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ANALISIS DE LA DISTRIBUCION ESPACIAL DEL ESFUERZO PESQUERO DE LA FLOTA CAMARONERA MEXICANA EN EL GOLFO DE MEXICO Y EL MAR CARIBE POR MEDIO DEL SISTEMA SATELITAL DE MONITOREO DE EMBARCACIONES

ARMANDO TOYOKAZU WAKIDA KUSUNOKI FRANCISCO ARREGUIN SANCHEZ ALEJANDRO GONZALEZ CRUZ JESUS TRINIDAD PONCE PALAFOX (2010)

Spatial and temporal distribution of fishing effort of Mexican shrimp fleet during 2005/2006 fishing season were analyzed. The information comes from Fishing Vessels Monitoring Satellite System (ssmep in spanish) of the National Commission for Fisheries and Aquaculture (conapesca in spanish). Analysis information show that: a) fishing effort is distributed in two zones principally: the Northwest of the Gulf of Mexico and the Campeche Sound; b) the fishing area where more fishing effort is applied is the northern coast of Tamaulipas; c) the distribution of fishing effort of the shrimp fleet is influenced by the opening dates of the season fishing in different fishing areas, and d) information that comes from Satellite System Fishing Vessels Monitoring is useful to understand the spatial and temporal distribution of fishing effort made by the shrimp fleet in the Mexican coast in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea.

Se analizaron la distribución espacial y la temporal del esfuerzo de pesca durante la temporada 2005/2006 que desarrolló la flota camaronera mexicana del Golfo de México y del mar Caribe. La información proviene del Sistema Satelital de Monitoreo de Embarcaciones Pesqueras (ssmep), proporcionada por la Comisión Nacional de la Pesca y Acuacultura (conapesca). El análisis de la información muestra que: a) el esfuerzo pesquero se distribuye principalmente en dos grandes zonas: el noroeste del Golfo de México y la Sonda de Campeche; b) la zona de pesca donde se aplica mayor esfuerzo es en la costa norte de Tamaulipas; c) la distribución del esfuerzo pesquero de la flota camaronera está influenciada por las fechas de apertura de la temporada de pesca en las diferentes zonas y d) la información que proviene del sistema satelital de monitoreo de embarcaciones pesqueras es útil para conocer la distribución tanto espacial como temporal del esfuerzo pesquero efectuado por la flota camaronera en las costas mexicanas en el Golfo de México y el mar Caribe.

Article

Esfuerzo pesquero flota camaronera Golfo de México sistema de monitoreo de embarcaciones Fishing effort shrimp fleet, México vessel monitoring system BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Immediate water quality assessment in shrimp culture using fuzzy inference systems

José Juan Carbajal Hernández LUIS PASTOR SANCHEZ FERNANDEZ Jesús Ariel Carrasco Ochoa José Francisco Martínez Trinidad (2012)

The continuous monitoring of physical, chemical and biological parameters in shrimp culture is an important activity for detecting potential crisis that can be harmful for the organisms. Water quality can be assessed through toxicological tests evaluated directly from water quality parameters involved in the ecosystem; these tests provide an indicator about the water quality. The aim of this study is to develop a fuzzy inference system based on a reasoning process, which involves aquaculture criteria established by official organizations and researchers for assessing water quality by analyzing the main factors that affect a shrimp ecosystem. We propose to organize the water quality parameters in groups according to their importance; these groups are defined as daily, weekly and by request monitoring. Additionally, we introduce an analytic hierarchy process to define priorities for more critical water quality parameters and groups. The proposed system analyzes the most important parameters in shrimp culture, detects potential negative situations and provides a new water quality index (WQI), which describes the general status of the water quality as excellent, good, regular and poor. The Canadian water quality and other well-known hydrological indices are used to compare the water quality parameters of the shrimp water farm. Results show that WQI index has a better performance than other indices giving a more accurate assessment because the proposed fuzzy inference system integrates all environmental behaviors giving as result a complete score. This fuzzy inference system emerges as an appropriated tool for assessing site performance, providing assistance to improve production through contingency actions in polluted ponds.

