singh Hans-Joachim Braun Muhammad Imtiaz (2018)

After decades of effective wheat stem rust control,due mainly to use of the Sr31 resistance gene in wheat, as of the early 2000s new virulent strains of the stem rust fungus,especially the Ug99 or the TTKSK races, are spreading and overcoming the resistance of commercial varieties worldwide, including the Sr24and Sr36 resistance genes in Kenya. To address this, researchers are working to identify new resistance sources and to develop and release new high-yielding, resistant and adapted varieties. In this study we evaluated 707 advanced spring wheat lines and varieties for adult plant resistance (APR) to stem rust at the Njoro research station of the Kenya Agricultural & Livestock Research Organization, using a modified Cobb’s scale,andfor seedling resistance at the Cereal Disease Laboratory (CDL), University of Minnesota,using the 0-4 Stakman et al. (1962) scale. We found 101 lines that showed APR and, through molecular marker analysis, identified 18lines carrying the stem rust resistance marker allele for the Sr25/Lr19 gene. Of these 18 lines, 11 were resistant to Ug99 at both the seedling and adult stages and 7were susceptible at the seedling stage, showing infection type (IT) 3 to 4,and moderately susceptible at the adult plant stage. Another 20 lines were resistant at all stages of development, without Sr25/Lr19 marker allele indicated the possibility of carrying other genes for stem rust resistance. We shared the results with national program breeders and scientists in Pakistan to facilitate the use of resistant lines in crossing programs and enhance stem rust resistance in candidate wheat varieties. As a result number of lines resistant to Ug99/ and its variants (TTKSK, TTKST) have been identified and released as commercial varieties, including NR-397 (Pakistan-2013) and NR-356 (NARC-2011)

Article

Puccinia graminis Varieties Wheats Disease resistance Rusts Disease Severity Race Non-Specific Resistance Ug99 Wheat Rust INFECTIOUS DISEASES TRITICUM AESTIVUM PUCCINIA GRAMINIS GENETIC MARKERS AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES AND BIOTECHNOLOGY TRITICUM AESTEVIUM CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Tackling Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN), a major epidemic in eastern Africa with better phytosanitary intervention measures.

Suresh L.M. (2018)

Presented at 2nd International Phytosanitary Conference “Phytosanitary System for Safe trade and food security” 4th to 8th June, 2018, KEPHIS HQ. Nairobi, Kenya.

Conference object

Pathogens Wheats Infectious diseases Eastern Europe CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Genome-wide association mapping for resistance to leaf rust, stripe rust and tan spot in wheat reveals potential candidate genes

Philomin Juliana Ravi Singh Jesse Poland Gary Bergstrom JULIO HUERTA-ESPINO sridhar bhavani Jose Crossa Mark Sorrells (2018)

Leaf rust (LR), stripe rust (YR) and tan spot (TS) are some of the important foliar diseases in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To identify candidate resistance genes for these diseases in CIMMYT’s (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) International bread wheat screening nurseries, we used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in conjunction with information from the population sequencing map and Ensembl plants. Wheat entries were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing and phenotyped in replicated trials. Using a mixed linear model, we observed that seedling resistance to LR was associated with 12 markers on chromosomes 1DS, 2AS, 2BL, 3B, 4AL, 6AS and 6AL, and seedling resistance to TS was associated with 14 markers on chromosomes 1AS, 2AL, 2BL, 3AS, 3AL, 3B, 6AS and 6AL. Seedling and adult plant resistance (APR) to YR were associated with several markers at the distal end of chromosome 2AS. In addition, YR APR was also associated with markers on chromosomes 2DL, 3B and 7DS. The potential candidate genes for these diseases included several resistance genes, receptor-like serine/threonine-protein kinases and defense-related enzymes. However, extensive LD in wheat that decays at about 5 × 107 bps, poses a huge challenge for delineating candidate gene intervals and candidates should be further mapped, functionally characterized and validated. We also explored a segment on chromosome 2AS associated with multiple disease resistance and identified seventeen disease resistance linked genes. We conclude that identifying candidate genes linked to significant markers in GWAS is feasible in wheat, thus creating opportunities for accelerating molecular breeding.

