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Climate smart agriculture, farm household typologies and food security An ex-ante assessment from Eastern India

Santiago Lopez-Ridaura Romain Frelat Mark van Wijk Diego Valbuena Timothy Joseph Krupnik (2018)

One of the great challenges in agricultural development and sustainable intensification is the assurance of social equity in food security oriented interventions. Development practitioners, researchers, and policy makers alike could benefit from prior insight into what interventions or environmental shocks might differentially affect farmers' food security status, in order to move towards more informed and equitable development. We examined the food security status and livelihood activities of 269 smallholder farm households (HHs) in Bihar, India. Proceeding with a four-step analysis, we first applied a multivariate statistical methodology to differentiate five primary farming system types. We next applied an indicator of food security in the form of HH potential food availability (PFA), and examined the contribution of crop, livestock, and on- and off-farm income generation to PFA within each farm HH type. Lastly, we applied scenario analysis to examine the potential impact of the adoption of ‘climate smart’ agricultural (CSA) practices in the form of conservation agriculture (CA) and improved livestock husbandry, and environmental shocks on HH PFA. Our results indicate that compared to livestock interventions, CA may hold considerable potential to boost HH PFA, though primarily for wealthier and medium-scale cereal farmers. These farm HH types were however considerably more vulnerable to food insecurity risks resulting from simulated drought, while part-time farmers and resource-poor agricultural laborers generating income from off-farm pursuits were comparatively less vulnerable, due in part to their more diversified income sources and potential to migrate in search of work. Our results underscore the importance of prior planning for development initiatives aimed at increasing smallholder food security while maintaining social equity, while providing a robust methodology to vet the implications of agricultural interventions on an ex ante basis.

Article

Climate-smart agriculture Households Food security Socio-Ecological system Scenario Evaluation Biha CLIMATE CHANGE CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK DROUGHT CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Socio-Ecological Regionalization of the Urban Sub-Basins in Mexic

MONICA CERVANTES JIMENEZ CARLOS DIAZ DELGADO CARLOS ALBERTO MASTACHI LOZA MIGUEL ANGEL GOMEZ ALBORES ENRIQUE GONZALEZ SOSA (2017)

Mexico is a diverse country in terms of culture and natural environments. For this reason, the delimitation of homogeneous basins with similar environmental, social, and economic attributes is important in order to facilitate the elaboration of high-impact regional development strategies. However, this represents an ongoing challenge due to the complexity of the interactions that occur within socio-ecological systems at a regional scale. In the present study, the main objective was to identify the interrelationships among different aspects of the socio-ecological system located within basins, with the goal of utilizing this information to promote the region-specific sustainable development of an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). Therefore, in this study, environmental, social, economic, and institutional variables, relevant to water management and with thecapacitytobeexpressedspatially,wereutilizedtoidentifyregionswithsimilarcharacteristicsand to regionalize the urban sub-basins of Mexico based on a principal component analysis (PCA) and the k-medoids clustering algorithm. The identification of the most adequate number of regions at the national level was determined by the silhouette method. As a result, five distinct regions for Mexico were generated, which forms the first step in the design of integrated water resources management strategies for these regions.

Universidad Autónoma del Estado de MéxicoConsejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT-México)

Article

IWRM socio-ecological systems cluster analysis k-medoids PCA CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Rehabilitación ecológica de áreas agropecuarias degradadas en la Selva Lacandona : una alternativa fincada en el conocimiento ecológico tradicional maya

Samuel Levy-Tacher Neptalí Ramírez Marcial Mario González Espinosa Francisco Román-Dañobeytia (2012)

Resumen en español: "El diseño y ejecución de nuestros proyectos de rehabilitación se sustentan en: 1) el conocimiento ecológico tradicional maya que mantiene la conexión forestal dentro de un paisaje fragmentado por el uso agropecuario; y 2) los estudios de un grupo interdisciplinario de investigación de la línea Bosques de ECOSUR. Históricamente, las acciones de rehabilitación en la Selva Lacandona han sido poco fructíferas y de escala muy reducida, sin vinculación con los intereses y necesidades de los propietarios de los recursos que se pretende rehabilitar. Este impedimento es el reto ante el cual hemos desarrollado innovaciones para construir un puente que lleve a la aplicación de acciones sensatas y efectivas. "

Resumen en inglés: "The design and execution of our restoration projects are based, on 1) the traditional Mayan ecological knowledge that maintains forest connections across a highly fragmented landscape due to agricultural use, and 2) the studies by an interdisciplinary group of ecological research at ECOSUR. Historically, attempts to carry out rehabilitation actions in the Lacandon Rainforest have not been very successful and only effected at a very small scale due to the lack of connection between these actions and the interests and needs of the landholders. Our challenge is to overcome this obstacle and we have opted to implement innovative practices to build a bridge leading to more sound and effective actions. "

Article

Árboles nativos;Restauración forestal;Conocimiento ecológico tradicional;Paisajes fragmentados;Innovación socioambiental Natives trees;Forest restoration;Traditional ecological knowledge;Fragmented landscapes;Socio-environmental innovation CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS CIENCIAS AGRARIAS

Propuesta metodológica para medir la sostenibilidad costera local en zonas áridas: su aplicación en la Reserva de la Biósfera El Vizcaíno

Methodological proposal to measure local coastal sustainability in arid zones: Its application in the Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve

Marco Antonio Almendárez Hernández Alfredo Ortega Rubio Luis Felipe Beltrán Morales Magdalena Lagunas-Vázques (2017)

"El objetivo principal del presente análisis fue utilizar el paradigma de zonas secas (DDP por sus siglas en inglés) como herramienta metodológica en la medición de la sostenibilidad en un estudio de caso costero en un ecosistema desértico. La información social y ambiental del área de estudio se obtuvo a través de revisiones bibliográficas especializadas y toma de datos de campo, con apoyo de herramientas etnográficas, etnoecológicas y de investigación participativa. Metodología. La propuesta metodológica se basó en el marco conceptual del paradigma de desarrollo de zonas secas (DDP). Resultados. Se observa que más del 50% de los sistemas socioecológicos identificados en la ZPN se ubican dentro de los rangos de insostenibilidad y sostenibilidad lejana, que la proporción sostenible, aproximadamente el 20% en este sistema ZPN tienen que ver con procesos sociales y muy locales. Limitaciones. La limitación es que el trabajo solamente puede ser útil para analizar procesos de sostenibilidad en sistemas socioecológicos que cumplan con elementos que maneja la teoría del paradigma de zonas secas. Conclusiones. El estudio se considera una aportación novedosa a las diversas herramientas de medición de la sostenibilidad que actualmente se manejan en la ciencia de la sostenibilidad."

"The main objective of the present analysis was to use the paradigm of dryland development (DDP) as a methodological tool in the measurement of sustainability in a coastal case study in a desert ecosystem. The social and environmental information of the study area was obtained through specialized bibliographical reviews and field data collection, with the support of ethnographic, ethnoecological and participatory research tools. Methodology. The methodological proposal for the analysis of the sustainability of coastal management in the Northern Pacific Zone (ZPN), in the Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve in Southern Baja California (BCS) was based on the conceptual framework of the DDP. Results. In the results of the study, it is observed that more than 50% of the socioecological systems identified in the ZPN are located within the ranges of sustainability and distant sustainability, that the sustainable proportion, approximately 20% in this ZPN system have to do with Social and very local processes. Limitations. From the experience with the implementation of the DDP we consider that one of the main limitations of its use is that it can only be useful to analyze sustainability processes in socioecological systems that comply with the elements that the paradigm of dryland development theory, such as Case of this marine coastal management system of the ZPN. Conclusions. The present study is considered a novel contribution to the various sustainability measurement tools currently being used in the science of sustainability."

Article

Desarrollo regional, medición de sostenibilidad, manejo costero desiertos, paradigma de desarrollo de zonas secas, Zona Pacífico Norte Baja California Sur Regional development, socio-ecological systems, sustainability, Pacific Ocean Coastal Management, Dryland Development Paradigm BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA ANTROPOLOGÍA (FÍSICA) BIOLOGÍA DE POBLACIONES BIOLOGÍA DE POBLACIONES

Evolution of microstructure in an Al-Si system modified with the transition element addition and its effect on mechanicals properties.

HANSEL MANUEL MEDRANO PRIETO CARLOS GAMALIEL GARAY REYES CYNTHIA DEISY GOMEZ ESPARZA (2015)

The effect of transition element addition and solution treatment time on the microstructure and hardness

of the Al-Si alloy were studied by Vickers microhardness, Rockwell B Hardness, X Ray Diffraction

(XRD), Optical Microscopy (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The A319 alloy and the

A319 alloys modified with Ni were solution treatment at 495 °C for 5 and 7h, quenching in water at 60

°C and aged at 170 °C for 0.5, 3, 5, 10 and 96 h. The Ni addition between 1 and 2 wt. % to the A319

alloy have a direct effect on the microstructure, the morphology, size and distribution of precipitates

during aging heat treatment, as well as, favors the formation of the Al-Fe-Ni, Al-Ni-Cu- and Al3Ni2

intermetallic phases, additionally, the Ni presence reduce the Cu content in the matrix for the Al2Cu

formation due formation of Al-Ni-Cu phases.

Conference proceedings

Al-System BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA QUÍMICA OTRAS ESPECIALIDADES QUÍMICAS OTRAS

La Metodología de Sistemas Suaves y el Modelo de Sistema Viable en la mejora de la oferta turística mexicana respecto al consumidor chino

The Soft Systems Methodology and the Viable System Model to improve mexican tourist supply regarding chinese consumers

TANYA ARENAS RESENDIZ RICARDO TEJEIDA PADILLA OSWALDO MORALES MATAMOROS ANA LILIA CORIA PAEZ ISAIAS BADILLO PIÑA (2017)

Mediante el empleo de la Metodología de Sistemas Suaves (MSS) se define el Sistema Mercado Emisor Chino y se plantean mejoras para la oferta turística mexicana respecto al consumidor chino con base en principios cibersistémicos. Se presenta la interpretación del sistema, se determinan los niveles recursivos, interrelaciones y conflictos de la situación problemática, se interpreta la interacción entre sus elementos. Utilizando los preceptos del Modelo de Sistema Viable, se especifican subsistemas relevantes necesarios para la viabilidad, se detalla la integración sistémica óptima a nivel colectivo para el mejoramiento de la oferta turística mexicana respecto al consumidor chino. También se enlistan atributos individuales que conducirían a una complementariedad en las interrelaciones para una evolución del sistema total y, por su pertinencia, para estimular el consumo de la oferta turística mexicana por el mercado emisor chino.

Using Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), the Chinese Outbound Market System is defined, and improvements to Mexican Tourist Supply regarding Chinese consumers are set based on cybersystems principles. An interpretation of the system is given, and the recursive

levels, interrelations, and conflicts are determined; interactions between factors are interpreted. By applying Viable Systems Model precepts, Relevant Subsystems required for viability are specified. Optimum systemic integration at the collective level to improve Mexican tourist supply regarding Chinese consumers is detailed. Also, individual attributes that will lead to complementarity of interrelations for an evolution of the overall system are listed due to their relevance for stimulating Mexican tourist supply consumption by the Chinese

outbound market.

Article

CIENCIAS SOCIALES Sistema Viabilidad Mercado emisor chino Oferta turística mexicana System Viability Chinese outbound market Mexican tourist supply

Diseño del sistema "insectos de la republica mexicana" una aplicación entomológica

LAURA IRERI ROMERO RAMIREZ (2014)

Tesis (Maestría en Ciencias, especialista en Cómputo Aplicado).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2014.

Se propuso realizar un sistema que muestre información específica sobre la biodiversidad de los insectos en la República Mexicana. El proyecto se encuentra dividido en dos facetas específicas. La primera etapa, y es lo que comprende la tesis, es el plano o diseño, en donde se definió la forma de desarrollo y se especificaron los elementos que componen al sistema. En la segunda etapa se realizará la programación del sistema de acuerdo al plano diseñado en la fase uno, en otras palabras la ejecución. Con el diseño de este sistema lo que se busca es ilustrar a través de elementos multimedia la biodiversidad de la República Mexicana, siempre cumpliendo y abarcando con los requerimientos y parámetros que se han establecido. _______________ SYSTEM DESIGN OF AN ENTOMOLOGICAL APPLICATION ABOUT INSECTS OF THE MEXICAN REPUBLIC. ABSTRACT: It has proposed a system to display specific information of the biodiversity of insects of Mexico. The project is divided into two specific facets. The first stage, that comprising the thesis, is the design or plane development, where are defined and specified all the elements that for the system. In the second stage we will have the programming of the system, designed according to plan in phase one, in other words the execution will take place. With the design of this system it is searched, through the illustrated multimedia elements, the biodiversity of the Mexican Republic, always meeting and covering the requirements and parameters that have been set initially.

Master thesis

Ingeniería de software Ingeniería de requerimientos Calidad Desarrollo Innovación Proceso Método Sistema Sofware engineering Requirements engineering Quality Development Innovation Process Method System Cómputo Aplicado Maestría CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Opportunities to grow annual forage legume fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) under mexican sylvopastoral system

FRANCISCO JAVIER SOLORIO SANCHEZ BALDOMERO SOLORIO SANCHEZ SAIKAT KUMAR BASU FERNANDO CASANOVA LUGO LUCERO SARABIA SALGADO JUAN CARLOS KU VERA CARLOS FERNANDO AGUILAR PEREZ LUIS RAMIREZ AVILES Eliana Noguera Savelli WILLIAM ROLANDO CETZAL IX ÁNGEL INFANTE CRUZ JUDITH COROMOTO PETIT ALDANA ARMIN AYALA BASULTO (2014)

The first part of this chapter provides an introduction to Mexican livestock systems. The second part describes silvopastoral systems which are recognized as a strategy for food production, including the integration of annual, forage, legumes such as fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). The third part highlights the importance of silvopastoral systems for livestock production and how fenugreek can be integrated in to the diet of the Mexican livestock. Overall the current review discusses various agronomics aspects of intercropping with fenugreek mainly as a fodder bank for increased fodder yield and quality. Fenugreek cultivation can not only improve the local animal diet but it can also improve the soil nitrogen content. Based on this current review it can be concluded that integrating fenugreek into silvopastoral systems with livestock production could be a good sustainable solution to enhance the biodiversity of the system as well as increase the margin of profitability for the local producers and growers.

Article

FENUGREEK TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM L. MEXICO FORAGE LEGUME SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Magnetic characteristics of fracture zones and constraints on the subsurface structure of the Colima Volcanic Complex, western Mexico

Héctor López Loera Jaime Humberto Urrutia Fucugauchi Luis Manuel Alva Valdivia (2010)

"Detailed magnetic anomaly surveys over the central and southern sector of the Colima rift, western Mexico, are used to investigate the subsurface structure and faults and/or fractures in the volcanic terrains formed by activity in the Colima volcanic complex (CVC). The CVC is located within the large north-south Colima rift in western Mexico. The Colima rift is a major active tectonic structure, trending perpendicular to the Middle America Trench and related to subduction of the Rivera and Cocos plates. Volcanic activity in the CVC has migrated southward toward the trench. Analyses of faults and recent deformation in the CVC and Colima rift are of major interest in volcano-tectonic studies and for hazard assessment. Structural analyses and fault mapping, however, are difficult because young volcanic and pyroclastic rocks obscure structural features and stratigraphy. Most of the southern Colima rift is covered by volcanic avalanches and volcaniclastic units, which have resulted in resurfacing of the volcanic terrains. Here we show that magnetic anomalies permit identification of faults and mapping of volcano-sedimentary and volcanic units. Total magnetic field measurements spaced every 0.5 km along 8 profiles, with an overall length of 284.5 km and covering the CVC sector of the Colima rift, have been obtained. We recognize fractures and fault zones of local and regional character from their characteristic magnetic anomaly response. Large mapped structures include the north-south Montitlan, northeast-southwest La Lumbre, and east-west La Escondida faults, which can be traced across the area from the magnetic profiles. Fault magnetic anomalies are modeled by lateral contrasts in terms of step models assuming thin dipping elongated zones along the fault planes. The study shows that faults in the CVC volcanic terrain can be investigated by magnetic surveying."

Article

System Sedimentary Andesites Collapse Geology Graben Hawaii CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Y DEL ESPACIO GEOLOGÍA GEOLOGÍA

Sistema de caracterización para nanosatélites en condiciones controladas de presión y temperatura equivalentes al medio ambiente espacial

Josè Arturo Zenteno Hernàndez (2020)

CubeSats are designed to operate at an altitude between 200 km to 1000 km, where they can reach temperatures of 153K a 393 K (-120 °C a 120 °C) and the pressure can range between 1.3E-5 mbar to 1.3E -8 mbar. This thesis project include the design, integration and implementation of a mexican ground test platform, in order to verify this type of satellite technology in a laboratory. The vacuum thermal chamber resulting from the development of this project, it is an instrument designed based on devices used throughout the world to tests space technology, the instrument can recreate in a controlled way the conditions of pressure and temperature that are tolerated by objects in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and is able to test nanosatellites of size that do not exceed 10 cm x 10 cm x 15 cm (CubeSat standard 1.5U ). The thesis work includes the conditioning of a cryogenic system for CubeSats testing in a temperature range from 173 K a 373 K (-100 °C a 100 °C) and a pressure at least of 1E-5 mbar, likewise it was developed a program in the LabVIEW platform used for acquisition, control and storage of data which was used also for the characterization of the system. Similarly, it is described the CAD modeling, the manufacturing process and the cleaning of mechanical parts for heat conduction, which were used for testing electronic cards, two commercial-type devices commonly used in nanosatellites and two more cards used in CubeSats approved by space agencies to be placed on orbit. The results obtained demonstrate the capability of the system to test technology used in CubeSats development.

Los CubeSats están diseñados para operar a una altura entre los 200 km a 1000 km, en donde pueden alcanzar temperaturas de 153K a 393 K (-120 °C a 120 °C) y la presión puede oscilar entre los 1.3E-5 mbar a 1.3E-8 mbar. El presente proyecto de tesis aborda el diseño, integración y puesta en marcha de una plataforma terrestre mexicana para pruebas, con la finalidad de verificar este tipo de tecnología satelital dentro de un laboratorio. La cámara térmica al vacío resultado del desarrollo de este proyecto, es un instrumento diseñado con base en los dispositivos utilizados en todo el mundo para realizar pruebas a la tecnología espacial, el instrumento permite recrear de manera controlada las condiciones de presión y temperatura, que toleran los objetos colocados en la órbita baja de la Tierra (LEO), esto con la finalidad de realizar pruebas a nanosatélites que no excedan los 10 cm x 10 cm x 15 cm en sus dimensiones (estándar de CubeSat 1.5U). EL trabajo de tesis incluye el acondicionamiento de un sistema criogénico para pruebas a CubeSats, en rangos de temperatura que abarcan desde los 173 K a 373 K (-100 °C a 100 °C), a una presión de al menos 1E-5 mbar, así mismo se llevó a cabo el desarrollo de un programa en la plataforma de programación LabVIEW para la adquisición, control y almacenamiento de los datos, con el cual se realizaron una serie de pruebas para caracterización del sistema. De la misma forma se describe el modelado en CAD, manufactura y limpieza de piezas mecánicas para la conducción de calor, con las cuales se sometieron a prueba tarjetas electrónicas, dos dispositivos de tipo comercial comúnmente usadas en nanosatélites y dos más empleados en CubeSats aprobados por agencias espaciales para ser puestos en órbita. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran la capacidad del sistema para someter a prueba tecnología empleada en el desarrollo de CubeSats.

Master thesis

Cubesat System Characterization Cryostat space Controler CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Y DEL ESPACIO CIENCIAS DE LA ATMÓSFERA CIENCIAS DE LA ATMÓSFERA