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Autonomous Motion Planning for Avatar Limbs

CRISTIAN EDUARDO BOYAIN Y GOYTIA LUNA ANDRES MENDEZ VAZQUEZ Marco Antonio Ramos Corchado (2015)

In this work, a new algorithm for autonomous avatar motion is presented. The new algorithm is based in the Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT) and an appropriate ontology. It uses a novel approach for calculating the motion sequence planning for the different avatar limbs: legs or arms. First, the algorithm uses the information stored in the ontology concerning the avatar structure and the Degrees Of Freedom (DOFs) to obtain the basic actions for motion planning. Second, this information is used to perform the growth process in the RRT algorithm. Then, all this information is used to produce planning. The plans are generated by a random search for possible motions that respect the structural restrictions of the avatar on kinesiology studies. To avoid a big configuration space search, exploration, exploitation, and hill climbing are used in order to obtain motion plans.

Article

Computación Avatar rapidly-exploring random tree degree of freedom ontology kinesiology INGENIERÍA Y TECNOLOGÍA

Ideales basados en gráficas y sus invariantes cardinales

José de Jesús Pelayo Gómez (2014)

Instituto de Física y Matemáticas. Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas. Unidad Morelia del Instituto de Matemáticas de la UNAM. Programa Conjunto de Maestría en Matemáticas

The aim of this work is studding some ideals based on graphs, specially the ideals Gaff, Gc and the random graph ideal. Also we want to say something about its cardinal invariants. It’s spected that the reader has knowledge of descriptive set theory, graph theory (although this is not necessary) and cardinal invariants like b, r y s. You can find about it in [7] and [8].

La idea de este trabajo es estudiar algunos ideales basados en gráficas, en particular lo ideales Gfc, Gc y el ideal de la gráfica aleatoria, además decir algo acerca de sus invariantes cardinales. Se espera que el lector tenga conocimientos básicos de teoría descriptiva de conjuntos, una referencia sobre el tema la puede encontrar en [7]; tenga algunos conocimientos acerca de teoría de graficas (aunque esto no es tan necesario, como referencia puede consultar [8]) y conozca algunos invariantes cardinales del continuo, tales como b, r y s.

Master thesis

CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA IFM-M-2014-0096 Tesina Random Invariante

Evaluación nutricional de plantas forrajeras consumidas por caprinos en pastoreo de la Mixteca Oaxaqueña

JOSÉ CARLOS LÓPEZ OJEDA (2015)

Tesis (Maestría en Ciencias, especialista en Ganadería).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2015.

El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar y valorar nutricionalmente plantas forrajeras consumidas por el ganado caprino en pastoreo en dos épocas del año, en 5 comunidades de la región Mixteca en Oaxaca, Chocani, Guadalupe Cuautepec, Guadalupe la Huertilla, San Marcos Arteaga y Santa María Tindú. Se recolectaron 182 muestras, las cuales fueron de 81 árboles, 51 arbustivas, 34 herbáceas y 16 vainas. Además, se realizaron 7 mezclas de forraje, árboles, arbustivas, herbáceas, árboles x arbustivas, árboles x herbáceas, arbustivas x herbáceas y árboles x arbustivas x herbáceas. Se determinó su contenido de MS, MO, PC, FDN y DIVMS. Para mezclas se determinó su producción de gas in vitro y fracciones de proteína (A, B, B1, B2, B3 y C). Por estación, en época de lluvia los contenidos de MS y FDN fueron diferentes (p<0.05) respecto a la sequía. Sin embargo, en la sequía la PC fue diferente (p<0.05) respecto a lluvia. Por tipo de forraje, el contenido de MS en vainas fue distinto (p<0.05) respecto arbustivas. Las concentraciones de MO y FDN en vainas fueron diferentes (p<0.05) en comparación con arbustos y herbáceas. La PC no tuvo diferencias entre forrajes. La DIVMS de árboles fue diferente (p<0.05) a vainas. Por comunidad, la MS fue distinta (p<0.05) entre Tindú, Huertilla y Cuautepec, además San Marcos fue igual a Tindú y Huertilla; y Chocani no difirió de la Huertilla y Cuautepec. Las concentraciones de MO y FDN no mostraron diferencia (p>0.05) entre comunidades. La Huertilla y Tindú difieren (p<0.05) en PC. La DIVMS es similar en Chocani y Tindú pero difieren (p<0.05) con Cuautepec, Huertilla y San Marcos. En cuanto a la producción de gas (mL por g-1 de MS) a 72 h, por mezcla las herbáceas fueron las de mayor producción de gas y son diferentes (p<0.05) con árboles, árboles*arbustivas y arbustivas. Referente a las fracciones de proteína, en lluvia no se encontraron diferencias (p>0.05) para las diversas mezclas. No obstante, en la estación de lluvia se mostraron diferencias (p<0.05) en las fracciones A (herbáceas), B (arbustivas), B2 (arbustivas) y B3 (árboles) respecto a las demás mezclas. Se concluye que en la Mixteca Oaxaqueña el alto valor nutricional de los forrajes consumidos por el ganado caprino representa una alternativa para mejorar la sustentabilidad del sistema de producción. _______________ NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF FORAGE CONSUMED BY GOATS GRAZING ON THE MIXTECA REGION OF OAXACA. ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to carry out nutritional assessment of forage plants and its relationship with nutritional status of goats grazing in two seasons. 5 communities in the Mixteca region in Oaxaca, Chocani, Cuautepec Guadalupe, Guadalupe Huertilla, San Marcos Arteaga and Santa Maria Tindú. A total of 182 samples were collected, of which 81 trees were, 51 shrubs, 34 herbs and 16 pods. Besides 7 mixtures of forages were made: trees, shrubs, herbs, trees x shrubs, trees x herbs, trees x herbs and shrubs x trees x herbs. DM content as well as OM, CP, NDF, and IVDMD were determined. For mixtures, in vitro production of gas and protein fractions (A, B, B1, B2, B3 and C) was determined. During the rainy season the contents of DM and NDF were different (p <0.05) compared to the drought. However, the PC during drought was different (p <0.05) than during the rainy season. By type of forage DM content in pods was different (p <0.05) compared to shrub. The OM and NDF concentrations in pods were different (p <0.05) compared with shrubs and herbaceous. The PC did not differ between fodders. The IVDMD of trees was different (p <0.05) than pods. By community, the DM was different (p <0.05) between Tindú, Huertilla and Cuautepec, San Marcos also equaled Tindú and Huertilla; Chocani and did not differ from Huertilla and Cuautepec. The concentrations of OM and NDF showed no difference (p> 0.05) between communities. The Huertilla and Tindú showed different (p <0.05) CP content. IVDMD was similar in Chocani and Tindú but differ (p <0.05) with Cuautepec, Huertilla and San Marcos. As for gas production of the mixtures (mL GMS-1) to 72 hours, the mixture that had the highest gas production were the herbaceous, (p <0.05) than trees, shrubs and bushes X trees. Regarding protein fractions, in rain no differences (p> 0.05) for the various mixtures were found. However, in the rainy season (p <0.05) in sections A (herbs), B (shrub), B2 (shrub) and B3 (trees) for other mixtures were shown. It is concluded that in the Oaxacan Mixteca nutritional value of forage consumed by goats represent an important opportunity to improve the sustainability of the production system.

Master thesis

Cabras Pastoreo Árbol Arbustiva Herbácea FDN DIVMS Fracciones de proteína Goats Grazing Feeding Tree Shrub Herb NDF IVDMD Fraction protein Ganadería Maestría CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS CIENCIAS VETERINARIAS NUTRICIÓN

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LEGUMINOUS TREE FOLIAGE AND EFFECT OF POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL ON GAS PRODUCTION AND IN VITRO DIGESTION PARAMETERS

Jaime Olivares Pérez FRANC AVILES NOVA BENITO ALBARRAN PORTILLO SAUL ROJAS HERNANDEZ ALEJANDRO CORDOVA IZQUIERDO ABEL EDMUNDO VILLA MANCERA OCTAVIO ALONSO CASTELAN ORTEGA (2014)

The objective was to determine the chemical composition, digestibility and in vitro digestion parameters in ten legume tree foliage using the in vitro gas-production method with and without polyethylene glycol (PEG). The foliages with higher protein content (P<0.001) (167.1 to 180.3 g/kg DM) were A. cochliacantha, L. esculenta, E. cyclocarpum and A. farnesiana; from the total phenols (P<0.001) (365.9 to 680.6 g/kg DM) L. divaricata, H. brasiletto and C. coriaria and condensed tannins (P<0.001) (35.4 to 88.0 g/kg DM) E. cyclocarpum, A. farnesiana, P. dulce, P. acatlense and G. sepium. The in vitro dry matter digestibility was different (P<0.001) among the foliages. The in vitro gas production (IVGP), in vitro organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy (ME), gas yield (GY24h), short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and microbial mass production (PMM), were different (P<0.0001) among the foliage as a result of the species. The use of PEG increased (P<0.0001) IVGP, ME, GY24h and SCFA in H brasiletto, C. coriaria, L. esculenta and A. cochliacantha, but affect (P<0.0001) the partition factor and the PMM. The nutritional composition and fermentation parameters in vitro between foliages differ by effect of tree and use of PEG. It is concluded that chemical composition in the foliages affect the digestibility and fermentation parameters and use of PEG increased fermentation parameters in the foliages high in secondary compounds.

Article

Agrociencias Tree PEG tannins phenols microbial mass production CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Gas permeability and selectivity of hexafluoroisopropylidene aromatic isophthalic copolyamides

CRISTIAN CARRERA FIGUEIRAS MANUEL DE JESUS AGUILAR VEGA (2005)

The synthesis, thermal, and gas transport properties of poly(hexafluoroisopropylidene isophthalamide), HFA/ISO homopolymer, and HFA/TERT-co-HFA/ISO copolyamides with different poly(hexafluoroisopropilydene-5- t-butylisophthalamide), HFA/TERT, ratios are reported. The results indicate that the glass transition temperatures of the copolyamides increase as the concentration of HFA/TERT in the polyamide increases. The gas permeability coefficients in the polyamides and copolyamides are independent of pressure or decrease slightly particularly with CO2, N2, and CH 4. It was seen that HFA/TERT is 2-6 times more permeable than HFA/ISO, depending on the gas being considered. This was assigned to the presence of the bulky lateral substituent, t-butyl group in HFA/TERT and HFA/TERT-co-HFA/ISO copolyamides. This substituent increases fractional free-volume, as expected. Therefore, the gas permeability and diffusion coefficients generally increase with increasing fractional free-volume. The experimental results for the gas permeability and permselectivity for the copolyamides was well represented by a logarithmic mixing rule of the homopolyamides permeability coefficients and their volume fraction. The selectivity of gas pairs, such as O2/N2, CO 2/CH4, and N2/CH4 decreased slightly with the addition of HFA/TERT. The temperature dependence of permeability for homopolyamides and copolyamides can be described by an Arrhenius type equation.

Article

AROMATIC POLYAMIDES GAS PERMEATION GAS TRANSPORT PROPERTIES ISOPHTHALIC ARAMIDS RANDOM COPOLYAMIDES INGENIERÍA Y TECNOLOGÍA

An energy-based model for region-labeling

Hugo Jair Escalante Balderas Manuel Montes y Gómez Luis Enrique Sucar Succar (2011)

This paper introduces an energy-based model (EBM) for region labeling that takes advantage of both context and semantics present in segmented images.The proposed method refines the output of multiclass classification methods that are based on the one-vs-all (OVA) formulation. Intuitively, the EBM maximizes the semantic cohesion among labels assigned to neighboring regions; that is, a tradeoff between label-association information and the predictions from the base classifier. Additionally, we study the suitability of OVA classification for the region labeling task. We report experimental results of our methods in 12 heterogeneous data sets that have been used for the evaluation of different tasks besides region labeling. On the one hand, our results reveal that the OVA approach offers an important potential of improvement in terms of labeling performance that can be exploited by refinement techniques similar to ours. On the other hand, experimental results show that our EBM improves the labeling provided by the base classifier. The EBM is highly efficient and it can be applied without modifications to different data sets. The heterogeneity of the considered databases shows the generality of our approach and its robustness to different scenarios. Our results are superior to other techniques that have been tested in the same collections. Furthermore, results on image retrieval show that the labels generated with our EBM can be helpful for annotation-based image retrieval.

Article

Region labeling Energy-based modeling Random forest Image annotation Object recognition CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA MATEMÁTICAS CIENCIA DE LOS ORDENADORES CIENCIA DE LOS ORDENADORES

Proteínas en frutos secos: algo más que alérgenos

Nuts Protein: more than allergen

CARLOS ALBERTO RANGEL RODRIGUEZ LAURA ALEJANDRA ARDILLA DE LA ROSA CARRILLO (2013)

Los frutos secos poseen propiedades benéficas para la salud, por lo que éstos forman parte de la dieta en humanos; sin embargo, también son un riesgo en consumidores sensibles a alérgenos proteicos presentes en frutos secos. Por ello, gran parte de la investigación sobre las proteínas de los frutos secos se enfoca en determinar alergénicos presentes en ellos y en generar métodos que simplifiquen su identificación. De esta manera, las técnicas proteómicas han sido aplicadas recientemente en este campo de la investigación en alimentos. Además, la proteómica también juega un rol importante en el estudio de frutos secos almacenados, con la finalidad de preservar las propiedades nutricionales el mayor tiempo posible. Por último, interesa determinar las posibles diferencias proteómicas en frutos de una misma especie, ocasionadas por factores ambientales, permitiendo obtener nueva información respecto a las proteínas presentes en alimentos benéficos para la salud.

Dry fruits, like nuts, possess beneficial properties for health, therefore, they are already part of the human diet; however, they are also a health risk to consumers sensitive to peptide allergens present in nuts. Research in nut proteins has mainly focused on determining nut allergens and in generating methods to simplify their identification. This is how proteomic techniques have been recently applied in this food research area. Proteomics also plays an important role in the study of stored tree nuts, in order to preserve the nutritional properties a long period of time, and finally, in the evaluation of differences in fruits of the same species, caused by environmental factors. Proteomic studies are helpful in creating and implementing new technological tools and methodological strategies for gathering information in the proteins of these foods beneficial to health.

Article

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA Proteómica Frutos secos Alergénicos Almacenaje Ambiente Proteomics Tree nuts Allergenic Storage Environmental

Estimación regional de biomasa aérea en la península de Yucatán mediante tecnología geoespacial.

ALMA DELIA ORTIZ REYES (2019)

Tesis (Doctorado en Ciencias Forestales).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2019.

Caracterizar la distribución espacial e incertidumbre de la biomasa aérea en bosques tropicales sobre áreas extensas es factible mediante el uso combinado de datos de campo, LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) y datos espectrales. Se colectaron datos en tres niveles y se empleó una estrategia de modelado que permitió la estimación de biomasa aérea y su incertidumbre asociada a nivel regional, en dos tipos de selva mediana subperennifolia (SMSP) y subcaducifolia (SMSC) en la Península de Yucatán, México. En una primera fase, se relacionaron los datos de campo y LiDAR en franjas mediante regresión lineal múltiple y Random Forest (RF). El modelo de regresión transformado explicó en mayor proporción la varianza para ambos tipos de vegetación, mientras que RF arrojó los valores menores de RMSE. En la segunda fase, una cierta combinación de variables espectrales y climáticas explicaron la varianza en 50% mediante RF (RMSE = 34.2 Mg ha-1 SMSP; 26.2 Mg ha-1 SMSC). Finalmente se evaluó la incertidumbre, a nivel de pixel, mediante el algoritmo Quantile Regression Forests (QRF). Se reportan intervalos de incertidumbre de 0 a 250 Mg ha-1 para SMSP y de 0 a 140 Mg ha-1 para SMSC. Los resultados obtenidos apoyan la idea de utilizar datos LiDAR como una herramienta de muestreo, así como, variables auxiliares de diversas fuentes para estimar parámetros forestales de interés en áreas extensas. Contar con mapas de distribución espacial e incertidumbre de biomasa aérea a este nivel, ayudará a evaluar y proponer estrategias frente al desafío que supone el cambio climático global, sobre todo en bosques tropicales distribuidos en áreas geográficas extensas y dada su naturaleza compleja y dinámica. _______________ ESTIMATION OF ABOVE-GROUND BIOMASS AT REGIONAL LEVEL IN THE YUCATAN PENINSULA USING GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY. ABSTRACT: Characterizing spatial distribution and uncertainty of above-ground biomass in tropical forests over large areas is feasible through combined use of field data, LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) and spectral data. Data were collected at three levels and a modeling strategy was used, which allowed the estimation of above-ground biomass and its associated uncertainty at regional level, in two types of tropical forest: semi-evergreen (SETF) and semi-deciduous tropical forest (SDTF) in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. First, field data and LiDAR data in strips were related by multiple linear regression and Random Forest (RF). Second, a particular combination of spectral and climatic variables explained the variance in 50% by RF (RMSE = 34.2 Mg ha-1 SETF; 26.2 Mg ha-1 SDTF). Finally, uncertainty was evaluated, at pixel level, using Quantile Regression Forests (QRF) algorithm. Uncertainty intervals of 0 to 250 Mg ha-1 for SETF and 0 to 140 Mg ha-1 for SMSC were reported. The results support the idea of using LiDAR data as a sampling tool, as well as, auxiliary variables from various sources to estimate forest parameters of interest in large areas. Having maps of spatial distribution and uncertainty of above-ground biomass at this level will help to evaluate and propose strategies to face the challenge by global climate change, especially in tropical forests distributed in large geographical areas and given their complex and dynamic nature.

Doctoral thesis

Bosque tropical LiDAR Incertidumbre Random Forest Landsat Tropical forest Uncertainty Ciencias Forestales Doctorado CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS CIENCIA FORESTAL OTRAS

De novo transcriptome sequencing in Bixa orellana to identify genes involved in methylerythritol phosphate, carotenoid and bixin biosynthesis

RENATA LOURDES BARBARA RIVERA MADRID (2015)

Bixin or annatto is a commercially important natural orange-red pigment derived from lycopene that is produced and stored in seeds of Bixa orellana L. An enzymatic pathway for bixin biosynthesis was inferred from homology of putative proteins encoded by differentially expressed seed cDNAs. Some activities were later validated in a heterologous system. Nevertheless, much of the pathway remains to be clarified. For example, it is essential to identify the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) and carotenoid pathways genes.

Article

ANNATTO BIXA ORELLANA LIPSTICK TREE TRANSCRIPTOME BIXIN SYNTHESIS BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Nutrición focalizada con frutos de leguminosas tropicales (Chloroleucon mangense y Acacia cochliacantha) en el comportamiento reproductivo de la oveja Pelibuey.

GUSTAVO SOSA PÉREZ (2017)

Tesis (Doctorado en Ciencias, especialista en Ganadería).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2017.

Se evaluó, la composición química, degradabilidad ruminal In situ (PNDR) y degradabilidad intestinal de la proteína (PID) en harina de frutos de Chloroleucon mangense, y Acacia cochliacantha así como de la mezcla de estas (50 - 50 %). Los frutos presentaron características nutricionales adecuadas para complementar la alimentación de ovinos. Acacia cochliacantha presentó los mayores porcentajes (p<0.05), para PNDR y PID, respecto a Choroleucon mangense y la mezcla. Al estimar la alimentación de 100 g de estos frutos así como de la mezcla, ésta fue superior (p<0.05) g PNDR y g PID respecto a los frutos de A. cochliacantha. Al evaluar la nutrición focalizada por siete días con 500 g de la mezcla, en el comportamiento reproductivo de ovejas Pelibuey, se observó en hembras cíclicas sincronizadas con progestágenos, un incremento (p<0.05) en la población de folículos mayores a 4 mm, reducción (p<0.05) del tiempo al inicio del estro y mayor (p<0.05) duración del estro, mayores (p<0.05) concentraciones de progesterona plasmática en los días 7 y 8 después de las manifestaciones externas de estro, así como una mayor (p<0.05) tasa ovulatoria, prolificidad y fecundidad en las hembras que recibieron la complementación nutricional con frutos de leguminosas con relación a hembras que no la recibieron. En hembras en anestro postparto con dos modalidades de amamantamiento (continuo y controlado) y la complementación nutricional durante siete días con 500 g de la mezcla (50 - 50 %) durante un protocolo de inducción al estro a base de progestágenos, se observó un menor (p<0.05) tiempo al inicio del estro, así como una mayor (p<0.05) tasa ovulatoria, prolificidad y fecundidad en animales con amamantamiento controlado y que recibieron la complementación nutricional, que en ovejas en amamantamiento continuo sin la complementación. La mezcla de frutos (Chloroleucon mangense 50 y Acacia cochliacantha 50 %) permite un uso eficiente de la proteína, al incrementar la cantidad de proteína digerida en intestino, por lo cual es una alternativa como suplemento para reducir el inicio al estro, incrementar la población de folículos mayores a 4 mm, la tasa ovulatoria, las concentraciones plasmáticas de progesterona, la prolificidad y fecundidad en ovejas Pelibuey. _______________ SUPPLEMENTATION FOCUS WITH TROPICAL FRUIT LEGUMES (Chloroleucon mangense, Acacia cochliacantha) IN REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR EWE PELIBUEY. ABSTRACT: Chemical composition, ruminal degradability in situ (PNDR) and intestinal degradability of protein (PID) in fruits flour of Chloroleucon mangense, and Acacia cochliacantha as well as the mixture of these (50 - 50%) were evaluated. The fruits showed adequate nutritional characteristics to supplement the feeding of sheep. Acacia cochliacantha presented the highest percentages (p <0.05), for PNDR and PID, with respect to Choroleucon mangense and the mixture. When estimating the feed of 100 g of these fruits as well as the mixture, it was higher (p <0.05) g PNDR and g PID with respect to the fruits of A. cochliacantha. During the evaluation of seven-day focused nutrition with 500 g of the mixture, in Pelibuey sheep reproductive behavior, we observed increase (p <0.05) in the population of follicles greater than 4 mm tan the observed in cyclic females synchronized with progestagens, also we observed a reduction (P <0.05) of the time at the beginning of estrus and a greater (p <0.05) duration of estrus, a higher (p <0.05) concentrations of plasma progesterone on days 7 and 8 after external manifestations of estrus, as well as greater (P <0.05) ovulatory, prolificacy and fecundity rates in females receiving nutritional supplementation with legume fruits in relation to females that did not receive it. In females in postnatal anestrus with two modalities of continuous and controlled feeding and nutritional supplementation during seven days with 500 g of the mixture (50-50%) during a protocol of induction to estrogen on the basis of progestogen, we observed a minor (P <0.05) time at the beginning of estrus, as well as a higher (p <0.05) ovulation rate, prolificity and fecundity in animals with controlled suckling and receiving nutritional supplementation than in sheep in continuous suckling without supplementation. The fruit mixture (Chloroleucon mangense 50 and Acacia cochliacantha 50%) allows an efficient use of the protein, by increasing the amount of protein digested in the intestine, making it an alternative as a supplement to reduce the onset of estrus, increase the population Of follicles greater than 4 mm, ovulation rate, progesterone plasma concentrations, prolificity and fecundity in Pelibuey sheep.

Doctoral thesis

Frutos de árboles Leguminosas Nutrición focalizada Parámetros reproductivos Ovejas Pelibuey Tree fruits Legumes Focused nutrition Reproductive parameters Sheep Pelibuey Ganadería Doctorado CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS PRODUCCIÓN ANIMAL OVINOS