Article

Aquaculture Fuzzy inference system Analytic hierarchy process Shrimp CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA MATEMÁTICAS CIENCIA DE LOS ORDENADORES CIENCIA DE LOS ORDENADORES

Efecto de las hormonas hiperglucémicas de crustáceos recombinantes CHH-B1 y CHH-B2 de Litopenaeus vannamei en los niveles de glucosa, triglicéridos, proteínas y osmorregulación

Effect of recombinant crustacean hyperglycemic hormones CHH-B1 and CHH-B2 of Litopenaeus vannamei on levels of glucose, triglycerides, proteins and osmoregulation

LAURA CAMACHO JIMENEZ (2016)

Las hormonas hiperglucémicas de crustáceos (CHHs) son neurohormonas que regulan diversos procesos fisiológicos en crustáceos. Los péptidos CHH-B1 y CHH-B2 del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei son isoformas originadas por corte y empalme alternativo del gen chhB, las cuales difieren en secuencia sobretodo en el extremo Cterminal, donde CHH-B1 tiene un aminoácido libre (péptido CHH-L) y CHH-B2 tiene un grupo amida (péptido CHH). Para estudiar las funciones de estos péptidos en la modulación de algunas respuestas metabólicas y de osmorregulación en L. vannamei, CHH-B1 y CHH-B2 se expresaron de manera recombinante (rCHH-B1 y rCHH-B2) con una secuencia idéntica a los péptidos maduros nativos en la levadura Pichia pastoris. Ambas hormonas fueron purificadas por RP-HPLC e identificadas mediante secuenciación N-terminal e inmunodetección utilizando un anticuerpo con capacidad de reconocimiento dentro de la región conservada. El péptido rCHH-B2 además fue amidado in vitro para estudiar el efecto de la amidación sobre su actividad biológica. Para evaluar las propiedades, secuencias y estructuras de los péptidos se hicieron análisis predictivos con herramientas bioinformáticas y experimentales por espectroscopia. Los análisis de secuencias sugieren que ambas hormonas difieren en sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y que la región C-terminal es altamente variable no solo entre las isoformas de L. vannamei sino con respecto a otros péptidos CHH/CHH-L de otras especies, por lo cual podrían presentar diferencias funcionales entre sí y con las isoformas de otros crustáceos. La estructura secundaria de las rCHHs se analizó experimentalmente por espectroscopía FTIR, determinándose que rCHH-B2 tiene un mayor contenido de hélices alfa que rCHHB1 lo que coincidió con la predicción in silico de estructura secundaria y modelado tridimensional por homología. La actividad de ambas hormonas recombinantes sobre los niveles de glucosa, triglicéridos, proteínas y osmorregulación se evaluó in vivo. En experimentos con camarones ablacionados bilateralmente, ambas isoformas presentaron actividad hiperglucémica alta dependiente de la dosis de hormona. rCHH-B1 confirmó ser un péptido CHH-L con actividad hiperglucémica significativa contrario a lo observado en otras especies. Por otro lado, ambas isoformas fueron capaces de elevar la concentración de triglicéridos en la hemolinfa, observándose un efecto dosis-dependiente con rCHHB2.

The crustacean hyperglycemic hormones (CHHs) are neurohormones that regulate diverse physiological processes in crustaceans. The CHH-B1 and CHH-B2 peptides of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei are isoforms originated by alternative splicing of chhB gene, which differ in sequence especially at C-terminal region, where CHH-B1 has a free amino acid (CHH-L peptide) and CHH-B2 an amide group (CHH peptide). To study the function of these peptides in modulation of some metabolic and osmoregulation responses in L. vannamei, CHH-B1 and CHH-B2 were recombinant expressed (rCHH-B1 and rCHH-B2) with a sequence identical to native mature hormones in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Both hormones were purified by RP-HPLC and identified by N-terminal sequencing and immunodetection by using an antibody with recognition capacity inside the conserved region. The peptide rCHH-B2 was also α-amidated in vitro to study the effect of amidation on its biological activity. To evaluate properties, sequences and structures of peptides, predictive analyses were performed with bioinformatics tools and by spectroscopy. Sequence analyses revealed that both hormones differ in their physicochemical properties and the C-terminus region is highly variable not only among the L. vannamei isoforms, but with respect to other CHH/CHH-L peptides of other species. This suggests that both peptides may differ each other in terms of structure and activity, and also with respect to CHH/CHH-L peptides from other species, which may result in functional differences between these peptides and with other crustacean isoforms. The secondary structure of rCHHs was experimentally analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy, which determined that rCHH-B2 has a higher contain of alpha helix than rCHH-B1 matching with in silico prediction of secondary structure and three-dimensional homology modelling. The activity of both recombinant hormones on levels of glucose, triglycerides, proteins and osmoregulation was evaluated in vivo. In experiments with bilaterally eyestalk ablated shrimp, both isoforms showed high dose-dependant hyperglycemic activity. rCHH-B1 confirmed to be a CHH-L peptide with significant hyperglycemic activity in contrast to experiments in other species. On the other hand, both isoforms were able to rise the triglyceride concentration in hemolymph, finding a dose-dependant effect with rCHH-B2.

Doctoral thesis

CHH Camarón Proteína recombinante Neurohormona Metabolismo Osmorregulación Shrimp Recombinant protein Neurohormone Metabolism Osmoregulation BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA

Estudio de factibilidad para la implementación de una red de valor de quitosano extraído de Penaeus vannamer, opción de desarrollo económico y sustentable

MARISOL CADEZA ESPINOSA (2014)

Tesis (Maestría en Ciencias, especialista en Economía).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2014.

La producción total de camarón (Peaneus vannamei) en México fue 212 703 toneladas. Se estima que 40% se convierte en desperdicio orgánico. La optimización de una cadena productiva conlleva la minimización de los costos y la maximización de los insumos. Por ello el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar en forma tradicional la factibilidad de producir camarón y agregarle una opción real tomando en cuenta la posibilidad de producir quitina para extraer quitosano de la cáscara del camarón. El quitosano es un biopolímero de alto valor en el mercado químico-industrial. La estimación del Valor Actual Neto Total (VANTOTAL) y las ecuaciones de Black-Scholes y Merton para la estimación de las opciones reales fueron utilizadas en la determinación de la factibilidad del proyecto. Se encontró que el VAN de la producción de camarón es $0.182 millones, en contraste con el VAN de la extracción de quitina que es $1.727 millones, sin embargo el VANTOTAL de optar por la producción de camarón y agregarle una opción real tomando en cuenta producir quitosano es $42.708 millones, con lo que se concluye que la opción de producir quitosano y camarón es 234 veces más rentable con respecto a sólo producir camarón. _______________ FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A VALUE NETWORK OF CHITOSAN EXTRACTED FROM PENAEUS VANNAMEI; OPTION FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABLE. ABSTRACT: The total production of shrimp (Peaneus vannamei) in Mexico was 212,703 tonnes. An estimated that 40% is converted into organic waste. Optimizing a supply chain involves the minimization of costs and maximization of inputs. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility traditionally produce shrimp and add a real option considering the possibility of producing chitosan to remove shell shrimp. Chitosan is a biopolymer of high value in the chemical-industrial market. Estimating the Total Net Present Value (NPVTOTAL) and the equations of Black-Scholes and Merton for the estimation of real options were used in determining project feasibility. It was found that the NPV of shrimp production is $0.182 million in contrast to the NPV of extracting chitosan is $1.727 million, however the NPVTOTAL of opt for shrimp production and add a real option considering producing chitosan is $42.708 million, which it is concluded that the option of producing chitosan and shrimp is 233 times more profitable compared to only produce shrimp.

Master thesis

Camarón Optimización Quitosano Valor actual neto Opción real Shrimp Optimization Chitosan Net present value Real option Economía Maestría CIENCIAS SOCIALES

EL DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE DE LA ACUICULTURA EN AMERICA LATINA

JESUS TRINIDAD PONCE PALAFOX SERGIO GUSTAVO CASTILLO VARGASMACHUCA Manuel García Ulloa Gómez (2006)

Latin America and the Caribbean have experienced a quick expansion in their aquatic production (16.4 annual% during the decade the 90). The present work has the purpose to make an analysis of the situation the region and to determine its perspectives according to the current behavior gives the industry. Chile presents the quickest growth in the region with an annual growth 20%.The aquatic production concentrates mainly on the salmon in Chile and in the marine shrimps in the Ecuador, Mexico, Honduras, Colombia, Peru, Panama and Belize, these products are mainly for the export. The cultivation the tilapia in Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico and Jamaica has the highest rate of growth in the region and 50% is exported. Carp production it is important in Brazil, Cuba and Mexico. The native fish that more has increased his production is the Colossoma spp in Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. But also, it owes to revalue the aquaculture subsistence and commercial low as a national strategy to generate direct and indirect employments to the excluded areas, to contribute to the production protein high nutritional and to diminish the poverty.

América Latina y el Caribe han experimentado una rápida expansión en su producción acuícola (16.4% anual durante la década de los 90). El presente trabajo tiene la finalidad de hacer un análisis de la situación de la región y determinar sus perspectivas de acuerdo al comportamiento actual de la industria. Chile presenta el crecimiento más rápido en la región con un crecimiento anual de casi 20%. La producción acuícola se concentra en los salmónidos principalmente en Chile y en los camarones marinos en el Ecuador, México, Honduras, Colombia, Peru, Panamá y Belice, estos productos son principalmente para la exportación. El cultivo de la tilapia en Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, México y Jamaica tiene la tasa de crecimiento más alta en la región y se exporta el 50%. La producción de carpa es importante en Brasil, Cuba y México. El pez nativo que más ha aumentado su producción es el Colossoma spp en Brasil, Colombia y Venezuela.. Pero también, se debe de revalorar la acuicultura de subsistencia y semicomercial como una estrategia nacional para generar empleos directos e indirecto a las zonas marginadas, contribuir a la producción de proteína de alto valor nutricional y disminuir la pobreza.

Article

Acuicultura en América Latina cultivo camarón salmón tilapia y carpa Latin American aquaculture shrimp salmon tilapia and carp culture BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

A BIO-ECONOMIC APPROACH TO ANALYZE THE ROLE OF ALTERNATIVE SEEDING-HARVESTING SCHEDULES, WATER QUALITY, STOCKING DENSITY AND DURATION OF CULTIVATION IN SEMI-INTENSIVE PRODUCTION OF SHRIMP IN MEXICO

Margarita Estrada Pérez Javier Marcial de Jesús Ruiz Velasco Arce OSCAR IRAM ZAVALA LEAL Alfredo Hernández Llamas (2015)

We used a bio-economic model to analyze the role that alternative seeding-harvesting schedules, temperature, dissolved oxygen, stocking density, and duration of cultivation play in the economic performance of semi-intensive shrimp cultivation in Mexico. The highest production was predicted for the May-August schedule (1130-2300 kg ha-1 ), while the lowest yields were obtained for the March-June schedule (949-1300 kg ha-1 ). The highest net revenues were projected for the August-November schedule (US$354-1444 ha-1 ), while the lowest was projected for the May-August schedule (US$330-923 ha-1 ). The highest annual net revenues were predicted for the combination of the March-June and August-November schedules (US$1432-2562 ha-1 ). Sensitivity analysis indicated temperature and dissolved oxygen were the most important factors determining net revenues in March-June schedule. For the May-August and August-November schedules, stocking density was the most important factor. Duration of cultivation was the least sensitive variable. Break-even production analysis confirmed that the combination of the March-June and August-November schedules were more efficient from an economic perspective. We recommend test some ponds with higher stocking density in the March-June and August-November schedules, and in the latter case, seeding in June or July rather than August.

Se utilizó un modelo bio-económico para analizar el papel de programas de siembra-cosecha alternativos, temperatura, oxígeno disuelto, densidad de siembra y duración del cultivo en el desempeño económico del cultivo semi-intensivo de camarón en México. La mayor producción se predijo para el programa mayo-agosto (1130-2300 kg ha-1 ), mientras que los rendimientos más bajos se obtuvieron con el programa marzo-junio (949-1300 kg ha-1 ). Los mayores ingresos netos se proyectaron para el programa agosto-noviembre (US$354-1444 ha-1 ), mientras que los menores se proyectaron para el programa mayo-agosto (US$330-923 ha-1 ). El ingreso neto anual más alto se predijo para la combinación de los programas marzo-junio y agosto-noviembre (US$1432-2562 ha-1 ). Un análisis de sensibilidad indicó que la temperatura y oxígeno disuelto fueron los factores más importantes en determinar los ingresos netos en el programa marzo-junio. Para los programas de mayo-agosto y agosto-noviembre la densidad de siembra fue el factor más importante. La duración del cultivo fue la variable menos sensible. El análisis de la producción en el equilibrio confirmó que la combinación de los programas marzo-junio y agosto-noviembre fue más eficiente desde una perspectiva económica. Se recomienda ensayar estanques con mayores densidades de siembra en los programas de marzo-junio y agosto-noviembre, y en el último caso, sembrar en junio o julio, en vez de agosto.

Article

Bio-economics Shrimp Seeding Harvesting Water quality Aquaculture Bio-economía Camarón Siembra Cosecha Calidad del agua Acuicultura CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Two Mexican Coastal Fisheries: Implications for Food Security

ALONSO AGUILAR IBARRA ARMANDO SANCHEZ VARGAS BENJAMIN MARTINEZ LOPEZ (2013)

This paper has a twofold objective: First, to estimate the changes in landings value by 2030 for two Mexican coastal fisheries, specifically shrimp and sardine fisheries, as a consequence of climate change; and second, to discuss the implications of such impacts for food security. A dynamic panel model was used for the Mexican fisheries sector, with data from 1990 through 2009. The results suggest that shrimp production will be negatively affected, while in contrast, the sardine fishery is expected to benefit from the increase in temperature. Most losses/gains would be observed in the NW Mexican Pacific, where the fishing sector has an important role in the local economy, representing a risk to food security in both direct and indirect ways.

Article

CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Monetary estimation climate change Mexico shrimp fishery sardine fishery food security

Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Two Mexican Coastal Fisheries: Implications for Food Security

ALONSO AGUILAR IBARRA ARMANDO SANCHEZ VARGAS BENJAMIN MARTINEZ LOPEZ (2013)

This paper has a twofold objective: First, to estimate the changes in landings value by 2030 for two Mexican coastal fisheries, specifically shrimp and sardine fisheries, as a consequence of climate change; and second, to discuss the implications of such impacts for food security. A dynamic panel model was used for the Mexican fisheries sector, with data from 1990 through 2009. The results suggest that shrimp production will be negatively affected, while in contrast, the sardine fishery is expected to benefit from the increase in temperature. Most losses/gains would be observed in the NW Mexican Pacific, where the fishing sector has an important role in the local economy, representing a risk to food security in both direct and indirect ways.

Article

CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Monetary estimation climate change Mexico shrimp fishery sardine fishery food security

Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds

RAMON HECTOR BARRAZA GUARDADO JOSE ALFREDO ARREOLA LIZARRAGA Anselmo Miranda-Baeza MANUEL JUÁREZ GARCÍA RAMÓN CASILLAS HERNÁNDEZ (2015)

"The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this studywas to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30–35 indm−2 and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll 𝑎. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5m3 kg−1 cycle−1), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha−1 shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming."

Article

Shrimp, farm BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA ANIMAL (ZOOLOGÍA) DESARROLLO ANIMAL

Effect of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and water exchange on survival and production of Litopenaeus vannamei under semi-intensive culture conditions.

Héctor Manuel Esparza Leal Jesús Trinidad Ponce Palafox Héctor Cabanillas Beltrán Francisco Flores Verduzco (2007)

A study was performed in two commercial shrimp farms in the province of Guasave, north of Sinaloa, Mexico, to assess the effects of the presence of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and of water exchange on the growth rate, production, and survival of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, during the fall-winter season in semi-intensive culture ponds. The experiment consisted of four treatments; in the first (T1), three earthen ponds with water exchange, were stocked with PCR-positive for white-spot syndrome virus (WSSV) postlarvae. In the second (T2), three earthen ponds were stocked likewise (PCR-positive), but without water exchange. In the third (T3), three earthen ponds, with water exchange were stocked with PCR-negative for white-spot syndrome virus (WSSV) postlarvae. In the fourth (T4), three earthen ponds were stocked likewise (PCR-negative), but without water exchange. The average growth rates were 0.56, 0.56, 0.80, and 0.75 g/week for T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Survival was 23.2% (T1), 26.1% (T2), 64.3% (T3), and 66.1% (T4). Production ranged between 252.60 and 847.00 kg/ha, with the lowest production in T2 and the highest in T3. Feed conversion ratio ranged from 1.00 for T3 to 1.70 for T2. The final average weight ranged between 10.6 g (T2) to 12.5 g (T3). The WSSV can affect negatively the growth rate (30%), the survival (64%), and the production (69%) in comparison with PCR-negative organisms.No differences in weight were found between WSSV-infected and non-infected individual shrimps, as well as in nested-PCR positive against single-step PCR positive organisms.It found that the zero water exchange strategy could be feasible for the culture of the white shrimp L. vannamei at a commercial level during the fallwinter season.

Article

Biología Water exchange white spot syndrome virus shrimp culturex BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA