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Evaluación de la calidad de la evidencia de los resultados e impactos del Programa Estratégico de Seguridad Alimentaria (PESA) en México

Evaluation of the quality of the evidence of the results and impacts of the Programa Estratégico de Seguridad Alimentaria (PESA) in Mexico

SANDRA AMYRIS GIMATE BAÑOS Manrrubio Munoz_Rodriguez ANTONIO ISMAEL ACEVEDO PERALTA (2018)

El Programa Estratégico de Seguridad Alimentaria (PESA) ha permanecido vigente por más de diez años sin cambios sustanciales en su objetivo y metodología y población beneficiada, aunque ha registrado importantes cambios en cobertura, magnitud del gasto público además de transiciones políticas. Este programa busca alcanzar la seguridad alimentaria y favorecer el incremento en ingresos de la población rural pobre mediante proyectos productivos y desarrollo de capacidades. Se caracteriza el tipo y calidad de la evidencia ofrecida por las evaluaciones respecto a los resultados e impactos a través de una revisión sistemática. Si bien hay coincidencia en torno al incremento en la disponibilidad física de alimentos, se observa una gran discrepancia en la magnitud de los impactos reportados por las evaluaciones además de una baja relevancia. Se concluye que existe insuficiente evidencia que justifique el incremento sustancial del gasto público, así como el gran crecimiento de la cobertura geográfica.

The Programa Estratégico de Seguridad Alimentaria (PESA) has remained in force for more than ten years without substantial changes to its objective, methodology and beneficiary population, although there have been significant changes in coverage, magnitude of public spending, and political transitions. This program seeks to achieve food security and to promote an increase in income of poor rural populations through productive projects and skills development. The type and quality of the evidence provided (through a systematic review) by the assessments of the results and impacts are characterized. While there is agreement about the increased physical availability of food, a large discrepancy in the magnitude of impacts reported by the evaluations is observed along with a low relevance. It is concluded that there is insufficient evidence to justify the substantial increase in public spending and the great growth of geographical coverage.

Article

SPFS (Strategic Project for Food Security) CIENCIAS SOCIALES Política basada en la evidencia PESA (Proyecto Estratégico de Seguridad Alimentaria) Rendición de cuentas Seguridad alimentaria Evaluación de programas Evidence-based policy Accountability Food safety Program evaluation

Radiación gamma y manejo nutrimental en la producción y calidad del chile chilhuacle (Capsicum annuum L Solanaceae)

VICTOR GARCIA GAYTAN (2018)

Tesis (Doctorado en Ciencias, especialista en Edafología).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2018.

Existen factores adversos como sequía, calor, frío, infecciones por patógenos, que tiene un impacto negativo sobre el rendimiento de los cultivos a nivel mundial. Por tanto, el potencial de rendimiento debe incrementarse frente a estos problemas. El mejoramiento de los cultivos sigue siendo una necesidad importante, puesto que aún no hemos sido capaces de satisfacer la demanda de alimentos a nivel mundial. La radiación gamma es un método eficaz para inducir mutagénesis en los organismos vivos y se emplea para el mejoramiento genético de plantas. El objetivo del presente investigación fue evaluar diferentes dosis de rayos gamma (RG) en semillas de chile chilhuacle, así como analizar las respuestas fisiológicas, la producción y calidad de frutos en plantas regadas con solución nutritiva bajo diferentes niveles de potencial osmótico (PO) en condiciones de invernadero; además de identificar los polimorfismos de los posibles mutantes por RG con el uso de marcadores moleculares RAPD. Primero se evaluaron los parámetros fisiológicos en plántulas por el efecto de siete dosis de radiación gamma (RG) (0, 10, 20, 40, 80, 120 y 160 Gy), en otro experimento fueron seleccionados tres dosis de RG (0, 10, 80 y 120 Gy) y las plantas fueron adaptadas a diferentes potenciales osmóticos (PO) (‒ 0.036, ‒ 0.072, ‒ 0.092 y ‒ 0.108 MPa) de la solución nutritiva en hidroponía. Las dosis de radiación gamma tuvieron efectos significativos en las lecturas SPAD, altura de planta, diámetro de tallo y volumen radical. Con 80 y 120 Gy hubo incrementos de aminoácidos y azúcares en hojas y frutos. Con la RG de 10 Gy y el PO de ‒ 0.072 y ‒ 0.092 MPa se obtuvieron los valores más altos en las variables de rendimiento. Dos plantas mutantes de fruto con pericarpio de color rojo se obtuvieron con 10 y 120 Gy, inicialmente la irradiación de semillas fueron provenientes de frutos negros. Un total de 57 fragmentos de PCR se amplificaron, 12 fragmentos revelaron polimorfismo con promedio de 2.4 bandas polimórficas por primers. Los resultados mostraron evidencias de que el uso de la RG es un método potencialmente eficaz para inducir variación en chile chilhuacle. Los cambios genotípicos en los mutantes se expresan fenotípicamente como mayor incremento en el número de frutos por planta en el PO de ‒ 0.072 y ‒ 0.092 MPa respectivamente. _______________ GAMMA RADIATION AND NUTRIMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE PRODUCTION AND QUALITY OF CHILE CHILHUACLE (Capsicum annuum L. Solanaceae). ABSTRACT: There are adverse factors such as drought, heat, cold, infections by pathogens, which has a negative impact on crop yield worldwide. Therefore, the performance potential must increase in the face of these problems. The improvement of crops continues to be an important need, since we have not yet been able to meet the demand for food worldwide. Gamma radiation is an effective method to induce mutagenesis in living organisms and is used for the genetic improvement of plants. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate different doses of gamma rays (GR) in chilhuacle chili seeds, as well as to analyze the physiological responses, production and quality of fruits in plants irrigated with nutrient solution under different levels of osmotic potential (OP) in greenhouse conditions; besides identifying the polymorphisms of the possible mutants by RG with the use of RAPD molecular markers. First the physiological parameters in seedlings were evaluated by the effect of seven doses of gamma radiation (GR) (0, 10, 20, 40, 80, 120 and 160 Gy), in another experiment three doses of GR were selected (0, 10, 80 and 120 Gy) and the plants were adapted to different osmotic potentials (OP) (‒ 0.036, ‒ 0.072, ‒ 0.092 and ‒ 0.108 MPa) of the nutrient solution in hydroponics. Gamma radiation doses had significant effects on SPAD readings, plant height, stem diameter and root volume. With 80 and 120 Gy there were increases of amino acids and sugars in leaves and fruits. With the RG of 10 Gy and the OP of ‒ 0.072 and ‒ 0.092 MPa, the highest values were obtained in the performance variables. Two fruit mutant plants with red pericarp were obtained with 10 and 120 Gy, initially the irradiation of seeds were from black fruits. A total of 57 PCR fragments were amplified, 12 fragments revealed polymorphism with an average of 2.4 polymorphic bands per primers. The results showed evidence that the use of GR is a potentially effective method to induce variation in chili chilhuacle. The genotypic changes in the mutants are phenotypically expressed as a greater increase in the number of fruits per plant in the OP of ‒ 0.072 and ‒ 0.092 MPa respectively.

Doctoral thesis

Chile chilhuacle Radiación gamma Potencial osmótico Polimorfismos Fragmentos Seguridad alimentaria Chili chilhuacle Gamma radiation Osmotic potential Polymorphisms Fragments Food security Edafología Doctorado CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS HORTICULTURA HORTALIZAS

Metal silo grain storage technology and household food security in Kenya

Zachary Gitonga Hugo De Groote tadele tefera (2015)

A treatment effect and ordered logit models were used to evaluate the impact of metal silo storage technology on household food security and factors influencing adoption of metal silo. Farmers’ perception of the effectiveness of metal silo against larger grain borer and maize weevil was also analyzed. The most important factor households considered when choosing a storage facility was effectiveness against storage pests followed by security of the stored grain and durability of the storage facility. Metal silo adopters had 1.8 months more of adequate food provisioning than non-adopters. Compared to non-adopting households, metal silo adopters only sold a little portion of their maize initially to meet immediate cash needs and kept the bulk of it until the fifth month after harvest. Consumption was stable throughout the year for the metal silo adopters. Non-adopters sold most of their maize immediately after harvest and consumption was higher than sales. Household size, literacy of the household head and land size increased the likelihood of adopting the metal silo technology. Households with access to financial services (bank account and/or mobile money) were more likely to adopt metal silo. Distance to the nearest passable road reduced odds of adopting metal silo technology. The use of metal silos prevented damage by larger grain borer (lgb) and maize weevil for 98% and 94% of adopters, respectively. This study finds evidence that metal silo technology is effective against main maize storage pests and its adoption can significantly improve food security in rural households.

Article

Food Security Grain Storage Metal Silo Storage Pest CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Harnessing genetic potential of wheat germplasm banks through impact-oriented-prebreeding for future food and nutritional security

Prashant Vikram Juan Burgueño Achla Sharma Carolina Sansaloni Ryan Joynson Thomas Brabbs Govindan Velu Kai Sonder Sajid Shokat sridhar bhavani Dharam Pal Jai Prakash Jaiswal UTTAM KUMAR Jose Crossa Thomas Payne Muhammad Imtiaz Anthony Hall Kevin Pixley (2018)

The value of exotic wheat genetic resources for accelerating grain yield gains is largely unproven and unrealized. We used next-generation sequencing, together with multi-environment phenotyping, to study the contribution of exotic genomes to 984 three-way-cross-derived (exotic/elite1//elite2) pre-breeding lines (PBLs). Genomic characterization of these lines with haplotype map-based and SNP marker approaches revealed exotic specific imprints of 16.1 to 25.1%, which compares to theoretical expectation of 25%. A rare and favorable haplotype (GT) with 0.4% frequency in gene bank identified on chromosome 6D minimized grain yield (GY) loss under heat stress without GY penalty under irrigated conditions. More specifically, the ‘T’ allele of the haplotype GT originated in Aegilops tauschii and was absent in all elite lines used in study. In silico analysis of the SNP showed hits with a candidate gene coding for isoflavone reductase IRL-like protein in Ae. tauschii. Rare haplotypes were also identified on chromosomes 1A, 6A and 2B effective against abiotic/biotic stresses. Results demonstrate positive contributions of exotic germplasm to PBLs derived from crosses of exotics with CIMMYT’s best elite lines. This is a major impact-oriented pre-breeding effort at CIMMYT, resulting in large-scale development of PBLs for deployment in breeding programs addressing food security under climate change scenarios.

Article

Germplasm banks Genetic resources Wheats Food security WHEAT GENETIC RESOURCES EXOTIC BREEDS YIELD FACTORS GENETIC MARKERS CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Assessing farmer use of climate change adaptation practices and impacts on food security and poverty in Pakistan

Ali Akhter Olaf Erenstein (2017)

Climate change is set to be particularly disruptive in poor agricultural communities. We assess the factors influencing farmers’ choice of climate change adaptation practices and associated impacts on household food security and poverty in Pakistan using comprehensive data from 950 farmers from its major provinces. A probit model was used to investigate the factors influencing the use of climate-change adaptation practices; the censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) was used to analyze the determinants of the number of adaptation practices used; and a propensity score matching (PSM) approach was employed to evaluate the impact of adaptation practices on food security and poverty levels. Adjustment in sowing time (22% households), use of drought tolerant varieties (15%) and shifting to new crops (25%) were the three major adaptation practices used by farmers in the study area. Results show that younger farmers and farmers with higher levels of education are more likely to use these adaptation practices, as do farmers that are wealthier, farm more land and have joint families. The number of adaptation practices used was found to be positively associated with education, male household heads, land size, household size, extension services, access to credit and wealth. Farmers adopting more adaptation practices had higher food security levels (8–13%) than those who did not, and experienced lower levels of poverty (3–6%). Climate change adaptation practices at farm level can thereby have significant development outcomes in addition to reducing exposure to weather risks.

Article

Farmers Climate change Food security CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Index insurance and climate risk management: addressing social equity

Eleanor Fisher Jon Hellin Helen Greatrex Nathaniel Jensen (2019)

Fair distribution of benefits from index insurance matters. Lack of attention to social equity can reinforce inequalities and undermine the potential index insurance holds as a tool for climate risk management that is also pro‐poor. The aims of this article are to: (a) examine social equity concerns raised by index insurance in the context of climate risk management, (b) consider how greater attention can be paid to social equity in index insurance initiatives, and (c) reflect on the policy challenges raised by taking social equity into account as a mechanism for climate risk reduction. The article draws on learning from the CGIAR's Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) and presents the cases of the Index Based Livelihoods Insurance (IBLI) and Agriculture and Climate Risk Enterprise Ltd. (ACRE) in East Africa. It proposes a framework for unpacking social equity related to equitable access, procedures, representation and distribution within index insurance schemes. The framework facilitates identification of opportunities for building outcomes that are more equitable, with greater potential for inclusion and fairer distribution of benefits related to index insurance. The article argues that systematically addressing social equity raises hard policy choices for index insurance initiatives without straightforward solutions. Attention to how benefits and burdens of index insurance are distributed, suggests the unpalatable truth for development policy that the poorest members of rural society can be excluded. Nevertheless, a focus on social equity—facilitated by the framework—opens up opportunities to ensure index insurance is linked to more socially just climate risk management. At the very least, it may prevent index insurance from generating greater inequality. Taking social equity into account, thus, shifts the focus from agricultural systems in transition per se to systems with potential to incorporate societal transformation through distributive justice.

Article

Climate Risk Management Index Insurance Social Equity Inequality SOCIAL CLASSES AGRICULTURE CLIMATE CHANGE FOOD SECURITY CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

The Rural Household Multiple Indicator Survey, data from 13,310 farm households in 21 countries

Mark van Wijk Sabine Douxchamps Steven Fonte Christine Lamanna Christopher Okafor Todd Rosenstock Clare Stirling Nils Teufel Jacob Van Etten bernard vanlauwe (2020)

The Rural Household Multiple Indicator Survey (RHoMIS) is a standardized farm household survey approach which collects information on 758 variables covering household demographics, farm area, crops grown and their production, livestock holdings and their production, agricultural product use and variables underlying standard socio-economic and food security indicators such as the Probability of Poverty Index, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, and household dietary diversity. These variables are used to quantify more than 40 different indicators on farm and household characteristics, welfare, productivity, and economic performance. Between 2015 and the beginning of 2018, the survey instrument was applied in 21 countries in Central America, sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. The data presented here include the raw survey response data, the indicator calculation code, and the resulting indicator values. These data can be used to quantify on- and off-farm pathways to food security, diverse diets, and changes in poverty for rural smallholder farm households.

Article

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS DATA SOCIOECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT AGRICULTURE FOOD SECURITY