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Electrical parameters extraction of CMOS floating-gate inverters

Jesús Ezequiel Molinar Solis RODOLFO ZOLA GARCIA LOZANO VICTOR HUGO PONCE PONCE ALEJANDRO DIAZ SANCHEZ JOSE MIGUEL ROCHA PEREZ (2010)

This work provides an accurate methodology for extracting the floating-gate gain factory, of CMOS floating-gate inverters with a clock-driven switch for accessing temporarilly to the floating-gate. With the methodology proposed in this paper, the γ factor and other parasitic capacitances coupled to the floating-gate can be easily extracted in a mismatch-free approach. This parameter plays an important role in modern analog and mixed-signal CMOS circuits, since it limits the circuit performance. Theoretical and measured values using two test cells, fabricated in a standard double poly double metal CMOS AMI-ABN process with 1.2 µm design rules, were compared. The extracted parameters can be incorporated into floating-gate PS pice macromodels for obtaining accurate electrical simulation.

Article

Ingeniería FG-inverter neuMOS floating-gate INGENIERÍA Y TECNOLOGÍA

Electrical Parameters Extraction of CMOS Floating-Gate Inverters

Extracción de parámetros eléctricos de inversores CMOS de compuerta flotante

JESUS EZEQUIEL MOLINAR SOLIS VICTOR HUGO PONCE PONCE RODOLFO ZOLA GARCIA LOZANO ALEJANDRO DIAZ SANCHEZ JOSE MIGUEL ROCHA PEREZ (2010)

This work provides an accurate methodology for extracting the floating-gate gain factory, of cmos floating-gate inverters with a clock-driven switch for accessing temporarilly to the floating-gate. with the methodology proposed in this paper, the γ factor and other parasitic capacitances coupled to the floating-gate can be easily extracted in a mismatch-free approach. this parameter plays an important role in modern analog and mixed-signal cmos circuits, since it limits the circuit performance. theoretical and measured values using two test cells, fabricated in a standard double poly double metal cmos ami-abn process with 1.2 μm design rules, were compared. the extracted parameters can be incorporated into floating-gate ps pice macromodels for obtaining accurate electrical simulation.

En este trabajo se brinda una metodología precisa para la extracción del factor de ganancia γ de la compuerta flotante en inversores CMOS, que constan de un interruptor para acceder temporalmente a la compuerta flotante. Con la metodología propuesta, el factor γ y otras capacitancias parásitas acopladas a la compuerta flotante pueden ser extraídas. Estos parámetros son de mucha importancia, ya que juegan un papel importante en el desempeño de circuitos analógicos y de señal mixta. La comparación entre cálculos teóricos y simulaciones es hecha utilizando dos celdas de prueba fabricadas de tecnología AMI ABN de 1.2 µm, a través de la organización MOSIS. Los parámetros extraídos pueden ser incorporados a macromodelos en PSpice para obtener simulaciones más precisas.

Article

FG-inverter neuMOS Floating- gate inversor de compuerta flotante NeuMOS Compuerta flotante CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA FÍSICA ELECTRÓNICA ELECTRÓNICA

Soluciones al paradigma de diseño de sistemas digitales FGMOS

LUIS FORTINO CISNEROS SINENCIO (2010)

Apenas descubierto el bulbo comenzó una carrera sin precedente en

el procesamiento de información. Del envío de voz e imágenes a las

redes masivas de procesamiento de datos, los avances de la ciencia

y la tecnología en el siglo XX fueron vertiginosos. La idea de producir

dispositivos multifuncionales pequeños y de bajo consumo de energía se ha

convertido en la demanda del usuario final. Se ha avanzado. De los enormes

radios de consola de varios bulbos, a la telefonía celular con servicios de

internet, televisión y radio; la distancia recorrida es enorme, pero la demanda

es mayor. En esta carrera, es posible que las expectativas lleven la delantera

con respecto de las posibilidades de los proveedores en una especie de

inversión en la carrera tecnológica. Ya no es lo que la ciencia y la tecnología

ofrezcan, sino lo que el consumidor demanda. Se han logrando avances

importantes, pero las posibilidades están llegando al límite y las opciones se

agotan mientras la demanda aumenta.

Una de las ideas surgidas en este estrepitoso andar es el empleo de

transistores de compuerta flotante. Estos dispositivos han ofrecido sus

beneficios en algunos campos de la electrónica, pero la exploración de sus

bondades, aún no concluye. En sistemas digitales, los transistores de

compuerta flotante han mostrado ventajas interesantes. La lista de mejorías

va desde aplicaciones de muy bajo voltaje hasta lógicas reprogramables en

tiempo real, todo ello con un consumo mínimo de área y potencia. Sin

embargo, el principal obstáculo ha sido la incertidumbre en algunos aspectos

de fabricación y la susceptibilidad a problemas no controlados como ruido y

apareamiento. Los avances en el afán por encontrar una familia lógica

basada en esta técnica han tenido resultados cuestionables. No se ha

logrado dar un paso firme que permita su aplicación en la industria, por lo

que la tarea se ha abandonado. Es objetivo primordial de esta investigación

el encontrar la forma de aprovechar todas las ventajas de los transistores de

compuerta flotante, solucionando los problemas que la hacen inviable. En

este texto se presentan las hipótesis, sustentos y resultados de los esfuerzos

por encontrar nuevas alternativas por las cuales transite este avance

tecnológico.

Doctoral thesis

Logic gates Digital circuits Integrated logic circuits Integrated circuit design Floating gate transistors CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA FÍSICA ELECTRÓNICA

On the characterization of the trapped charge in FG-CMOS inverters

JESUS EZEQUIEL MOLINAR SOLIS RODOLFO ZOLA GARCIA LOZANO IVAN RODRIGO PADILLA CANTOYA ALEJANDRO DIAZ SANCHEZ JOSE MIGUEL ROCHA PEREZ (2009)

In this work, an experimental comparison between measured FG CMOS inverters using the quasifloating gate (QFG) and layout-based (L-b) techniques for charge removal in the Floating-gate (FG) and simulations through PSpice is presented. The experiment was developed through the measurements of 40 different IC’s with a total of 200 FG and QFG CMOS inverters characterized on AMI C5FN 0.5 lm technology. The data obtained shows that the layout-based technique reduces the initial charge present at the FG, but presents a very small residual charge. Nevertheless, the offset associated to the charge follows a normal distribution and is predictable. Comparison between measured QFG inverters and simulations shows that the high resistance parasitic diode must be modeled accurately for a proper simulation.

Article

Neuron-MOS vMOS Floating-gate transistors CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA FÍSICA ELECTRÓNICA

New strategies to improve offset and the speed–accuracy–power tradeoff in CMOS amplifiers

CARLOS MUÑIZ MONTERO ALEJANDRO DIAZ SANCHEZ JOSE MIGUEL ROCHA PEREZ (2007)

Four continuous-time strategies to improve the

speed–accuracy–power tradeoff in CMOS amplifiers by

using low-power offset-compensation circuits are presented.

The offset contribution at the output voltage is

extracted and used to modify the DC component of the

input voltage or the value of the active load, through low

frequency feedback loops, which are realized using two

transistors operating in weak inversion and a small

capacitor. Because these circuits do not affect the bandwidth

and allow using small transistors, the power consumption

is greatly reduced with respect to an

uncompensated amplifier of the same speed and offset

behavior. The proposed strategies present reduced costs in

area, power consumption and complexity, and a decrease in

the low frequency noise contributions. MonteCarlo,

HSPICE simulations results of common source, class AB

and fully differential amplifiers, and experimental results of

a class AB amplifier, all implemented in a 0.5-lm CMOS

technology are shown. Statistical analyses of these strategies

are also presented. Improvements up to 99.74% and

398.6% in the offset and the power consumption are

respectively observed.

Article

CMOS amplifiers Floating gate transistors Mismatch Offset compensation CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA FÍSICA ELECTRÓNICA

Noise margin and short-circuit current in FGMOS logics

Luis Fortino Cisneros Sinencio ALEJANDRO DIAZ SANCHEZ Jaime Ramírez Angulo (2011)

Even when floating-gate logics are very-low-voltage circuits, as power supply is reduced, large fan-in FGMOS gates are prone to fail. Thus, determining the negative impact of noise margin and short-circuit current in this type of circuits is crucial to achieve optimal operation for a particular application. For this reason, a systematic and reliable technique for obtaining the correlation between fan-in and supply voltage, simultaneously considering noise margin and short-circuit current, is proposed.

Article

Floating-gate logic Noise margin FGMOS transistor CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA FÍSICA ELECTRÓNICA ELECTRÓNICA

EFFECT OF STOCKING DENSITY ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND YIELD OF SUBADULT PACIFIC RED SNAPPER CULTURED IN FLOATING SEA CAGES

Arturo Ruiz Luna SERGIO GUSTAVO CASTILLO VARGASMACHUCA JESUS TRINIDAD PONCE PALAFOX JOSE LUIS ARREDONDO FIGUEROA ERNESTO AARON CHAVEZ ORTIZ Manuel García Ulloa Gómez (2012)

A preliminary assessment of growth performance and yield of subadult Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru raised in floating sea cages was conducted by measuring fish length, weight, feed conversion, and survival rate during a 120-d grow-out trial at Punta el Caballo Beach, Nayarit State, Mexico. Nine floating cages (12.5-m3 capacity) were used as experimental units. Fish were stocked in triplicate treatment cages at 30, 50, and 70 fish/m3 (1.9, 3.3, and 4.4 kg/m3, respectively) using more than 5,600 wild subadults (mean initial weight ±SD = 63.9 ± 1.4 g) as initial fish stock. Fish were fed twice per day with a sinking commercial pellet, and dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, transparency, and ammonia nitrogen in each cage were recorded weekly. After 120 d, the mean individual weight at harvest was inversely related to stocking density. Mean final weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate differed among groups, with the highest values recorded for the 30-fish/m3 density (233.4 ± 5.3 g [mean ± SD], 1.4 g/d, and 1.1% per day, respectively). Mean final body length, feed conversion, condition index, and survival did not differ among density treatments. Net yield (mean ± SD) ranged from 5.0 ± 0.2 kg/m3 (30-fish/m3 treatment) to 7.9 ± 0.3 kg/m3 (70-fish/m3treatment) and differed among the treatments. Considering the initial biomass and density, the 70-fish/m3 treatment produced a higher total biomass (mean ± SD = 152.9 ± 2.4 kg) but a lower average weight than the 50- and 30-fish/m3 treatments. Our findings suggest that at all stocking densities tested, subadult Pacific red snapper will grow in floating sea cages without significant mortalities. A benefit–cost analysis must be achieved to define the best treatment in economic terms.

Se realizó una evaluación preliminar del rendimiento de crecimiento y el rendimiento del pargo rojo subacuático Lutjanus peru en jaulas flotantes de mar, midiendo la longitud, el peso, la conversión alimenticia y la tasa de supervivencia de los peces durante un ensayo de 120 días en Punta el Caballo Beach, Estado de Nayarit, México. Se utilizaron nueve jaulas flotantes (12,5 m3 de capacidad) como unidades experimentales. Los peces fueron almacenados en jaulas de tratamiento triplicado a 30, 50 y 70 peces / m3 (1,9, 3,3 y 4,4 kg / m3, respectivamente), utilizando más de 5,600 subadultos salvajes (peso inicial promedio ± DE = 63,9 ± 1,4 g) como inicial recursos pesqueros. Los peces se alimentaron dos veces al día con un sedimento comercial hundido, y el oxígeno disuelto, la temperatura, el pH, la transparencia y el nitrógeno amoniacal en cada jaula se registraron semanalmente. Después de 120 d, el peso individual medio en la cosecha estuvo inversamente relacionado con la densidad de población. El peso final promedio, el aumento de peso y la tasa de crecimiento específico difirieron entre los grupos, con los valores más altos registrados para la densidad de 30 peces / m3 (233,4 ± 5,3 g [media ± SD], 1,4 g / dy 1,1% respectivamente). La longitud corporal media final, la conversión alimenticia, el índice de condición y la supervivencia no difirieron entre los tratamientos de densidad. El rendimiento neto (media ± desviación estándar) varió de 5,0 ± 0,2 kg / m3 (tratamiento de 30 peces / m3) a 7,9 ± 0,3 kg / m3 (70 peces / m3 de tratamiento) y difirió entre los tratamientos. Teniendo en cuenta la biomasa inicial y la densidad, el tratamiento de 70 peces / m3 produjo una mayor biomasa total (media ± DE = 152,9 ± 2,4 kg) pero un peso promedio inferior al de los tratamientos de 50 y 30 peces / m3. Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que en todas las densidades de población ensayadas, el pargo rojo subadulto del Pacífico crecerá en jaulas flotantes sin mortalidad significativa. Debe lograrse un análisis costo-beneficio para definir el mejor tratamiento en términos económicos.

Article

floating sea cages Stocking Density BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL WATER PARAMETERS VARIATION IN THE FLOATING CAGES OF SNAPPERS (LUTJANUS PERU AND L. GUTTATUS) FARMED IN TROPICAL SEA

SERGIO GUSTAVO CASTILLO VARGASMACHUCA JESUS TRINIDAD PONCE PALAFOX JOSE LUIS ARREDONDO FIGUEROA ERNESTO AARON CHAVEZ ORTIZ EDUARDO JAIME VERNON CARTER (2008)

The water column in a fish farm was sampled at three depth layers to determine large and short term changes in water quality. The overall goal of this study was to determine the variation of nutrient concentrations in the water column in open-ocean floating cages with cultures of Lutjanus peru (Pacific red snapper) and L. guttatus (spotted rose snapper). Nutrient concentration (ammonia-N, nitrite-N, nitrate-N, and phosphate) were evaluated every fifteen days in the water column at three stations (cages) and two depths; likewise, several water quality parameters were analyzed daily (water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and Secchi disk). Analyses of water in general showed that no significant differences existed between the monthly concentration of nutrients from the control stations and depths. Nitrate was the nutrient with the highest concentration (2.83 to 3.56 mg/L); however, these values were relatively low and normal for these waters. The results show that when working with fish densities of 2500 to 3500 fish/cage and small quantities of food (60 ton/year) no impact is made on the water column quality in the floating cages culture system.

La columna de agua de una granja de peces fue muestreada a tres profundidades para determinar los cambios en la calidad del agua a largo y corto plazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las variaciones en la concentración de nutrientes en la columna de agua del cultivo en jaulas flotantes de Lutjanus peru (huachinango) y L. guttatus (flamenco). La concentración de nutrientes (amonio, nitritos, nitratos y fosfatos) fue evaluada cada 15 días en la columna de agua en tres estaciones (jaulas) y dos profundidades. También, varios parámetros de la calidad del agua fueron analizados diariamente (temperatura del agua, salinidad, oxígeno disuelto y profundidad de visión del disco de Secchi). Los análisis del agua muestran en general que no hubo diferencias significativas mensualmente entre la concentración de los nutrientes de la estación control y las estaciones experimentales. Los nitratos fueron el nutriente con la mayor concentración (2.83 a 3.56 mg/L), sin embargo, esas concentraciones fueron relativamente bajas y normales para ese tipo de aguas. Los resultados muestran que cuando se trabaja con densidades de peces de 2500 to 3500 peces/jaula y bajas cantidades de alimento (60 ton/año) no se impactan la calidad de la columna de agua del sistema de cultivo de jaulas flotantes.

Article

water physico-chemical parameters floating cage snappers sea farm parámetros fisico-químicos del agua jaulas flotantes pargos granja marina BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Magneto-modulation of gate leakage current in 65 nm nMOS transistors: Experimental, modeling, and simulation results

EDMUNDO ANTONIO GUTIERREZ DOMINGUEZ JOEL MOLINA REYES PEDRO JAVIER GARCIA RAMIREZ (2010)

We introduce experimental results that reveal a small static and a slowly varying-dynamic magnetic field B induces a magneto-modulation of the gate leakage current of a 65 nm nMOSFET. For the case of a 100 mT (mili-Tesla) static B field a variation of the 6% (1.5 nA/27 nA) of the gate current is observed. For a 5 Hz slowly varying (±100 mT) square pulsed magnetic field, the gate current dynamic variation raises up to 18% (4.8 nA/27 nA). These experimental observations are explained in terms of space and time modulation of the two-dimensional surface inversion layer charge. The static B field dependent model is validated through Minimos-NT numerical simulations, while the dynamic B field experimental observations are reproduced with a SPICE macro-model, which uses the static device model as initial condition for the dynamic model. With this model we are able to predict the impact of small static and dynamic B fields on the gate leakage current and channel current interference of low-dimensional MOS transistors. We also propose this electro-magnetic experimental technique as an alternative for detailed exploration of the Si–SiO2 interface properties for 2 nm or thinner gate oxides, as well as for low-dimensional semiconductor devices.

Article

65 nm MOSFET Gate leakage Magnetic field Em interference CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA FÍSICA ELECTRÓNICA ELECTRÓNICA

Enhancement of the electrical characteristics of MOS capacitors by reducing the organic content of H2O-diluted Spin-On-Glass based oxides

Joel Molina Reyes ALFONSO TORRES JACOME Jose Efren Peña Alarcon Peña Manuel Escobar Aguilar (2011)

In this work, the physical, chemical and electrical properties of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with Spin-On-Glass (SOG)-based thin films as gate dielectric have been investigated. Experiments of SOG diluted with two different solvents (2-propanol and deionized water) were done in order to reduce the viscosity of the SOG solution so that thinner films (down to ∼20 nm) could be obtained and their general characteristics compared. Thin films of SOG were deposited on silicon by the sol–gel technique and they were thermally annealed using conventional oxidation furnace and Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) systems within N2 ambient after deposition. SOG dilution using non-organic solvents like deionized water and further annealing (at relatively high temperatures ≥450 ◦C) are important processes intended to reduce the organic content of the films. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy results have shown that water-diluted SOG films have a significant reduction in their organic content after increasing annealing temperature and/or dilution percentage when compared to those of undiluted SOG films. Both current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurements show better electrical characteristics for SOG-films diluted in deionized water compared to those diluted in 2-propanol (which is an organic solvent). The electrical characteristics of H2O-diluted SOG thin films are very similar to those obtained from high quality thermal oxides so that their application as gate dielectrics in MOS devices is promising. Finally, it has been demonstrated that by reducing the organic content of SOG-based thin films, it is possible to obtain MOS devices with better electrical properties.

Article

Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Spin-On-Glass Silicon dioxide (SiO2) Gate dielectric Organic thin films Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA FÍSICA ELECTRÓNICA ELECTRÓNICA