Advanced search


Knowledge area




140 results, page 1 of 10

EFECTO DEL SUSTRATO Y REGULADORES DEL CRECIMIENTO SOBRE EL ENRAIZAMIENTO DE TRES VARIEDADES DE IXORA (Ixora coccinea L.) EN INVERNADERO

EFFECT OF SUBSTRATE AND GROWTH REGULATORS ON THE ROOTING OF THREE IXORA (Ixora coccinea L.) VARIETIES UNDER GREENHOUSE

JUAN JOSE REYES PEREZ ERNESTO DIAZ RIVERA Luis Guillermo Hernández Montiel (2018)

"The species Ixora coccinea L. is a shrub used to decorate gardens and parks. It is a plant that blooms all year round and because of its colorful colors, it is demanded all over the world. Most Ixora species are slow growing, so their propagation by cuttings using growth regulators and different substrates, can allow intensive exploitation. The objective of this work was to determine the rooting of three varieties of Ixora coccinea using three substrates and the growth regulators naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA) and indole-butyric acid (IBA). Axillary buds were collected from three varieties of Ixora that include pink, yellow and red colors. NAA and IBA were used at doses of 1, 1.5 and 2 mL kg1 and the substrates used were sand, burnt rice and forest soil. The axillary buds of each color were treated with the doses of the growth regulators and deposited in each substrate. They remained in the greenhouse for 60 days. At the end of the experiment, it was quantified; height (cm), maximum root length (cm), number of roots, percentage of survival and rooting and the data were analyzed by means of a Tukey test (P0.05). The results indicated that axillary buds of Ixora coccinea treated with NAA and IBA and, using any substrate as support, allowed reaching an optimal morphological development ensuring the survival and rooting of the plants in 100%."

"La ixora (Ixora coccinea L.) es un arbusto utilizado para adornar jardines y parques. Es una planta que florece todo el año y por su vistoso colorido, es demandada en todo el mundo. La mayoría de las especies de lxora son de crecimiento lento, por lo que su propagación por esquejes utilizando reguladores de crecimiento y diferentes sustratos, puede permitir su explotación intensiva. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el enraizamiento de tres variedades de Ixora coccinea utilizando tres sustratos y los reguladores del crecimiento ácido naftaleno-acético (ANA) y ácido indol-butírico (AIB). Se colectaron yemas axilares de tres variedades de Ixora que incluyen el color rosado, amarillo y rojo. Se utilizó ANA y AIB a dosis de 1, 1.5 y 2 mL kg1 y los sustratos empleados fueron arena, arroz quemado y tierra de bosque. Las yemas axilares de cada color fueron tratadas con las dosis de los reguladores del crecimiento y depositadas en cada sustrato. Permanecieron en invernadero durante 60 días. Al terminar el experimento, se cuantifico; altura (cm), longitud máxima de raíz (cm), número de raíces, porcentaje de supervivencia y de enraizamiento y los datos fueron analizados mediante una prueba Tukey (P0.05). Los resultados indicaron que yemas axilares de Ixora coccinea tratadas con ANA y AIB y, utilizando como cualquier sustrato como soporte, permitieron alcanzar un desarrollo morfológico óptimo asegurando la supervivencia y enraizamiento de las plantas en un 100%."

Article

Yema axilar, ácido naftalenoacético, ácido indol-butírico, sustratos Axillary bud, naphthalene-acetic acid, indole-butyric acid, substrates CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS AGRONOMÍA PROPAGACIÓN DE VEGETALES PROPAGACIÓN DE VEGETALES

Efficient plant regeneration from leaf explants of Solanum americanum

INGRID AILEEN O'CONNOR SANCHEZ ANGEL VIRGILIO DOMINGUEZ MAY MIGUEL ANGEL KEB LLANES TOMAS AUGUSTO GONZALEZ ESTRADA YURI JORGE JESUS PEÑA RAMIREZ (2010)

A very efficient system for direct plant regeneration from in vitro-derived leaf explants of Solanum americanum was developed. S. americanum is a tropical plant with important medical properties. The in vitro procedure that was established consists of (i) induction of shoots from leaf tissue, (ii) elongation of shoots, and (iii) rooting of plantlets. The induction of shoots was achieved on Murashige and Skoog solid medium supplemented with different combinations of zeatin riboside and 1-naphthalene acetic acid or 6-benzylaminopurine and 1-naphthalene acetic acid. The best combination for plant regeneration was MS with 5.7 μM zeatin riboside and 0.11 μM 1-naphthalene acetic acid. In the second step, the shoot clumps were transferred to MS basal medium without plant growth regulators, resulting in the differentiation of most of the shoot initials into well developed shoots. In the third stage, plantlets were efficiently rooted on half-strength MS basal medium supplemented with 58.5 mM sucrose. The rooted plants were established in soil with a 100% success rate. This system can be useful to perform further experiments to obtain transgenic plants of this species as well as for other biotechnological approaches. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Article

1-NAPHTHALENE ACETIC ACID AMERICAN NIGHTSHADE IN VITRO CULTURE MEDICINAL PLANT SPECIES ORGANOGENESIS SHOOTS REGENERATION ZEATIN RIBOSIDE BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Efficient plant regeneration from leaf explants of Solanum americanum

INGRID AILEEN O'CONNOR SANCHEZ ANGEL VIRGILIO DOMINGUEZ MAY MIGUEL ANGEL KEB LLANES TOMAS AUGUSTO GONZALEZ ESTRADA YURI JORGE JESUS PEÑA RAMIREZ (2010)

A very efficient system for direct plant regeneration from in vitro-derived leaf explants of Solanum americanum was developed. S. americanum is a tropical plant with important medical properties. The in vitro procedure that was established consists of (i) induction of shoots from leaf tissue, (ii) elongation of shoots, and (iii) rooting of plantlets. The induction of shoots was achieved on Murashige and Skoog solid medium supplemented with different combinations of zeatin riboside and 1-naphthalene acetic acid or 6-benzylaminopurine and 1-naphthalene acetic acid. The best combination for plant regeneration was MS with 5.7 μM zeatin riboside and 0.11 μM 1-naphthalene acetic acid. In the second step, the shoot clumps were transferred to MS basal medium without plant growth regulators, resulting in the differentiation of most of the shoot initials into well developed shoots. In the third stage, plantlets were efficiently rooted on half-strength MS basal medium supplemented with 58.5 mM sucrose. The rooted plants were established in soil with a 100% success rate. This system can be useful to perform further experiments to obtain transgenic plants of this species as well as for other biotechnological approaches. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Article

1-NAPHTHALENE ACETIC ACID AMERICAN NIGHTSHADE IN VITRO CULTURE MEDICINAL PLANT SPECIES ORGANOGENESIS SHOOTS REGENERATION ZEATIN RIBOSIDE BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Overexpression of AtGRDP2, a novel glycine-rich domain protein, accelerates plant growth and improves stress tolerance

MARIA AZUCENA ORTEGA AMARO AIDA ARACELI RODRIGUEZ HERNANDEZ MARGARITA RODRIGUEZ Y DOMINGUEZ KESSLER ELOISA HERNANDEZ LUCERO SERGIO ROSALES MENDOZA ALEJANDRO IBAÑEZ SALAZAR PABLO DELGADO SANCHEZ JUAN FRANCISCO JIMENEZ BREMONT (2015)

"Proteins with glycine-rich signatures have been reported in a wide variety of organisms including plants, mammalians, fungi, and bacteria. Plant glycine-rich protein genes exhibit developmental and tissue-specific expression patterns. Herein, we present the characterization of the AtGRDP2 gene using Arabidopsis null and knockdown mutants and, Arabidopsis and lettuce over-expression lines. AtGRDP2 encodes a short glycine-rich domain protein, containing a DUF1399 domain and a putative RNA recognition motif (RRM). AtGRDP2 transcript is mainly expressed in Arabidopsis floral organs, and its deregulation in Arabidopsis Atgrdp2 mutants and 35S::AtGRDP2 over-expression lines produces alterations in development. The 35S::AtGRDP2 over-expression lines grow faster than the WT, while the Atgrdp2 mutants have a delay in growth and development. The over-expression lines accumulate higher levels of indole-3-acetic acid and, have alterations in the expression pattern of ARF6, ARF8, and miR167 regulators of floral development and auxin signaling. Under salt stress conditions, 35S::AtGRDP2 over-expression lines displayed higher tolerance and increased expression of stress marker genes. Likewise, transgenic lettuce plants over-expressing the AtGRDP2 gene manifest increased growth rate and early flowering time. Our data reveal an important role for AtGRDP2 in Arabidopsis development and stress response, and suggest a connection between AtGRDP2 and auxin signaling."

Article

Glycine-rich domain protein Arabidopsis thaliana Lactuca sativa Development Indole-3-acetic acid Salt stress BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA

Environmental growth conditions of Trichoderma spp. affects indole acetic acid derivatives, volatile organic compounds, and plant growth promotion

MARIA FERNANDA NIETO JACOBO Johanna Steyaert Fatima Berenice Salazar Badillo Dianne Vi Nguyen Michael Rostás Mark Braithwaite Jorge T. De Souza JUAN FRANCISCO JIMENEZ BREMONT Mana Ohkura Alison Stewart Artemio Mendoza Mendoza (2017)

"Trichoderma species are soil-borne filamentous fungi widely utilized for their many plant health benefits, such as conferring improved growth, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance to their hosts. Many Trichoderma species are able to produce the auxin phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and its production has been suggested to promote root growth. Here we show that the production of IAA is strain dependent and diverse external stimuli are associated with its production. In in vitro assays, Arabidopsis primary root length was negatively affected by the interaction with some Trichoderma strains. In soil experiments, a continuum effect on plant growth was shown and this was also strain dependent. In plate assays, some strains of Trichoderma spp. inhibited the expression of the auxin reporter gene DR5 in Arabidopsis primary roots but not secondary roots. When Trichoderma spp. and A. thaliana were physically separated, enhancement of both shoot and root biomass, increased root production and chlorophyll content were observed, which strongly suggested that volatile production by the fungus influenced the parameters analyzed. Trichoderma strains T. virens Gv29.8, T. atroviride IMI206040, T. sp. "atroviride B" LU132, and T. asperellum LU1370 were demonstrated to promote plant growth through volatile production. However, contrasting differences were observed with LU1370 which had a negative effect on plant growth in soil but a positive effect in plate assays. Altogether our results suggest that the mechanisms and molecules involved in plant growth promotion by Trichoderma spp. are multivariable and are affected by the environmental conditions."

Article

Trichoderma Auxins 3-indole-acetic acid Plant growth promotion Volatile organic compounds 6-PP BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR

Potencial biotecnológico de bacterias de la rizósfera de maíz y asociadas a Melipona beecheii.

ÁNGEL MENA GARCÍA (2020)

Tesis (Maestría en Ciencias, especialista en Edafología).- Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, 2020.

Las bacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal son un grupo de microorganismos benéficos que favorecen el desarrollo de las plantas y que, en los últimos años, se han utilizado en la agricultura para la producción más amigable con el ambiente. La fuente de obtención de estas bacterias es el suelo y, específicamente, la rizosfera; pero pueden tener otros orígenes. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en evaluar el potencial biotecnológico de bacterias de la rizosfera de maíz y asociadas a la abeja sin aguijón, Melipona beecheii. Se aislaron bacterias y se determinó la capacidad de fijar N atmosférico, solubilizar fosfatos y producir indoles y sideróforos. Las cepas seleccionadas aisladas de maíz y de M. beecheii se inocularon en maíz y lechuga cv. Parris island en condiciones de invernadero. Además, se determinó la inducción de la germinación in vitro en semillas de lechuga. Por último, se comparó el efecto de tres cepas y sus filtrados en la promoción del crecimiento de maíz cultivado in vitro. En total, se aislaron 21 cepas de la rizosfera de maíz y 26 de la abeja M. beecheii. En invernadero, con maíz hubo un incremento en el desarrollo radical de las plantas que se inocularon con la cepa NF4, PM9, AI2 y AI8. Las bacterias asociadas a M. beecheii resultaron más eficientes en el crecimiento de lechuga que las provenientes de la rizosfera de maíz. El peso fresco, peso seco aéreo y área foliar de plantas de lechuga mejoró por la inoculación bacteriana, ya que incrementó el peso fresco hasta 61% y el área foliar hasta 58%, mientras que en la germinación no hubo efectos. Los filtrados de cultivos bacterianos promovieron más el peso seco radical en comparación con las bacterias inoculadas a maíz in vitro. Por lo anterior, se concluyó que las bacterias presentes en abejas sin aguijón, M. beecheii, tienen un uso biotecnológico agrícola potencial que debe ser considerado en la generación de biofertilizantes. _______________ BIOTECHNOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF CORN-RHIZOSPHERE AND Melipona beecheii-ASSOCIATED BACTERIA. ABSTRACT: Plant growth promoting bacteria are a group of beneficial microorganisms which help plant development and that, in last years, have been used in agriculture for more environmentally friendly production. The origin of these, is the soil and in specific, the rhizosphere, but they may be obtained from another places. Objective of this investigation was to evaluate the biotechnological potential of corn rhizosphere bacteria and bacteria associated with the stingless bee, Melipona beecheii. Bacteria were isolated from corn rhizosphere and the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce indol acetic acid and siderophore were determined. Selected isolates strains from corn and M. beecheii were inoculated on Corn and Lettuce cv. Parris Island under Greenhouse conditions. Furthermore, induction of Lettuce germination in vitro was tested. Finally, the effect of three strains and their filtrates were compared on the growth promotion of corn in vitro. In total, 21 strains from corn rhizosphere and 26 from M. beecheii were isolated. Under Greenhouse, corn plants increased the root development when were inoculated with the NF4, PM9, AI2 and AI8 strains. Bacteria associated with M.beecheii were more effective than corn rhizosphere bacteria on Lettuce growth. Fresh weight, shoot dry weight and leaf area of lettuce plants were enhanced by bacterial inoculation, inasmuch as fresh weight was increased up to 61% and leaf area up to 58% when the lettuce plants were inoculated, while there were no effects on seed germination. In vitro corn plants inoculated with bacterial culture filtrates showed a maximum increase in root dry weight compared to cell inoculated plants. Therefore, it was concluded that the bacteria present in stingless bee, M. beecheii, have agricultural biotechnological potential that must be considered on biofertilizers production.

Master thesis

Filtrados bacterianos Ácido indol acético Fijación de nitrógeno Lechuga Maíz Bacterial culture filtrates Indole acetic acid Nitrogen fixation Lettuce Corn Edafología Maestría CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS AGRONOMÍA SEMILLAS

Propagación vegetativa de cuatro especies forestales utilizando un propagador de subirrigación

GUSTAVO SANCHEZ OCAÑA (2011)

Tesis (Maestría en Ciencias, especialista en Producción Agroalimentaria en el Trópico).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2011.

La investigación se realizó en las instalaciones del Campus Tabasco del Colegio de Postgraduados localizado en H. Cárdenas Tabasco, entre las coordenadas 17° 38̓ 15.1ˮ de LN y 92° 55̓ 48.2ˮ LO. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron determinar el tamaño adecuado de estaca y la dosis óptima de ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB) para el enraizamiento de cedro (Cedrela odorata L.), caoba (Swietenia macrophylla King), macuilís (Tabebuia rosea Bertol) y guayacán (Tabebuia chrysantha) (Jacq.) Nicholson. El experimento se realizó en un propagador de subirrigación durante 45 días. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones y 20 estacas por repetición. El experimento fue de tipo factorial 3 X 4, y se evaluaron el tamaño de estaca (5, 8 y 11 cm) y dosis de AIB (0, 500, 1000 y 1500 ppm). Se obtuvo un total de 12 tratamientos. Las variables evaluadas fueron: Sobrevivencia, formación de callos, número, longitud y diámetro de raíz, porcentaje de sobrevivencia y enraizamiento. Las estacas de cedro y guayacán no sobrevivieron en ningún tratamiento. De acuerdo al análisis de varianza y a la prueba de Tukey (p >0.05) el tamaño de 11 cm de estaca en la especie macuilís promovió mayor formación de callo en el testigo (86.25%). En la caoba, la dosis de 1000 ppm de AIB fue la que promovió un mayor porcentaje de enraizamiento (21.4%) aunque el tamaño de estaca no mostro diferencia estadística significativa para ninguna de las variables evaluadas. _______________ VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION OF FOUR FOREST SPECIES BY USING A SUBIRRIGATION PROPAGATOR. ABSTRACT: This research was conducted on the Colegio de Postgraduados Campus Tabasco located in H. Cárdenas Tabasco at 17̊ 38´ 15.1ˮ LN and 92̊ 55 48.2" LW. The objectives were to determine the appropriate cutting size and the optimal dose of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for rooting of: Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata L.), mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King), macuilís (Tabebuia rosea Bertol) and guayacán (Tabebuia chrysantha) (Jacq.) Nicholson. The experiments were performed in a subirrigation propagator during 45 days.

A completely randomized design with four replications and 20 cuttings per replication in a 3x4 factorial arrangement was used. Cutting size (5, 8 and 11 cm) and doses of IBA (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm) were the factors and levels evaluated for a total of 12 treatments. The variables evaluated were: survival, callus formation, number, length and diameter of root and rooting percentage. Spanish cedar and guayacán cuttings died in all treatments during the two first weeks. According to the analysis of variance and Tukey test, (p> 0.05) cuttings of 8 cm size establish more callus formation at all doses of IBA on macuilís species. Analysis of variance indicated a high statistical significance (p> 0.0001) the size of the stake, the dose and the interaction for the percentage of rooting on mahogany, the dose of 1000 ppm of IBA promoted a more rooting percentage; however the size did not show statistical significant difference in all the evaluated variables.

Master thesis

Ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB) Enraizamiento Estacas Especies forestales tropicales Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) Rooting Cuttings Tropical timber species Maestría Producción Agroalimentaria en el Trópico CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Serotonin and 5-hydroxy-indole-acetic acid contents in dorsal raphe and suprachiasmatic nuclei in normal, malnourished and rehabilitated rats under 24 h of sleep deprivation.

ALFONSO BENITO ALFARO RODRIGUEZ RIGOBERTO GONZALEZ PIÑA ANGELICA GONZALEZ MACIEL EMILIO ARCH TIRADO (2006)

It has been discussed that serotonin (5-HT) could be involved in the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) and/or malnutrition (M) on the sleep-wake cycle. The aim of this work was to study the effects of the M, SD and its interaction on 5-HT and 5-hydroxy-indole-acetic acid (5-HIAA) contents in the dorsal raphe (DR) and the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), two sleep-wake cycle regulators. Forty-eight puppets rats were obtained from mothers fed with low or normal casein diet. They were allocated in 3 groups (n = 16 each): prenatal/postnatal casein malnutrition (6/6%), prenatal casein malnutrition/nutritional casein rehabilitation (6/25%) and prenatal/postnatal casein well-nourished state (25/25%). When rats were 60 days old, 24 animals were exposed to sleep deprivation by means of forced locomotion during 24 h. The remaining 24 were kept under normal conditions of sleep-wake cycle. Then, all animals were sacrificed by decapitation. DR and SCN were dissected and processed to determine the 5-HT and 5-HIAA contents by means of HPLC. It was observed that 6/6% rats showed a 5-HT increase (DR p < 0.011; SCN p < 0.019) as well as in SD (DR p < 0.0008; SCN p < 0.0009) with respect to 25/25% rats. No differences were found in 6/25% rats. Therefore, 5-HIAA decreased significantly in both nuclei in all the groups, notably in M + SD animals (DR p < 0.001; SCN p < 0.001). We conclude that the sleep-wake cycle disruptions produced by chronic M and SD are mediated in part by a synergistic effect on 5-HT in the DR-SCN pathway, perhaps due to a delay in the development of such brain structures. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Article

MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD Conducta animal - Ratas Cromatografía líquida de alta presión - Métodos - Ratas Ácido hidroxiindolacético - Metabolismo - Ratas Desnutrición - Metabolismo - Ratas Desnutrición - Patología - Ratas Desnutrición - Rehabilitación - Ratas Núcleos del rafe - Metabolismo - Ratas Sprague - Dawley - Ratas Serotonina - Metabolismo - Ratas Privación de sueño - Metabolismo - Ratas Núcleo supraquiasmático - Metabolismo - Ratas Behavior, animal - Rats Chromatography, high pressure liquid - Methods - Rats Hydroxyindoleacetic acid - Metabolism - Rats Malnutrition - Metabolism - Rats Malnutrition - Pathology - Rats Malnutrition - Rehabilitation - Rats Raphe nuclei metabolism - Rats Serotonin - Metabolism - Rats Sleep deprivation - Metabolism - Rats Suprachiasmatic nucleus - Metabolism - Rats Serotonina Acido 5-Hidroxi-Indol-Acético Dorsal núcleos del rafe Núcleo supraquiasmático Privación del sueño, ratas Serotonin 5-Hydroxy-Indole-Acetic Acid

The PQQ-alcohol dehydrogenase of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus.

SAUL GOMEZ MANZO MARTHA LUCINDA CONTRERAS ZENTELLA ALEJANDRA ABIGAIL GONZALEZ VALDEZ MARTHA ELENA SOSA TORRES ROBERTO ALEJANDRO ARREGUIN ESPINOSA DE LOS MONTEROS JOSE EDGARDO ESCAMILLA MARVAN (2008)

La oxidación del etanol en ácido acético es el proceso más característico en las bacterias del ácido acético. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus es bastante único entre las bacterias del ácido acético, ya que lleva a cabo la fijación de nitrógeno y es un verdadero endofito, originalmente aislado de la caña de azúcar. Aparte de su peculiar estilo de vida, Ga. Diazotrophicus, posee un sistema constitutivo de la oxidasa ligada a la membrana para etanol. El complejo de alcohol deshidrogenasa (ADH) de Ga. Diazotrophicus se purificó hasta homogeneidad a partir de la fracción de membrana. Exponía dos subunidades con masas moleculares de 71,4 kDa y 43,5 kDa. Una reacción positiva a la peroxidasa confirmó la presencia de citocromo c en ambas subunidades. La pirroloquinolina quinona (PQQ) de ADH se identificó mediante luz UV-visible y espectroscopia de fluorescencia. La enzima se purificó en su estado completo reducido; El ferricianuro de potasio indujo su oxidación. El etanol o el acetaldehído restauraron el estado reducido completo. La enzima mostró un punto isoeléctrico (pI) de 6,1 y su pH óptimo fue de 6,0. Tanto el etanol como el acetaldehído se oxidaron casi a la misma velocidad, lo que sugiere que el complejo ADH de Ga. Diazotrophicus podría ser cinéticamente competente para catalizar, al menos in vitro, la doble oxidación de etanol en ácido acético.

The oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid is the most characteristic process in acetic acid bacteria. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is rather unique among the acetic acid bacteria as it carries out nitrogen fixation and is a true endophyte, originally isolated from sugar cane. Aside its peculiar life style, Ga. diazotrophicus, possesses a constitutive membrane-bound oxidase system for ethanol. The Alcohol dehydrogenase complex (ADH) of Ga. diazotrophicus was purified to homogeneity from the membrane fraction. It-exhibited two subunits with molecular masses of 71.4 kDa and 43.5 kDa. A positive peroxidase reaction confirmed the presence of cytochrome c in both subunits. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) of ADH was identified by UV-visible light and fluorescence spectroscopy. The enzyme was purified in its full reduced state; potassium ferricyanide induced its oxidation. Ethanol or acetaldehyde restored the full reduced state. The enzyme showed an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.1 and its optimal pH was 6.0. Both ethanol and acetaldehyde were oxidized at almost the same rate, thus suggesting that the ADH complex of Ga. diazotrophicus could be kinetically competent to catalyze, at least in vitro, the double oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid.

Article

MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD Ácido acético - Metabolismo Gluconacetobacter - Enzimología Nitrógeno - Metabolismo Cofactor PQQ - Metabolismo Acetic acid - Metabolism Gluconacetobacter - Enzymology Nitrogen - Metabolism PQQ cofactor - Metabolism Diazotrophicus Alcohol deshidrogenasa PQQ Citocromo Sistema respiratorio Alcohol dehydrogenase Cytochrome Respiratory system

Flourensia cernua: Hexane extracts a very active mycobactericidal fraction from an inactive leaf decoction against pansensitive and panresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

GLORIA MARIA MOLINA SALINAS Luis Manuel Peña Rodríguez BENITO DAVID MATA CARDENAS Fabiola Escalante Erosa DIMNA SILVIA GONZALEZ HERNANDEZ VICTOR MANUEL TORRES DE LA CRUZ HERMINIA GUADALUPE MARTINEZ RODRIGUEZ Salvador Said_Fernández (2011)

The efficacy of decoction in extracting mycobactericidal compounds from Flourensia cernua (Hojasé) leaves and fractionation with solvents having ascending polarity was compared with that of (i) ethanol extraction by still maceration, extraction with a Soxhlet device, shake-assisted maceration, or ultrasound-assisted maceration, followed by fractionation with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol; (ii) sequential extraction with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol, by still maceration, using a Soxhlet device, shake-assisted maceration, or ultrasound-assisted maceration. The in vitro mycobactericidal activity of each preparation was measured against drug-sensitive (SMtb) and drug-resistant (RMtb) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. The results of which were expressed as absolute mycobactericidal activity (AMA). These data were normalized to the ΣAMA of the decoction fraction set. Although decoction was inactive, the anti-RMtb normalized ΣAMA (NAMA) of its fractions was comparable with the anti-RMtb NAMA of the still maceration extracts and significantly higher than the anti-SMtb and anti-RMtb NAMAs of every other ethanol extract and serial extract and fraction. Hexane extracted, from decoction, material having 55.17% and 92.62% of antituberculosis activity against SMtb and RMtb, respectively. Although the mycobactericidal activity of decoction is undetectable; its efficacy in extracting F. cernua active metabolites against M. tuberculosis is substantially greater than almost all pharmacognostic methods.

Article

ACETIC ACID ETHYL ESTER ALCOHOL BUTANOL FLOURENSIA CERNUA DECOCTION HEXANE SOLVENT UNCLASSIFIED DRUG BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA QUÍMICA BIOQUÍMICA ALCALOIDES ALCALOIDES