Article

Rusts Genomes Wheats Genome-Wide Association Studies TRITICUM AESTIVUM INFECTIOUS DISEASES DNA SEQUENCE GENETIC MARKERS DISEASE RESISTANCE CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Genome-wide association mapping for resistance to leaf rust, stripe rust and tan spot in wheat reveals potential candidate genes

Philomin Juliana Ravi Singh Jesse Poland Gary Bergstrom JULIO HUERTA-ESPINO sridhar bhavani Jose Crossa Mark Sorrells (2018)

Leaf rust (LR), stripe rust (YR) and tan spot (TS) are some of the important foliar diseases in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To identify candidate resistance genes for these diseases in CIMMYT?s (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) International bread wheat screening nurseries, we used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in conjunction with information from the population sequencing map and Ensembl plants. Wheat entries were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing and phenotyped in replicated trials. Using a mixed linear model, we observed that seedling resistance to LR was associated with 12 markers on chromosomes 1DS, 2AS, 2BL, 3B, 4AL, 6AS and 6AL, and seedling resistance to TS was associated with 14 markers on chromosomes 1AS, 2AL, 2BL, 3AS, 3AL, 3B, 6AS and 6AL. Seedling and adult plant resistance (APR) to YR were associated with several markers at the distal end of chromosome 2AS. In addition, YR APR was also associated with markers on chromosomes 2DL, 3B and 7DS. The potential candidate genes for these diseases included several resistance genes, receptor-like serine/threonine-protein kinases and defense-related enzymes. However, extensive LD in wheat that decays at about 5 × 107 bps, poses a huge challenge for delineating candidate gene intervals and candidates should be further mapped, functionally characterized and validated. We also explored a segment on chromosome 2AS associated with multiple disease resistance and identified seventeen disease resistance linked genes. We conclude that identifying candidate genes linked to significant markers in GWAS is feasible in wheat, thus creating opportunities for accelerating molecular breeding.

Article

Rusts Wheats Disease resistance Genome-Wide Association Studies Leaf Rust Stripe Rust Tan Spot WHEAT INFECTIOUS DISEASES DISEASE RESISTANCE CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Natural variation in elicitation of defense-signaling associates to field resistance against the spot blotch disease in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Dr. Ranabir Sahu Sudhir Navathe Vinod Mishra Ramesh Chand arun joshi Shree Pandey (2018)

Spot blotch, caused by the hemibiotropic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana, is amongst the most damaging diseases of wheat. Still, natural variation in expression of biochemical traits that determine field resistance to spot blotch in wheat remain unaddressed. To understand how genotypic variations relate to metabolite profiles of the components of defense-signaling and the plant performance, as well as to discover novel sources of resistance against spot blotch, we have conducted field studies using 968 wheat genotypes at 5 geographical locations in South-Asia in 2 years. 46 genotypes were identified as resistant. Further, in independent confirmatory trials in subsequent 3 years, over 5 geographical locations, we re-characterized 55 genotypes for their resistance (above 46 along with Yangmai#6, a well characterized resistant genotype, and eight susceptible genotypes). We next determined time-dependent spot blotch-induced metabolite profiles of components of defense-signaling as well as levels of enzymatic components of defense pathway (such as salicylic acid (SA), phenolic acids, and redox components), and derived co-variation patterns with respect to resistance in these 55 genotypes. Spot blotch-induced SA accumulation was negatively correlated to disease progression. Amongst phenolic acids, syringic acid was most strongly inversely correlated to disease progression, indicating a defensive function, which was independently confirmed. Thus, exploring natural variation proved extremely useful in determining traits influencing phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to complex environments. Further, by overcoming environmental heterogeneity, our study identifies germplasm and biochemical traits that are deployable for spot blotch resistance in wheat along South-Asia.

Article

Soft wheat Plant diseases Bipolaris Sorokiniana Natural Variation COCHLIOBOLUS SATIVUS WHEAT INFECTIOUS DISEASES DISEASE RESISTANCE CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Threat of wheat blast to South Asia’s food security: an ex-ante analysis

Khondoker Mottaleb Kai Sonder Gideon Kruseman Naresh Barma Hans-Joachim Braun Olaf Erenstein (2018)

New biotic stresses have emerged around the globe over the last decades threatening food safety and security. In 2016, scientists confirmed the presence of the devastating wheat-blast disease in Bangladesh, South Asia–its first occurrence outside South America. Severely blast-affected wheat fields had their grain yield wiped out. This poses a severe threat to food security in a densely-populated region with millions of poor inhabitants where wheat is a major staple crop and per capita wheat consumption has been increasing. As an ex ante impact assessment, this study examined potential wheat-blast scenarios in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. Based on the agro-climatic conditions in the epicenter, where the disease was first identified in Bangladesh in 2016, this study identified the correspondingly vulnerable areas in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh amounting to 7 million ha. Assuming a conservative scenario of 5–10% for blast-induced wheat production loss, this study estimated the annual potential wheat loss across the sampled countries to be 0.89–1.77 million tons, equivalent to USD 132–264 million. Such losses further threaten an already-precarious national food security, putting pressure on wheat imports and wheat prices. The study is a call for action to tackle the real wheat-blast threat in South Asia.

Article

Biotic stress Food security WHEAT INFECTIOUS DISEASES FOOD SECURITY RISK ASSESSMENT CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Maize Lethal Necrosis -The disease

Suresh L.M. (2018)

Presented at Technician Training Course 2018: Arusha, Tanzania

Conference object

Maize germ Necrosis Infectious diseases East Africa CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA