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Efecto de las vaguadas de la tropósfera alta sobre la precipitación de verano en el noroeste de México: una comparación con la precipitación asociada a ciclones tropicales

Effect of upper level troughs on summer rainfall in northwestern Mexico: a comparison with the precipitation associated to tropical cyclones

VIRIDIANA ESVEIDY RAMIREZ GONZALEZ (2016)

Las vaguadas presentes en la alta tropósfera son, después de los ciclones tropicales, el fenómeno que más contribuye a los eventos de precipitación extrema durante el verano en el noroeste de México. Se consideró que los centros de baja presión bien definidos en la alta tropósfera, tienen un efecto sobre la estabilidad estática de la atmósfera y el ciclo diurno de convección profunda en la región. En este trabajo se realizó un estudio climatológico de este fenómeno a partir del Reanálisis del Sistema de Predicción Climática (CFSR, por sus siglas en inglés) a 300mb para el periodo 1979-2013, durante los meses de mayo a octubre. El efecto de los ciclones tropicales sobre la precipitación extrema en la zona de estudio fue aislado mediante el uso de la base de datos de sus trayectorias observadas mantenida por el Centro Nacional de Huracanes de Estados Unidos (HURDAT2). Se identificaron 302 centros de baja presión durante el periodo de estudio y su tiempo de duración y trayectoria respectiva fueron estimadas. A partir de esta información se determinó que la precipitación total diaria asociada a las vaguadas es aproximadamente 50% mayor que la que ocurre en días en los que no hay centros de baja presión en altura. Aunque los ciclones tropicales producen en promedio, un incremento de 100% en la precipitación total diaria respecto a los días en los que están ausentes, la aportación de las vaguadas de altos niveles a la precipitación total de verano en la zona de estudio es de, aproximadamente, 27% contra un 13% que aportan los ciclones tropicales. Se encontró que las vaguadas de altos niveles tienen dos zonas de generación: una sobre el Pacífico Oriental subtropical donde se forman principalmente en los meses de mayo y octubre (antes y después del Monzón de América del Norte, MAN) y tienen trayectoria hacia el Este, y otra sobre el Golfo de México, donde se generan eventos con mayor frecuencia durante los meses de julio y agosto (durante el MAN), con trayectorias hacia el oeste. Sin embargo, aún no son claros los mecanismos asociados a la formación de vaguadas en cada región y la manera en que afectan a la atmósfera para favorecer el desarrollo de precipitación extrema.

Upper-level low pressure centers (troughs) are, after tropical cyclones, the phenomenon that contributes the most to warm-season extreme precipitation events in northwestern Mexico. We hypothesize that well defined upper-level low pressure centers produce extreme precipitation events through an effect on the static stability of the atmosphere and the diurnal cycle of deep convection in the region. This paper presents a climatological study of this phenomenon for the period 1979 to 2013, made through an analysis of CFSR data at 300mb, during the months of May through October. The impact of tropical cyclones on extreme precipitation in the study area was isolated using the database of their observed trajectories that is maintained by the US National Hurricane Center (HURDAT2). Three hundred and two low pressure centers were identified during the study period, and their respective duration and trajectory were estimated. From this information it was determined that the total daily precipitation associated with this phenomenon is approximately 50% greater than during days when no upper-level low pressure centers are present. Although tropical cyclones produce, on average, an increase of 100% in the total daily precipitation in regards to days when they are absent, the overall contribution of upper-level troughs to total summer rainfall in the study area is approximately 27%, against a 13% contribution form tropical cyclones. It was found that upper level troughs have two areas of generation: one over the eastern subtropical Pacific where low pressure centers are mostly formed during the months of May and October (before and after the North American Monsoon season, NAM) and have eastward trajectories, and another over the Gulf of Mexico, where events are generated more frequently during the months of July and August (during the NAM), with westward trajectories. However, the mechanisms associated with the formation of upper-level troughs in each region, and how they affect the atmosphere enhancing the development of extreme precipitation events, are still unclear.

Master thesis

Vaguadas Precipitación Alta tropósfera CFSR Ciclones tropicales Trough Precipitation High troposphere Tropical cyclones CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA FÍSICA OTRAS ESPECIALIDADES FÍSICAS

Landfalling tropical cyclones on the Pacific coast of Mexico: 1850-2010

Graciela B. Raga BEATRIZ BRACAMONTES CEBALLOS LUIS MANUEL FARFAN MOLINA Rosario Romero-Centeno (2013)

Historical documents and newspapers from Mexican Pacific states (north of 14º N) were reviewed to determine the incidence of landfalling tropical cyclones from 1850 to 1949, prior to the start of the United States National Hurricane Center database. The reviewed documents are only found in Mexican repositories at national, state and municipal level and the systematic search embarked upon in this study yielded valuable information that cannot be found elsewhere. A time series of landfall was reconstructed back to 1850, indicating active and quiet periods. An average of 1.8 ± 1.6 landfalls per year is determined from the time series for 1850-2010. When the series is limited to 1880-2010, eliminating the first 30 years that may have some undercounting, the average increases to 2.1 ± 1.6 cases per year. Spectral and wavelet analysis of the 161 years of landfalling tropical cyclones indicates that the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) modulates the activity. The influence of El Niño/Southern Oscillation(ENSO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the landfall frequency may be present throughout the reconstruction period but both oscillations have lower correlations compared to that from the PDO.

Article

CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Tropical cyclones landfalling Pacific coast of Mexico

Landfalling tropical cyclones on the Pacific coast of Mexico: 1850-2010

Graciela B. Raga BEATRIZ BRACAMONTES CEBALLOS LUIS MANUEL FARFAN MOLINA Rosario Romero-Centeno (2013)

Historical documents and newspapers from Mexican Pacific states (north of 14º N) were reviewed to determine the incidence of landfalling tropical cyclones from 1850 to 1949, prior to the start of the United States National Hurricane Center database. The reviewed documents are only found in Mexican repositories at national, state and municipal level and the systematic search embarked upon in this study yielded valuable information that cannot be found elsewhere. A time series of landfall was reconstructed back to 1850, indicating active and quiet periods. An average of 1.8 ± 1.6 landfalls per year is determined from the time series for 1850-2010. When the series is limited to 1880-2010, eliminating the first 30 years that may have some undercounting, the average increases to 2.1 ± 1.6 cases per year. Spectral and wavelet analysis of the 161 years of landfalling tropical cyclones indicates that the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) modulates the activity. The influence of El Niño/Southern Oscillation(ENSO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the landfall frequency may be present throughout the reconstruction period but both oscillations have lower correlations compared to that from the PDO.

Article

CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Tropical cyclones landfalling Pacific coast of Mexico

Rapid deepening of tropical cyclones in the northeastern Tropical Pacific: The relationship with oceanic eddies

LUIS FERNANDO OROPEZA HERNANDEZ Graciela B. Raga (2015)

The National Hurricane Center best track archive data for the northeastern Tropical Pacific includes tropical cyclones (TC) that exhibited rapid and/or explosive deepening during the period 1993-2009. Concurrently, satellite altimeter observations show the northeastern Tropical Pacific populated by cyclonic and anticyclonic oceanic eddies. These two sources of data are used to study the role of oceanic eddies in the spatial distribution of the oceanic heat content and the rapid and/or explosive deepening of TCs in the northeastern Tropical Pacific. Analysis of the results demonstrates that: (1) Interaction between TCs and anticyclonic eddies occurred in ~ 73% of the TCs within the analyzed period; (2) 90% of the TCs that reached major hurricane category had experienced an interaction with anticyclonic eddies; (3) ~ 18% (3%) of the TCs were characterized by rapid (explosive) deepening and 74% of these TCs reached the deepening status after direct and/or indirect interaction with anticyclonic eddies; moreover, 86% of them reached a major hurricane category. Analysis of the atmospheric conditions demonstrates the important role of dry air intrusion along the vertical profile ofthe lower atmosphere as an inhibitor of tropical cyclone deepening.

Article

CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Tropical cyclones oceanic eddies rapid deepening CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Y DEL ESPACIO

Rapid deepening of tropical cyclones in the northeastern Tropical Pacific: The relationship with oceanic eddies

LUIS FERNANDO OROPEZA HERNANDEZ Graciela B. Raga (2015)

The National Hurricane Center best track archive data for the northeastern Tropical Pacific includes tropical cyclones (TC) that exhibited rapid and/or explosive deepening during the period 1993-2009. Concurrently, satellite altimeter observations show the northeastern Tropical Pacific populated by cyclonic and anticyclonic oceanic eddies. These two sources of data are used to study the role of oceanic eddies in the spatial distribution of the oceanic heat content and the rapid and/or explosive deepening of TCs in the northeastern Tropical Pacific. Analysis of the results demonstrates that: (1) Interaction between TCs and anticyclonic eddies occurred in ~ 73% of the TCs within the analyzed period; (2) 90% of the TCs that reached major hurricane category had experienced an interaction with anticyclonic eddies; (3) ~ 18% (3%) of the TCs were characterized by rapid (explosive) deepening and 74% of these TCs reached the deepening status after direct and/or indirect interaction with anticyclonic eddies; moreover, 86% of them reached a major hurricane category. Analysis of the atmospheric conditions demonstrates the important role of dry air intrusion along the vertical profile ofthe lower atmosphere as an inhibitor of tropical cyclone deepening.

Article

CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Tropical cyclones oceanic eddies rapid deepening CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Y DEL ESPACIO

Variability of rainfall from tropical cyclones in northwestern México and its relation to SOI and PDO

SARA CECILIA DIAZ CASTRO CESAR AUGUSTO SALINAS ZAVALA SERGIO HERNANDEZ VAZQUEZ (2008)

"Los ciclones tropicales afectan la región semiárida del noroeste mexicano con una frecuencia alta durante septiembre, trayendo con ellos importante precipitación. El presente estudio se realizó para obtener un mejor conocimiento de la variabilidad interanual de los ciclones tropicales, sus relaciones con otros fenómenos oceánico–atmosféricos y su ocurrencia interdecadal. Se analizaron y utilizaron registros diarios de lluvia de 534 estaciones meteorológicas para calcular el porcentaje de precipitación anual relacionado con los ciclones tropicales del Pacífico nororiental que afectaron la región de 1949 a 2002. Utilizando técnicas de interpolación, las estaciones fueron agrupadas en áreas de 1° x 1° y la forma en que los ciclones afectan las áreas se obtuvo utilizando el análisis de funciones empíricas ortogonales, con el que se pudieron identificar cinco regiones. Las series de variaciones interanuales representativas de cada región fueron analizadas para identificar cambios de la influencia de los ciclones tropicales en la lluvia anual. Se observó un gradiente en la influencia de los ciclones tropicales, declinando de sur a norte, principalmente en el área de la península. El cambio de régimen de 1976 es coincidente con un cambio de tendencia en las series de áreas con mayor influencia de ciclones tropicales. La influencia del índice de oscilación del sur (SOI, por sus siglas en inglés) es más fuerte en la parte norte de la región estudiada, mientras que la parte sur tiene una influencia más fuerte de la oscilación decadal del Pacífico (PDO, por sus siglas en inglés)."

"Tropical cyclones during September affect the semi–arid northwestern region of México with a relatively high frequency, bringing much–needed precipitation. This study provided a better understanding of tropical cyclone inter–annual variability, their relationships with other atmospheric–oceanic phenomena, and their inter–decadal occurrences. Daily rain data from 534 meteorological stations were analyzed and used to calculate the percentage of the annual precipitation related to tropical cyclones of the eastern North Pacific Ocean affecting the region from 1949 to 2002. Using interpolation techniques, the stations were grouped in 1º x 1° areas, and the area structure of the tropical cyclone influence was obtained using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) variable analysis to identify five regions. Representative inter–annual variation series from each region were analyzed to identify changes in the influence of tropical cyclones as part of the annual precipitation. A gradient of tropical cyclone influence was found declining from south to north, mainly in the peninsula area. A regime shift in 1976 is coincident with a shift trend in series from areas with larger tropical cyclones influence. The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) driving is stronger for the northern part of the region, while the southern part has stronger Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) influence."

Article

Tropical cyclones, eastern North Pacific Ocean, precipitation, SOI, PDO CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Y DEL ESPACIO METEOROLOGÍA METEOROLOGÍA MARINA

Assessment of Socio-Environmental Vulnerability Due to Tropical Cyclones in La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico

ELVIA AIDA MARIN MONROY Victor Hernandez_Trejo MIGUEL ANGEL OJEDA RUIZ DE LA PEÑA GERZAIN AVILES POLANCO (2020)

"Climate change will increase the likelihood of adverse events such as droughts, forest fires, and intensification of tropical cyclones, which are known to cause flooding (IPCC, 2014). The effects of these events are a cause of concern for both authorities and citizens, so they prioritize actions that reduce adverse impacts, especially in cities with higher risk. Therefore, the objective of this work was to measure the degree of socio-environmental vulnerability of households to identify the risk areas in the city of La Paz, Baja California Sur, one of the regions with a high degree of incidence of hurricanes in the northwest of Mexico. For this, surveys were carried out with heads of households in 251 homes, and information was aggregated to calculate the vulnerability index through principal components analysis (PCA), which were stratified by the Dalenius–Hodges method, the degree of vulnerability was classified into three categories by the Opiyo method, considering three strata of the Likert scale, 1 = highly vulnerable, 2 = moderately vulnerable, 3 = less vulnerable. The results showed that households that are in the highly vulnerable category are 33% within a range of the index −3.77243 to −0.939141. Moderately vulnerable households constitute 36% with values from −0.929141 to 0.956385. While the least vulnerable represent 31% of households with an index range of 0.966385 to 5.6952. The results have revealed the levels of high and moderate socio-environmental vulnerability by tropical cyclones of 69% homes in La Paz. The above allowed to generate risk maps that will be taken into account in planning and civil protection over adverse events."

Article

risk index, vulnerable population, tropical cyclones, maps, Mexico northwest CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Y DEL ESPACIO CLIMATOLOGÍA CLIMATOLOGÍA REGIONAL CLIMATOLOGÍA REGIONAL

Tropical Cyclone Landfall Frequency and Large-Scale Environmental Impacts along Karstic Coastal Regions (Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico)

LUIS MANUEL FARFAN MOLINA Luis Brito Castillo JORGE CORTES RAMOS Eduardo González Rodríguez (2020)

"Tropical cyclones (TCs) are natural systems that develop over ocean basins and are key components of the atmospheric activity during the warm season. However, there are still knowledge gaps about the combined positive and negative TC impacts on the structure and function of coastal socio-ecosystems. Using remote sensing tools, we analyzed the frequency, trajectory, and intensity of 1894 TCs from 1851–2019 to identify vulnerable “hotspots” across the Yucatan Peninsula (YP), Mexico. A total of 151 events hit the YP, with 96% of landings on the eastern coast. We focused on three major hurricanes (Emily andWilma, 2005; Dean, 2007) and one tropical storm (Stan, 2005) to determine the impacts on cumulative precipitation, vegetation change, and coastal phytoplankton (Chl-a) distribution across the YP. Despite a short inland incursion, Wilma’s environmental damage was coupled to strong winds (157–241 km/h), slow motion (4–9 km/h), and heavy precipitation (up to 770 mm). Because of an extensive footprint, Wilma caused more vegetation damage (29%) tan Dean (20%), Emily (7%), and Stan (2%). All TCs caused a Chl-a increase associated to submarine discharge and upwelling o_ the peninsula coastlines. Disaster risk along the coast underscores negative economic impacts and positive ecological benefits at the regional scale."

Article

tropical cyclones, satellite datasets, vegetation change, ocean productivity, karstic coast, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Y DEL ESPACIO CLIMATOLOGÍA METEOROLOGÍA POR SATÉLITES METEOROLOGÍA POR SATÉLITES

Etnozoología del ejido Sinaloa 1ra Sección Cárdenas Tabasco, México

CARLOS ALBERTO MARTINEZ MARQUEZ (2011)

Tesis (Maestro en Ciencias, especialista en Producción Agroalimentaria en el Trópico).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2011.

La utilización de la fauna ha estado ligada a la humanidad desde sus inicios, convirtiéndose en una de las actividades principales de las comunidades rurales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer el uso de la fauna y su valoración en el ejido Sinaloa 1ra sección del municipio de Cárdenas, Tabasco. Se utilizó el método etnográfico, informantes claves y entrevistas semi-estructuradas. Para conocer el número de personas a entrevistar se determinó el tamaño de muestra, seguidamente se identificaron las especies utilizadas, se calculó la diversidad de uso y se cotejaron las especies con la NOM-059-ECOL-2001. Se identificaron 124 especies utilizadas, de las cuales tres fueron moluscos, seis crustáceos, cuatro anfibios, siete mamíferos, 10 reptiles, 41 aves y 53 peces. Se determinaron 11 tipos de usos, los cuales incluyen abono, alimento, cacería y pesca, carnada, comercio, mascota, medicinal, observación, ornato, relleno de terreno y negativo. Los mayores porcentajes de uso obtuvieron para alimento, comercio, cacería y pesca, minetras que los menores fueron para el abono, relleno de terreno y medicinal. El grupo faunístico con mayor porcentaje de usos fueron los peces, y el de menor porcentaje los anfibios. La diversidad de uso según el índice de Shannon-Wiener (H`) fue de 4.47. El mayor número de especies por grupo faunístico fue para los peces con 53 y el menor para los anfibios con cuatro; El grupo faunístico con usos más diversificados fueron los reptiles y los anfibios el menos diversificado. La especie con mayor valor de uso fue el ostión (Crassostrea virginica), las especies con menor valor fueron garza azul (Egretta caerulea), playerito (Calidris minutilla) y golondrina (Stelgidopteryx serripennis). Se registraron ocho especies en estatus de vulnerabilidad de acuerdo a la NOM-059-ECOL-2001. _______________ ETHNOZOOLOGY OF THE 1st SECTION EJIDO SINALOA CARDENAS TABASCO, MEXICO. ABSTRACT: Wildlife use has been linked to the humanity since their beginning. Currently wildlife use is the most important activity in some rural communities. This research was realized for valuating the fauna use at the Ejido Sinaloa 1st sección, municipality of Cárdenas, Tabasco. An ethnographic method was applied using semi-structured interviews to a sample of key informants. Local fauna and the kind of use were identified. Species were compared with the NOM-059-ECOL-2001. List as a result 124 species were registered, three of them molluscs, six crustaceans, four amphibians, seven mammals, 10 reptiles, 41 birds and 53 fishes. Eleven types of local uses were identified: as fertilizer, food, hunting and fishing, bait, commerce, pet, medication, watching, adornment, landfill and negative. The highest percentages for use were: food, hunting and fishing, and commerce. Fertilizer, medication and landfill had the lowest. Fish group had the highest use percentage. Meanwhile amphibians were the lowest. The use diversity was 4.47. Fish had the highest specie number per group with 53% and amphibians were the lowest with 4%. The reptile group had more uses variety and amphibians were the least used. Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) was the specie with the highest use value and Egretta caerulea, Calidris minutilla and Stelgidopteryx serripennis were the lowest. Eight fauna species in a vulnerability status by NOM-059-ECOL-2001 were registered.

Master thesis

Etnobiología Tropical Etnozoología Conocimiento tradicional Ethnobiology Ethnozoology Traditional knowledge Maestría Producción Agroalimentaria en el Trópico CIENCIAS SOCIALES

Predicción de cambios de peso de bovinos pastoreando en trópico: desarrollo y aplicación de un modelo de simulación

GILBERTO CARLOS ORTEGA NAVARRO (2011)

Tesis (Doctorado en Ciencias, especialista en Ganadería).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2011.

El presente estudio comprendió tres etapas, que consistieron en 1 (Capítulo 1), desarrollar un modelo para predecir la ganancia de peso vivo vacío (GPV) de toros pastoreando praderas en zonas tropicales con y sin complemento alimenticio (MCPV); 2 (Capítulo 2), realizar un análisis de sensibilidad del modelo desarrollado descrito en el capítulo dos, utilizando las técnicas uno a la vez y multi pasos, y 3 (Capítulo 3), realizar un análisis comparativo de las predicciones de ganancia de peso de toros ayunados (GPAp) utilizando el MCPV y modelo del NRC, éste último, considerando la energía metabolizable (MNRC EM) y proteína metabolizable (MNRC PM). En el capítulo uno, se describe el procedimiento que se siguió para la construcción del modelo, utilizando las ecuaciones desarrolladas por Lofgreen y Garrett (1968), ARC (1980), NRC (1984) y CSIRO (1990), empleándose la base de datos de once experimentos con ganado bovino engordado en praderas tropicales. Para la evaluación de las predicciones de las ganancias de peso y determinación de la exactitud de los modelos involucrados, se realizó un análisis de regresión, prueba de medias, y se generaron los estadísticos de prueba como tendencia media (MB), cuadrado medio del error de predicción (MSPE), raíz de MSPE, variación residual (RV) y error absoluto medio (MAE). Los resultados indican una subestimación en la GPV en 25% aproximadamente, y de acuerdo a los estadísticos de prueba, análisis de regresión y prueba de medias, se considera que el modelo tiene una baja exactitud para predecir la GPV. El análisis de sensibilidad con el procedimiento uno a la vez, indican que la entrada FD generó el mayor cambio en todas las salidas del modelo, con valores de 0.4641, 38.0873 y 0.0285 para las salidas GPVp, CMS y energía disponible para ganancia (EDG), respectivamente. Con el procedimiento multipasos, la máxima GPVp se obtiene con la combinación de las entradas digestibilidad de la MS del forraje con el valor de 58.3% y con la entrada forraje disponible, con un valor de 3.5 t MS ha-1. El análisis comparativo de los las ganancias de peso residuales (GPAr) con los MCPV, MNRCEM y MNRCPM fueron -0.184, -0.284 y -0.149, respectivamente. Se concluye que existe una subestimación de los modelos MCPV, MNRCEM y MNRCPM, y cuando se considera solamente la energía disponible, el MCPV tiene una mejor GPAp que la del MNRC EM. _______________ PREDICTING WEIGHT CHANGES IN BOVINES GRAZING IN THE TROPICS:

DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A SIMULATION MODEL. ABSTRACT: The present study was done in three stages: 1 (Chapter 1), developing a model to predict live empty weight gain (LEW) of bulls grazing in tropical grasslands without an alimentary complement (MCPV); 2 (Chapter 2), doing a sensibility analysis of the developed model described in Chapter 2, using two techniques –one at a time and multistep; and 3 (Chapter 3), doing a comparative analysis of the predictions of weight gain in fasted bulls (GPAp) using the MCPV and model of the NRC, this latter considering metabolisable energy (MNRC EM) and metabolisable protein (MNRC PM). In Chapter one is described the procedure followed to build the model, using the equations developed by Lofgreen and Garrett (1968), ARC (1980), NRC (1984), and CSIRO (1990), using the database from eleven experiments with bovine livestock grown in tropical grasslands. To evaluate the predictions in weight gain and determine the accuracy of the involved models were done a regression analysis, mean test, and test statistics were generated, such as mean tendency (MB), mean square prediction error (MSPE), root of the MSPE, residual variation, and mean absolute error (MAE). The results indicate an underestimation of LEW of approximately 25%, and according to the test statistics, regression analysis and mean test, the model is considered to have a low accuracy in predicting LEW. The sensibility analysis with the one at a time procedure indicates that the AF input generated the greatest changes in all the outputs of the model; values 0.4641, 38.0873, and 0.0285 for outputs EWG, DMC, and available energy for gain (AEG), respectively. With the multistep procedure, the greatest EWG is obtained by combining the inputs digestibility of forage DM with a value of 58.3% and available forage, with a value of 3.5 t DM ha-1. The comparative analysis of the predictions for GPAr with MCPV, MNRCEM, and MNRCPM were -0.184, -0.284, and -0.149, respectively. It is concluded that there is an underestimation of the MCPV, MNRCEM, and MNRCPM models, and when on available energy is considered, the MCPV has a better prediction of GPA than does MNRC EM.

Doctoral thesis

Bos indicus Tropical Energía Sensible Magnitud de entrada NRC Energy Input magnitude Doctorado Ganadería CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA