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"El estudio se llevó a cabo entre marzo 1999 y noviembre de 2002 en un cultivo en suspensión localizado en Bahía Juncalito, Golfo de California, México. Se encontró que Nodipecten subnodosus (Sowerby, 1835) es una especie con crecimiento rápido (ø=3.91), y alométrico, con una estacionalidad de 0.78 y una amplitud de 0.8. Su crecimiento se describe por el modelo de von Bertalanffy. Se estimó una tasa de crecimiento promedio de 4 mm/mes para los primeros 16 meses de estudio. Posteriormente disminuyó a 1.3 mm/mes hasta el final del estudio. La supervivencia fue alta (≥ 89 %) y no hubo cambio sustancial hasta noviembre de 2001 cuando disminuyó hasta 40%. En Bahía Juncalito N. subnodosus tuvo su primer desove a una edad de aproximadamente 2 años con una altura media de la concha de 72 mm."
"The study was conducted from March 1999 to November 2002 in a suspended culture located in Bahía Juncalito, Gulf of California, Mexico. Nodipecten subnodosus (Sowerby, 1835) is a species with fast growth (ø=3.91) and alometric, with a seasonality of 0.78 and an amplitude of 0.8. Its growth was described by the von Bertalanffy model. An average growth rate of 4 mm/month was estimated for the first 16 months of the study. Then, it decreased to 1.3 mm/month until the end of the experiment. The survival was high (≥ 89 %) and did not change substantially until November 2001 when it decrease to 40%. In Bahía Juncalito, N. subnodosus attain its first spawn at nearly 2-years old with a mean shell height of 72 mm."
Pectinidae, pectinidos, cultivo, Golfo de California Pectinidae, scallops, culture, Gulf of California. CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Y DEL ESPACIO OCEANOGRAFÍA OCEANOGRAFÍA ACUICULTURA MARINA
"The sardine (Sardinops sugax) fishery of the Gulf of California is among Mexico’s most important fisheries, accounting for the largest catch and providing many productive jobs. During the early 1990s, this fishery collapsed to less than 3% of the production maximum. Surprisingly, after two years of very low catch the fishery recovered quickly. We propose that these large fluctuations may be explained mainly by physical processes (enrichment, retention, and concentration) governing the sardine spawning habitat. The spawning area may be influenced by processes such as tidal mixing, Winter northwesterly winds, coastal upwelling, prevailing Surface currents, and Ekman transport, but most of its variability is believed to be wind-forced. Therefore we attempted to relate spawning extension to wind variations. By fitting an equation that expresses spawning as a probability function of a wind-derived index, we have built a spawning-probability time series based on egg and larval survey data and then tested against an independent series of landings and biomass indices (number of recruits and adults). Results show coherent relations between the spawning-probability series and the biological and fisheries data, despite large fluctuations (collapse and recovery). Our results are encouraging and may provide a solid theoretical basis for future environment- monitoring systems for the sardine fishery in the gulf."
"Numerical simulations revealed a profound interaction between the severe dust storm of 2007 caused by Santa Ana winds and the Gulf of California. The weather research and forecasting model coupled with a chemistry module (WRF-CHEM) and the hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory model (HYSPLIT) allowed for the estimation of the meteorological and dynamic aspects of the event and the dust deposition on the surface waters of the Gulf of California caused by the erosion and entrainment of dust particles from the surrounding desert regions. The dust emission rates from three chosen areas (Altar desert, Sonora coast, and a region between these two zones) and their contribution to dust deposition over the Gulf of California were analyzed. The Altar Desert had the highest dust emission rates and the highest contribution to dust deposition over the Gulf of California, i.e., it has the most critical influence with 96,879 tons of emission and 43,539 tons of dust deposition in the gulf. An increase of chlorophyll-a concentrations is observed coinciding with areas of high dust deposition in the northern and western coast of the gulf. This kind of event could have a significant positive influence over the mineralization and productivity processes in the Gulf of California, despite the soil loss in the eroded regions."
Numerical simulation Santa Ana winds Dust storm WRF-CHEM Gulf of California Dust deposition CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Y DEL ESPACIO CIENCIAS DE LA ATMÓSFERA CIENCIAS DE LA ATMÓSFERA
"Fishery catch data on yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) were examined to study the effects of El Niño events between 1990 and 1999 for an area in the northeastern tropical Pacific (18−24°N, 112−104°W). The data were extracted from a database of logbook records from the Mexican tuna purse-seine fleet. Latitudinal distribution of the catches increased from south to north for the 10-year period. Highest catches and effort were concentrated between 22°N and 23°N. This area accumulated 48% of the total catch over the 10¬year period. It was strongly correlated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. At least two periods of exceptionally high catches occurred following El Niño events in 1991 and 1997. Peaks of catches were triggered by the arrival of positive anomalies of sea surface temperature (SST) to the area. A delay of two to four months was observed between the occurrence of maximum SST anomalies at the equator and peaks of catch. Prior to these two events, negative SST anomalies were the dominant feature in the study area and catch was extremely low. This trend of negative SST anomalies with low catches followed by positive SST anomalies and high catches may be attributed to northward yellowfin tuna migration patterns driven by El Niño forcing, a result that contrasts with the known behavior of decreasing relative abundance of these tuna after El Niño events in the eastern Pacific. However, this decrease in relative abundance may be the result of a local or subregional effect."
"Knowledge of biomass and demographic aspects is important in fish stock assessments. These aspects were analyzed on Micropogonias megalops in the Gulf of California, Mexico, using biological data from catches in 2010–12. Individual growth was estimated following a multi-model approach. Logistic models were used for first maturity and fishing selectivity, and natural mortality by means of empirical equations and biomass by the Pennington estimation. The results showed that the von Bertalanffy model best described growth for combined data (wi = 72.86 %), females (wi = 67.82 %) and males (wi = 69.42 %), but they showed sexual dimorphism on the species. First maturity was at 357.8 mm, fishing selectivity 323.35 and 366.35 mm for industrial and artisanal fleet, respectively, and average natural mortality of 0.51. Mean biomass was 14 412.9 tons contrasting the officially reported catch that represented only 8.7% of estimated biomass, showing evidence that M. megalops is still an underexploited resource."
Coral δ 18O variations are used as a proxy for changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and seawater isotope composition. Skeletal δ 13C of coral is frequently used as a proxy for solar radiation because most of its variability is controlled by an interrelationship between three processes: photosynthesis, respiration, and feeding. Coral growth rate is known to influence the δ 18O and δ 13C isotope record to a lesser extent than environmental variables. Recent published data show differences in growth parameters between female and male coral in the gonochoric brooding coral Porites panamensis; thus, skeletal δ 18O and δ 13C are hypothesized to be different in each sex. To test this, this study describes changes in the skeletal δ 18O and δ 13C record of four female and six male Porites panamensis coral collected in Bahía de La Paz, Mexico, whose growth bands spanned 12 years. The isotopic data were compared to SST, precipitation, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), chlorophyll a, and skeletal growth parameters. Porites panamensis is a known gonochoric brooder whose growth parameters are different in females and males. Splitting the data by sexes explained 81 and 93 % of the differences of δ 18O, and of δ 13C, respectively, in the isotope record between colonies. Both isotope records were different between sexes. δ 18O was higher in female colonies than in male colonies, with a 0.31 ‰ difference; δ 13C was lower in female colonies, with a 0.28 ‰ difference. A difference in the skeletal δ 18O could introduce an error in SST estimates of ≈ 1.0 to ≈ 2.6 ◦C. The δ 18O records showed a seasonal pattern that corresponded to SST, with low correlation coefficients (−0.45, −0.32), and gentle slopes (0.09, 0.10 ‰ ◦C −1 ) of the δ 18O–SST relation. Seasonal variation in coral δ 18O represents only 52.37 and 35.66 % of the SST cycle; 29.72 and 38.53 % can be attributed to δ 18O variability in seawater. δ 13C data did not correlate with any of the environmental variables; therefore, variations in skeletal δ 13C appear to be driven mainly by metabolic effects. Our results support the hypothesis of a sex-associated difference in skeletal δ 18O and δ 13C signal, and suggest that environmental conditions and coral growth parameters affect skeletal isotopic signals differently in each sex..."
Porites panamensis, Gulf of California CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Y DEL ESPACIO OCEANOGRAFÍA OCEANOGRAFÍA RECURSOS RENOVABLES OCEANOGRAFÍA RECURSOS RENOVABLES
"Pelagic fishes are not evenly dispersed in the oceans, but aggregate at distinct locations in this vast and open environment. Nomadic species such as mackerels, tunas, and sharks form assemblages at seamounts (Klimley and Butler, 1988; Fontenau, 1991). Fisherman have recognized this behavior and have placed moorings with surface buoys in deep waters to provide artificial landmarks, around which fish concentrate and are more easily captured. These fish aggregating devices (termed FADs) are common in the tropical oceans (see review, Holland, 1996). In a sense, it may only be the larger size that separates a seamount from a man-made FAD. Fish may aggregate at seamounts for very different reasons. The opportunity to feed is greater because biomass at all trophic levels, from primary producer to apex consumer, is greater than in the open ocean (Boehlert and Genin, 1987). The disturbance of flow by the seamount creates eddies downstream that retain nutrients critical to the growth of phytoplankton, and this enrichment supports a greater abundance of consumers from zooplankton to apex predators. The dipole nature of seamount magnetic fields and the outward radiating valleys and ridges of magnetic minimums and maximums might provide landmarks in oceanic landscape that fish use as a reference to guide migration (see discussion of magnetic “topotaxis” in Klimley, 1993). Yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) and bigeye (Thunnus obesus) tunas do not reside long at the Cross Seamount near Hawaii, an observation inconsistent with the theory that tunas feed on prey that remain aggregated at the site; rather their rapid passage suggests that the site is a landmark used to guide migrations (Holland et al., 1999). Adult yellowfin tuna also stay briefl y (<5 min) at FADs off Kaena Point, Oahu (Klimley and Holloway, 1999)...”
"This paper provides evidence of the effects of urban wastewater discharges on the trophic state and environmental quality of a coastal water body in a semiarid subtropical region in the Gulf of California. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients and organic matter from urban wastewater primary treatment were estimated. La Salada Cove was the receiving water body and parameters measured during an annual cycle were temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, ammonia, orthophosphate, and chlorophyll 𝑎. The effects of sewage inputs were determined by using Trophic State Index (TRIX) and the Arid Zone CoastalWater Quality Index (AZCI). It was observed that urban wastewater of the city of Guaymas provided 1,237 ton N yr−1 and 811 ton P yr−1 and TRIX indicated that the receiving water body showed symptoms of eutrophication froman oligotrophic state to a mesotrophic state; AZCI also indicated that the environmental quality of the water body was poor.The effects of urban wastewater supply with insufficient treatment resulted in symptoms of eutrophication and loss of ecological functions and services of the coastal ecosystem in La Salada Cove."
"The composition, abundance, and distribution of dinoflagellate resting cysts in recent sediments were analyzed at 12 sites in Bahía Concepción in the subtropical Gulf of California. Calcareous and organic Peridiniales, Gonyaulacales, and Gymnodiniales were identified at species level (25 cyst types). Empty cysts constituted 75–90% of cysts in the samples. Cyst assemblages were dominated by calcareous Peridiniales (30–70%) and Gonyaulacales (13–44%), represented mainly by Scrippsiella trochoidea and Lingulodinium polyedrum. In the first centimeter of sediment, cyst counts varied from 173 to 9, 933 cysts g–1 wet weight, and increased in abundance in the inner area of the bay. Cysts of the toxic species Gymnodinium catenatum were also detected, and successful cyst germination of Alexandrium margalefii is described. Cyst abundance and distribution patterns suggest that the bay acts as a cyst trap, and that the cyst assemblages reflect the local community of meroplanktonic dinoflagellates."