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Envirotyping for deciphering environmental impacts on crop plants

Yunbi Xu (2016)

Global climate change imposes increasing impacts on our environments and crop production. To decipher environmental impacts on crop plants, the concept “envirotyping” is proposed, as a third “typing” technology, complementing with genotyping and phenotyping. Environmental factors can be collected through multiple environmental trials, geographic and soil information systems, measurement of soil and canopy properties, and evaluation of companion organisms. Envirotyping contributes to crop modeling and phenotype prediction through its functional components, including genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI), genes responsive to environmental signals, biotic and abiotic stresses, and integrative phenotyping. Envirotyping, driven by information and support systems, has a wide range of applications, including environmental characterization, GEI analysis, phenotype prediction, near-iso-environment construction, agronomic genomics, precision agriculture and breeding, and development of a four-dimensional profile of crop science involving genotype (G), phenotype (P), envirotype (E) and time (T) (developmental stage). In the future, envirotyping needs to zoom into specific experimental plots and individual plants, along with the development of high-throughput and precision envirotyping platforms, to integrate genotypic, phenotypic and envirotypic information for establishing a high-efficient precision breeding and sustainable crop production system based on deciphered environmental impacts.

Article

Environmental impac Crops Environmental impact; Crops; Landscape-scale crop assessment tool CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Percepciones ambientales sobre una Reserva Ecológica Urbana, El Zapotal, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas

Yara Fernández Moreno (2010)

Resumen en español: "El objetivo de esta investigación es conocer y analizar las percepciones ambientales en torno a una Reserva Ecológica Urbana (REU) de los pobladores, originarios y migrantes, que residen cerca de la misma, de los visitantes (turistas internacionales, nacionales y locales) y de los trabajadores del Zoológico Miguel Álvarez del Toro (ZOOMAT), que se interrelacionan de diversas formas con la Reserva y contrastarlas con las percepciones ambientales de los tomadores de decisiones actuales (funcionarios públicos y administradores) y gestores (líderes sociales o de organizaciones ambientales). El trabajo de campo lo realicé en la ciudad de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, de abril de 2007 a abril de 2008. Apliqué una guía de entrevista por tipo de actor social a 88 informantes y una encuesta a 300 turistas y a 29 trabajadores del ZOOMAT. Abordé a hombres y mujeres mayores de 18 años. Analicé los resultados y las propuestas emitidas por tipo de actor social, de acuerdo a cómo cada uno de éstos utilizan y conciben un mismo espacio, la Reserva Ecológica “El Zapotal”, siendo relevante para el análisis, un enfoque integrador que contempló diversos aspectos geográficos, ecológicos y sociales. Encontré que todos los actores sociales percibieron la necesidad de conservar esta Reserva, advierten la problemática ambiental y emiten propuestas para su rescate, mientras que los tomadores de decisiones actuales y gestores convergen en diversos intereses y excluyen a los actores sociales locales, en el entorno de relaciones de poder desiguales. Desde una visión integradora, este estudio visualiza el potencial de los espacios urbanos con un alto valor biológico, científico, recreativo, turístico y educacional y el papel potencial de diversos actores sociales para su conservación y manejo sustentable. Las recomendaciones que se emiten aportan elementos para la formulación de un plan de rescate, que sirva como modelo para que otras REU del país puedan ser mejor estudiadas y atendidas. "

Doctoral thesis

Evaluación del impacto ambiental;Evaluación del paisaje;Gestión ambiental;Aspectos sociales;Espacios naturales protegidos Environmental impact analysis;Landscape assessment;Environmental management;Social aspects;Protected natural areas INGENIERÍA Y TECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS TECNOLÓGICAS CIENCIAS TECNOLÓGICAS

A spatial framework for ex-ante impact assessment of agricultural technologies

Juan Ignacio Rattalino Edreira Peter Craufurd Jordan Chamberlin Lieven Claessens Julius Adewopo Martin van Ittersum Kenneth Cassman (2019)

Traditional agricultural research and extension relies on replicated field experiments, on-farm trials, and demonstration plots to evaluate and adapt agronomic technologies that aim to increase productivity, reduce risk, and protect the environment for a given biophysical and socio-economic context. To date, these efforts lack a generic and robust spatial framework for ex-ante assessment that: (i) provides strategic insight to guide decisions about the number and location of testing sites, (ii) define the target domain for scaling-out a given technology or technology package, and (iii) estimate potential impact from widespread adoption of the technology(ies) being evaluated. In this study, we developed a data-rich spatial framework to guide agricultural research and development (AR&D) prioritization and to perform ex-ante impact assessment. The framework uses “technology extrapolation domains”, which delineate regions with similar climate and soil type combined with other biophysical and socio-economic factors that influence technology adoption. We provide proof of concept for the framework using a maize agronomy project in three sub-Saharan Africa countries (Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Tanzania) as a case study. We used maize area and rural population coverage as indicators to estimate potential project impact in each country. The project conducted 496 nutrient omission trials located at both on-farm and research station sites across these three countries. Reallocation of test sites towards domains with a larger proportion of national maize area could increase coverage of maize area by 79–134% and of rural population by 14–33% in Nigeria and Ethiopia. This study represents a first step in developing a generic, transparent, and scientifically robust framework to estimate ex-ante impact of AR&D programs that aim to increase food production and reduce poverty and hunger.

Article

Agricultural research systems Impact assessment Food production Agricultural R & D Spatial Framework Scaling Out AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES AND BIOTECHNOLOGY IMPACT ASSESSMENT CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Evolutionary response of landraces to climate change in centers of crop diversity

Kristin Mercer (2010)

Resumen en inglés: "Landraces cultivated in centers of crop diversity result from past and contemporary patterns of natural and farmer-mediated evolutionary forces. Successful in situ conservation of crop genetic resources depends on continuity of these evolutionary processes. Climate change is projected to affect agricultural production, yet analyses of impacts on in situ conservation of crop genetic diversity and farmers who conserve it have been absent. How will crop landraces respond to alterations in climate? We review the roles that phenotypic plasticity, evolution, and gene flow might play in sustaining production, although we might expect erosion of genetic diversity if landrace populations or entire races lose productivity. For example, highland maize landraces in southern Mexico do not express the plasticity necessary to sustain productivity under climate change, but may evolve in response to altered conditions. The outcome for any given crop in a given region will depend on the distribution of genetic variation that affects fitness and patterns of climate change. Understanding patterns of neutral and adaptive diversity from the population to the landscape scale is essential to clarify how landraces conserved in situ will continue to evolve and how to minimize genetic erosion of this essential natural resource. "

Article

Cultivos (Agricultura);Cambios climáticos;Climatología agrícola;Variación genética;Plasticidad fenotípica;Conservación in situ;Impacto ambiental Crops (Agriculture);Climatic changes;Crops and climate;Genetic variation;Phenotypic plasticity;In situ conservation;Environmental impact CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS CIENCIAS AGRARIAS

Scale-appropriate mechanization impacts on productivity among smallholders: evidence from rice systems in the mid-hills of Nepal

Gokul Paudel Dil Bahadur Rahut Scott Justice Andrew Mcdonald (2019)

Smallholder farmers in the mid-hills of Nepal are facing an acute labor shortage due to out-migration which, in general, has affected the capacity to achieve timely crop establishment, harvest, and inter-cultural operations. These effects are more visible in the case of labor-intensive crops such as rice and promoting higher levels of rural mechanization has emerged as the primary policy response option. Nevertheless, quantitative evidence for the ability of mechanization to offset the adverse effects of shortages increasing labor prices in these systems is largely absent. This study investigates the impacts associated with adoption of mini-tillers (5 to 9 horsepower) for land preparation on smallholder rice productivity in the mid-hills of Nepal. We use an endogenous switching regression that accounts for both observed and unobserved sources of heterogeneity between mini-tiller adopters and non-adopters. Findings demonstrate that rising on-farm rural wage rates and an emerging decline in draft animal availability are driving adoption of the mini-tiller. Among users, the mini-tiller increased rice productivity by 1,110 kg/ha (27%). Further, regression results suggest that mini-tiller non-adopters would be able to increase their rice productivity by 1,250 kg/ha (26%) if they adopt. Moreover, our analysis revealed that very small farms (≤0.25 ha) that adopt mini-tillers are benefited the most in terms of gains in rice productivity. These findings support policies that favor the expansion of small-scale mechanization in the hill production ecologies of South Asia and highlight the need to foster the emergence of an associated service economy that will permit smallholders access to capital-intensive machinery such as the mini-tiller.

Article

Farm Mechanization Technology Adoption Mini-Tillers Smallholder Rice Farmers Endogenous Switching Regression CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION SMALLHOLDERS AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES AND BIOTECHNOLOGY AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IMPACT ASSESSMENT

Aplicación de la información de la vida útil en la planeación y diseño de proyectos de edificación

SILVERIO HERNANDEZ MORENO (2012)

El presente trabajo presenta un artículo de revisión referente a la planeación de la vida útil en el proceso de diseño de edificios, dirigido a arquitectos, constructores y promotores inmobiliarios, basado en la estandarización internacional de ISO/TC59 /SC14 “Vida de diseño en edificios” e ISO 15686 “Vida útil en edificios”. El objetivo principal del trabajo es explicar la aplicación y uso de la información de la vida útil de los materiales y componentes constructivos durante la planeación y diseño del proyecto. Se presenta como resultado del análisis bibliográfico de fuentes especializadas referentes a diseño por ciclo de vida, planeación de la vida útil en edificios y arquitectura sustentable. Se concluye que la información tanto de la vida útil, del rendimiento y de la durabilidad de los componentes constructivos es de gran utilidad en el proceso de diseño del edificio desde su prediseño hasta su etapa de diseño y construcción porque se logra prever y disminuir impactos ambientales que el proyecto puede causar.

This paper presents a review article concerning to service life planning in the process of building design aimed to architects, builders and developers. This article is based on international standardization concerning to ISO/TC59 /SC14 “Design Life” and ISO 15686

“Service life of buildings”. The aim of the paper is to explain the application and use of service life information of building components and materials during planning and design phases of the project. This work is the result of literature review of specialized information

concerning to Life cycle design, Building service life planning and sustainable architecture. We conclude that the information of service life, performance and durability of building components is very useful during the building design process, from the pre-design stage to

design and construction stages because it does predict and reduce environmental impacts that project may cause.

Article

INGENIERÍA Y TECNOLOGÍA Vida útil del Edificio Planeación Vida de diseño en edificios Diseño sustentable Impacto ambiental Service life of building Planning Design Life Sustainable design Environmental impact

Situación socio económica y ambiental de los productores de Acatzingo Puebla por el derrame de hidrocarburo en suelos agrícolas

FRANKLIN RIVERA PINEDA (2011)

Tesis (Doctorado en Ciencias, especialista en Estrategias para el Desarrollo Agrícola Regional).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2011.

En el presente estudio se aborda el siniestro ocurrido en el municipio de Acatzingo, Puebla en enero del año 2002. El derrame afectó aproximadamente 50 ha de cultivo, con efectos socioambientales, económicos y de producción en familias campesinas del municipio. Para conocer su impacto ocho años después, se encuestaron 159 productores con características socioeconómicas y productivas similares, 80 con terrenos afectados por el siniestro y 79 no afectados directamente, con el propósito de comparar respuestas en el tiempo. El promedio de hectáreas para cultivo por productor es de 1.7 ha con una media de 0.5 a 0.9 ha que les fueron contaminadas. El estudio mostró que 46.3% de los productores afectados opinó que los suelos aún están contaminados pero un 74% de los no afectados consideró que los suelos no están contaminados. La totalidad de los productores afectados opinó que la contaminación de los suelos ocasionó una disminución de su producción y de sus ingresos, afectando sus condiciones de vida.

Producto al derrame se desencadenaron procesos productivos irregulares, impacto en la salud, economía y en la organización familiar. En el año 2002 y 2010 91.1% de los productores respondieron que hubieron efectos negativos sobre los árboles y animales de la zona, muchos de ellos se perdieron, así mismo en la salud humana, un 90% en ambos años planteó que padecieron enfermedades atribuibles al derrame generado en sus suelos de cultivo. Con respecto a la indemnización económica, los campesinos afirmaron que el dinero pagado no sustituyó los beneficios que la tierra le dejaría en 8 años que ha durado el problema por el siniestro. _______________ ABSTRACT: In the present study addresses the casualty in the municipality of Acatzingo, Puebla in January 2002. The spill affected approximately 50 ha of crops, social and environmental effects, economic and production in farm families in the municipality. To understand its impact eight years later, 159 farmers were surveyed with similar socioeconomic characteristics and production, 80 with land affected by the accident and 79 were not directly affected, in order to compare responses over time. The average crop hectares per farmer is 1.7 ha with an average of 0.5 to 0.9 ha that were contaminated. The study showed that 46.3% of producers said they affected soils are still contaminated, but 74% of the unaffected soils considered uncontaminated. All the producers concerned felt that the soil contamination caused a decline in production and income, affecting their lives. Product spill broke irregular production processes, impact on health, economy and family organization. In 2002 and 2010 91.1% of producers said they had negative effects on trees and animals of the area, many of them were lost, likewise on human health, 90% in both years stated that they suffered diseases attributable to spill generated in agricultural soils. With regard to financial compensation, the farmers said that the money paid not replace the benefits that would land him in 8 years that has lasted the problem by the incident.

Doctoral thesis

Contaminación de suelos agrícolas Cultivo Campesino Derrame de hidrocarburos Desastre natural Impacto ambiental Ingresos Producción Salud Contamination of agricultural soils Farming Farmer Oil spill Natural disaster Environmental impact Income Production Health EDAR Estrategias para el Desarrollo Agrícola Regional Doctorado CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Retrospective health impact assessment for ozone pollution in Mexico City from 1991 to 2011

OSCAR BORREGO HERNANDEZ Agustin Garcia MARIO MIGUEL OJEDA RAMIREZ MANUEL SUAREZ LASTRA (2014)

Air pollution is the main environmental issue in Mexico City, where ozone is one of the most damaging pollutants for human health. In this work we present a retrospective health impact assessment (HIA) study split up by age groups for evaluating the benefits of ozone regulatory strategies from 1991 to 2011 in Mexico City. Since people move from one place to another during the day, which may affect their potential exposure to pollutants, we consider time-dependant spatial population distributions during the day. Ozone data is made up of observations taken with hourly frequency from January 1, 1991 to December 31, 2011, at approximately 22 stations of the monitoring network of Mexico City. Interpolated values for unknown locations are also taken into accountin the HIA. The Cressman objective analysis method is applied for interpolating the observed ozone concentrationsfrom monitoring stations to grids of convenient resolution. We demonstrate that different age groupspresent different spatial patterns of exposure, being the working-age people (between 18 and 64 years) the mostbenefited. We also confirm the hypothesis that, in general, people move to less polluted regions during the day.

Article

CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Ozone exposure health impact assessment objective analysis mobile population