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Plant gene homologs that control cell differentiation can be used as biotechnological tools to study the in vitro cell proliferation competence of tissue culture-recalcitrant species such as peppers. It has been demonstrated that SERK1 homologs enhance embryogenic competence when overexpressed in transformed tissues; therefore, cloning of a pepper SERK1 homolog was performed to further evaluate its biotechnological potential.
ARABIDOPSIS BIOTECHNOLOGICAL TOOLS CAPSICUM ANNUUM CAPSICUM CHINENSE CELL DIFFERENTIATION GENE EXPRESSION IN VITRO CELL PROLIFERATION PEPPERS RECALCITRANT SPECIES BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR DE PLANTAS BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR DE PLANTAS
Common bean is a crop recalcitrant to in vitro regeneration and therefore it lacks an efficient transformation protocol that can be reproduced using A. tumefaciens. The main goal of this study was to establish a protocol for A. tumefaciens mediated transformation of Phaseolus vulgaris var. Brunca by marker genes (gusA and nptII) together with the gene for trehalose-6-phosphate synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (TPS1) used in other species to increase tolerance to abiotic stress. The β-glucuronidase activity was detected in 45 % of the LBA4404 ElectroMAX® pCAMBIA1301 infected explants. Transformed explants regenerated new shoots after four to five months period in a kanamycin rich media. Surviving plants were evaluated by PCR and presented an 0.5 % efficiency of transformation. The established protocol for genetic transformation of common bean has two additional advantages with respect to previous reports: (1) it allows for obtaining transformed regenerants and (2) the genetic transformation was stable for the selective gene.
COMMON BEAN RECALCITRANT SPECIES GENETIC TRANSFORMATION A. TUMEFACIENS GUSA ACTIVIT BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR DE PLANTAS BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR DE PLANTAS
CAMELIA JAIMES ALBITER (2013)
Tesis (Doctora en Ciencias, especialista en Producción de Semillas).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2013.
El nanche es una especie forestal frutícola de amplio espectro utilitario, pero la germinación de sus semillas es compleja; por ello, el objetivo de la investigación fue conocer la dinámica germinativa de las semillas de clima cálido húmedo y clima semicálico, en el banco del suelo y en condiciones de invernadero; así como clasificarlas fisiológicamente, y proponer alternativas adecuadas para conservar este recurso fitogenético. Se encontró que las semillas de clima cálido húmedo forman un banco de tipo transitorio, en tanto que, para las de clima semicálido fue persistente de corto plazo. Por otro lado, en invernadero se observó que la humedad del suelo no representa inconveniente para la germinación de las semillas de ambos climas, si no que esto depende del grado de domesticación, la latencia mecánica y fisiológica, calidad física, fisiológica y sanitaria de las semillas. Respecto a la clasificación fisiológica de las semillas, se observó que las de clima semicálido son más tolerantes a la desecación que las de clima cálido húmedo; sin embargo, ninguna conserva su viabilidad durante el almacenamiento, por lo que se concluye que ambas son de tipo recalcitrante, y la mejor estrategia para conservar el nanche es in situ o ex situ: en colecciones de campo, jardines botánicos, cultivo de tejidos o mediante crioconservación. _______________ SEXUAL PROPAGATION AND DRYING TOLERANCE IN nanche (Byrsonima crassifolia L.) Kunth. ABSTRACT: The nanche fruit is a forest of broad utility, but seed germination is complex, hence, the aim of the research was to understand the dynamics of seed germination warm humid and semiwarm climate, respectively, in the soil bank, and greenhouse conditions as well as physiologically classify, and propose adequate alternatives of this plant genetic resource conservation. It was found that warm and humid climate, seeds form a transitional bank, while for the semiwarm climate is of persistent short term type. On the other hand, in the greenhouse it was observed that the soil moisture is not inconvenient for to seed germination in both climates, but rather it depends on the the degree of domestication, mechanical and physiological dormancy, physical quality, physiological and sanitary quality of seeds. About the physiological classification of seeds, it was observed that those from semiwarm climate are more desiccation tolerant than those from warm humid climate, however, its viability its not retained during storage, so it was concluded that both are of recalcitrant type, and the best strategy to conserve nanche is in situ or ex situ: in field collections, botanical gardens, tissue culture or by cryopreservation.
Byrsonima crassifolia Latencia Recalcitrante Conservación in situ Conservación ex situ Dormancy In situ conservation Ex situ conservation Producción de Semillas Doctorado Recalcitrant CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA
ESPERANZA LOERA ALVARADO (2013)
Tesis (Doctorado en Ciencias, especialista en Entomología y Acarología).- Colegio de Postagraduados, 2013.
La floricultura es la principal actividad agrícola que se realiza en la zona de Texcoco, Estado de México, siendo el crisantemo Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitam., el cultivo de mayor importancia. Este cultivo, en los últimos años ha presentado problemas en su producción causados principalmente por plagas y enfermedades, siendo los trips una de las plagas más importantes, tanto por los daños directos que causan al alimentarse del cultivo, como por los daños indirectos al transmitir el virus de la marchitez manchada del jitomate. Sin embargo, pocos son los estudios que se han realizado para conocer la diversidad de tisanópteros asociados al cultivo, y su potencial como plagas. El correcto diagnóstico de trips presentes en el cultivo de crisantemo es fundamental en el éxito o fracaso de las estrategias de control, por lo tanto, los resultados de esta investigación ayudarán a enriquecer el conocimiento de las especies de trips en el cultivo en la zona de Texcoco y en la toma de decisiones para su control. La investigación se divide en cuatro capítulos, en el primero se hace una revisión bibliográfica del cultivo de crisantemo y aspectos generales de trips; en el segundo se incluye información de las especies de trips asociadas a crisantemo; en el tercero se aborda el tema de la diversidad de especies de trips evaluadas en cuatro de las localidades productoras de crisantemo más representativas, y por último, en el cuarto capítulo se describen las nuevas especies registradas. _______________ DIVERSITY OF THRIPS IN CHRYSANTHEMUM Dendranthema grandiflorum (RAMAT.) KITAM., IN TEXCOCO, STATE OF MEXICO. ABSTRACT: Floriculture is the main agricultural activity in Texcoco, State of Mexico, where chrysanthemum Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitam., is the most important crop. In recent years the production has been affected mainly by insect pests and diseases. Thrips are the most important pests, causing direct damages by its feeding activities and indirect damages as this insect is the vector of the tomato spotted wilt virus. However, few studies have been conducted to know the species diversity of thrips associated with this crop, and its potential as a pest. The correct species diagnosis of thrips present in D. grandiflorum crops is fundamental to the success in the establishment of control strategies, therefore, the results of this research will provide fundamental results about the species composition of thrips associated with this crop.. This research was divided into four chapters, the first is a literature review of chrysanthemum and general aspects of thrips, the second includes information of species of thrips associated with chrysanthemums, the third, describes the species diversity of thrips in four of the most important production areas of chrysanthemum, and finally, the fourth chapter describes the record of new thrips species.
"Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) is a plant that produces seed with high protein content, is rich on nutraceutical compounds, and can grow under environmental conditions where most of the basic crops are not able to develop. But little is know about the amaranth stress-responsive genes/proteins. The aim of this work was to apply the comparative proteomics approach to study the differential expression of amaranth leaf proteins under drought stress. However, the protein extraction from amaranth tissues is difficult as a result of high endogenous concentrations of interfering compounds; we have made some modifications of the classical trichloroacetic acid-acetone precipitation method to improve the quantity and quality of extracted proteins. Satisfactory and reproducible two-dimensional electrophoresis protein profiles were obtained; the method was also tested forAgave tequilana and Opuntia spp., two more examples of plants that are tolerant to drought stress. Drought-responsive proteins in amaranth leaves were identified by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). The upregulated proteins identified included chloroplast chaperonins involved in refolding and protein complexes protection. Downregulated proteins include Rubisco large subunit, cytochrome b6f, oxygen evolving complexes, and the ascorbate peroxidase mitochondrial. The results have shown that chloroplasts and mitochondria may play a central role in amaranth adaptation to abiotic stress, and further studies should be done at the subcellular level."
Lophiaris tapiae Balam and Carnevali (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) is described and illustrated. The new species is known only from the Escarcega area, and the Candelaria and Palizada rivers margins in the state of Campeche, Mexico. It is compared with species of the Lophiaris oerstedii complex, particularly with L. andrewsiae, to which it is closely related. A distribution map for the species and an identification key for all taxa of the L. oerstedii complex are included. We propose an "in danger of extinction" (P) conservation status for L. tapiae when assessed against the Method for Evaluation of Risk of Extinction for Mexican Wild Species (MER) criteria.
“Description and meristic analysis of eleven species of Microcyclops recorded in America were performed based on the examination of type specimens and fresh material. Microscopic analysis of oral appendages, such as the shape and armature of the distal coxal endite of the maxilla, the ornamentation on the caudal surface of the antenna, and the intercoxal sclerites and armament of the inner basis of all swimming ap¬pendages, were characteristics that allowed the differentiation between species. Among these species, our study confirmed the synonymy of M. diversus Kiefer, 1935 with M. ceibaensis (Marsh, 1919). The results of our observations showed that M. alius (Kiefer, 1935) is a junior synonym of M. dubitabilis Kiefer, 1934; the latter being confirmed as a valid species. Also, it is proposed that the records of M. rubellus (Lilljeborg, 1901) and M. varicans (Sars, 1863) in America should be revised as there are serious doubts about their distribution in America. The analysis suggested that M. anceps pauxensis Herbst, 1962 is distinct from M. anceps var. minor Dussart, 1984 and that both are likely different from M. anceps anceps (Richard, 1897). Finally a full morphological description of adult females of Microcyclops inarmatus sp. n. is presented.”
Phytoplankton samples were collected in Acapulco Bay during 2011 (January-April and September) and 2012 (April-July, October, and November) with the objective of determining the abundance and species composition. Samples were collected in two stations located in the bay. A total of 82 species were identified: 42 dinoflagellates, 35 diatoms, three cyanobacteria, and two silicoflagellates. Dinoflagellates were more abundant in the dry season, while diatoms dominated during rainy season. At least seven dinoflagellate species were recorded as potentially toxic, which may increase their populations and turn into harmful algal blooms (HABs) if environmental conditions within the bay are modified. In April 2012 a HAB of the non-toxic species Neoceratium balechii was documented
"Background Amaranth is a plant naturally resistant to various types of stresses that produces seeds of excellent nutritional quality, so amaranth is a promising system for food production. Amaranth wild relatives have survived climate changes and grow under harsh conditions, however no studies about morphological and molecular characteristics of their seeds are known. Therefore, we carried out a detailed morphological and molecular characterization of wild species A. powellii and A. hybridus, and compared them with the cultivated amaranth species A. hypochondriacus (waxy and non-waxy seeds) and A. cruentus. Results Seed proteins were fractionated according to their polarity properties and were analysed in one-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1-DE) followed by nano-liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS). A total of 34 differentially accumulated protein bands were detected and 105 proteins were successfully identified. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins were detected as species-specific. Oleosins and oil bodies associated proteins were observed preferentially in A. cruentus. Different isoforms of the granule-bound starch synthase I, and several paralogs of 7S and 11S globulins were also identified. The in silico structural analysis from different isoforms of 11S globulins was carried out, including new types of 11S globulin not reported so far. Conclusions The results provide novel information about 11S globulins and proteins related in seed protection, which could play important roles in the nutritional value and adaptive tolerance to stress in amaranth species."
"We studied the saproxylic beetle community inhabiting deadwood in remnants of riparian cloud forests in "La Antigua" basin, in central Veracruz (Mexico). We assessed the influence of deadwood features (tree species, trunk position, trunk diameter, trunk volume and decomposition stages) on saproxylic beetle diversity. In order to assess the stability of beetle species-deadwood interactions, we also analyzed the ecological networks structure. A total of 63 deadwood trunks, belonging to four tree species, were sampled by standardized hand-collection throughout well-preserved remnants of riparian cloud forest. We found that tree species and deadwood decay stage are the main drivers that determine the diversity and stability of saproxylic beetle species interactions. Our results indicate that Quercus corrugata is the main tree species in terms of maintaining the significantly highest saproxylic beetle diversity, but with no stable interactions (saproxylic beetle-deadwood). A nested network structure was detected for Clethra mexicana and Liquidambar styraciflua, with a pool of core (generalist) saproxylic beetle species. We observed that beetle diversity from the early and late deadwood stages comprises distinct assemblages and the four stages of decomposition showed a nested network structure. During deadwood succession, community composition and guilds changed among networks; the early successional stage had more specialized xylophagous beetles, while other guilds (mycophagous, saprophagous and zoophagous) arrive later and become the core species in the advanced stages of decomposition networks. Heliscus tropicus (Passalidae) is a key species constituting the core of all of the networks and could be considered an ecosystem engineer in cloud forests. By exploring links between saproxylic beetles and deadwood characteristics, we can further our understanding of species interaction in order to develop management strategies oriented towards the protection of species and their habitats in this threatened ecosystem."