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Composición corporal de corderos Pelibuey en función de la concentración energética de la dieta y del peso al sacrificio

JOSE ARMANDO PARTIDA DE LA PEÑA LEONEL RENE LINO MARTINEZ ROJAS (2010)

With the aim to study the effects of dietary energy and the slaughter weight on the carcass yield and characteristics of Pelibuey male lambs, the regional structure and tissue composition of 32 half carcasses, as well as the deposition pattern of visceral fat and its unsaturated fatty acid degree was assessed. The animals were fed two diets containing the same amount of crude protein (14.1%), but different energy density, diet I (D-I): 2.60 and diet II (D-II): 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM. Lambs were slaughtered at 30, 37, 44 and 51 kg body weight. The data were analyzed on a completely randomized design with a factorial 2 × 4 arrangement. The commercial yield (%) differed (P ¿ 0.05) between diets (DI: 46.2 and D-II: 49.3) and between slaughter weights, increasing as the body weight increased. Neither diet nor the slaughter weight affected the carcass cuts; the piece that represented the highest percentage was the thorax (32.3%), followed by the leg (31.2%), shoulder (17.6%), abdomen (12.3%) and neck (6.7%). The D-II resulted in greater proportion of muscle (65.9%) than the DI (64.7%): as the slaughter weight increased so the fat did at the expense of bone and muscle. The energy density of the diet led to differences (P ¿ 0.05) in the amount of visceral fat (D-I: 5.8 ± 0.7 and D-II 7.0 ± 0.8), in the degree of unsaturated fatty acids (D-I: 39.2 ± 2.6 and D-II: 44.9 ± 2.8) and its deposition pattern (D-I: 51.7 ± 0.9; 48.3 ± 0.6 and D-II: 46.7 ± 0.6; 53.3 ± 0.8, respective percentages to carcass and viscera).

Article

veterinaria body composition allometry pelibuey lambs carcass feed energy slaughter weight CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Effect of bacterial probiotics bio-encapsulated into Artemia franciscana on weight and length of the shortfin silverside (Chirostoma humboldtianum), and PCR-DGGE characterization of its intestinal bacterial community

GABRIELA VAZQUEZ SILVA HUGO CESAR RAMIREZ SAAD JOSE FELIX AGUIRRE GARRIDO LINO MAYORGA REYES ALEJANDRO ALBERTO AZAOLA ESPINOSA JESUS ISRAEL MORALES JIMENEZ (2017)

"The shortfin silverside (Chirostoma humboldtianum) is a native fish of central Mexico with high value for artisanal fisheries. So far, attempts aimed to establish intensive culturing have failed. In this study, we evaluated the effect of probiotic strains; Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, Lactobacillus johnsonii C4, and Bacillus sp. B2 bio-encapsulated into Artemia franciscana on Chirostoma humboldtianum weight and length. Their influence on the fish intestinal bacterial communities was also assessed. The final weight and final length of the fishes fed with bio-encapsulated Bifidobacterium animalis BB-12, and L. johnsonii C4 were statistically different and higher than the control group. According to PCR-DGGE fingerprints of 16S rRNA gene, the intestinal content bacterial community associated with the shortfin silverside seems to be molded in early larval stages and only slight changes could be induced by the use of bio-encapsulated bacterial. An increase in fish survival rate and an improvement in weight and length were detected using L. johnsonii C4 bio-encapsulated into A. franciscana, in spite of its small impact on the structure of the bacterial community associated with the intestinal content of shortfin silverside. The use of L. johnsonii C4 bio-encapsulated into A. franciscana could be an excellent option to improve the yield during intensive culturing of the shortfin silverside."

Article

Chirostoma humboldtianum Artemia franciscana Bacterial probiotics Bio-encapsulated Weight Length Bacterial communities BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA VEGETAL (BOTÁNICA) BIOLOGÍA MARINA BIOLOGÍA MARINA

Efecto del potencial glucolítico en condiciones de estrés ante-mortem en carne de pollo

MARITZA ERNESTINA VENEROZO CORTES (2015)

Tesis (Maestría en Ciencias, especialista en Innovación Agroalimentaria Sustentable).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2015.

El objetivo del presente trabajo fue investigar los efectos del estrés ante-mortem, estrés calórico (EC) y tiempo de espera a la matanza (TEM) sobre variables de rendimiento en peso vivo (PV) y de canal en pollo de engorda (RCC); calidad de la carne, pH y color; y propiedades funcionales, proteína, capacidad de retención de agua (CRA), rendimiento en cocción (RC) y textura, expresada como fuerza de corte. Además, se evaluó el potencial glucolítico (PG) en músculo y en plasma sanguíneo a fin de determinar la relación de los sustratos contenidos en ellos que pueden convertirse en ácido láctico. Se utilizaron pollos de la línea Ross 308 de seis semanas de edad, mismos que se asignaron aleatoriamente a diferentes temperaturas ambientales (30, 35 y 40 °C) antes de la matanza para evaluar el EC y a 2, 4 y 8 h para TEM. Los pollos expuestos a 40°C, al igual que aquellos sometidos a 2 y 4 h de espera a la matanza a 35°C, presentaron características similares a una carne con condición oscura, firme y seca (OFS: pH > 6.0, L* < 46, alta CRA). El EC y TEM causaron una disminución en el rendimiento en peso vivo y de la canal, y glucógeno muscular, expresado con los bajos valores de potencial glucolítico encontrados; mientras que los niveles de glucosa y lactato en plasma sanguíneo fueron altos y bajos respectivamente. Además que el contenido de proteína y rendimiento de cocción se mantuvieron constantes. Por lo tanto, los resultados encontrados indican que EC y TEM afectan la calidad de la carne de pollo para consumo en fresco. _______________ GLYCOLYTIC POTENTIAL EFFECT UNDER ANTE-MORTEM STRESS IN CHICKEN MEAT. ABSTRACT: The effects of ante-mortem stress, heat stress (HS) and slaughter timeout (ST), in chicken breast meat was studied. The response variables were live weight (LW) and carcass broiler yield, pH, color and functional properties such as protein, water-holding capacity (WHC), cooking yield (CY) and shear force. In addition, the glycolytic potential (GP) in muscle and blood plasma to determine the relationship of the substrates contained therein, which can be converted into lactic acid was evaluated. Six weeks old broiler chicken from Ross 308 line, assigned to different ambient temperatures (30, 35 and 40 °C) before slaughter to evaluate the HS and 2, 4 and 8 h for ST, were used. Chickens exposed to 40 ° C, as well as those under 2 and 4 h timeout the slaughter at 35 °C were comparable with dark, firm and dry meat (DFD; pH > 6.0, L * < 46, WHC high). The HS and LW caused a drop in the live weight yield, carcass yield and muscle glycogen, which was represented by the low levels of glycolytic potential; while the glucose level in blood plasma were high, the lactate level was low. Furthermore, the protein content and cooking yield were maintained constant. Hence, the results indicate that HS and ST affect the chicken meat quality for fresh consumption.

Master thesis

Potencial glucolítico Calidad de la carne de pollo Estrés calórico Tiempo de espera a la matanza Glycolytic potential Chicken meat quality Heat stress Slaughter timeout Innovación Agroalimentaria Sustentable Maestría CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS PRODUCCIÓN ANIMAL AVICULTURA

A NOTE ON SERUM INSULIN IN MEXICAN CUINO PIGS

FERNANDO GRAGEOLA NUÑEZ CLEMENTE LEMUS FLORES ROGELIO ALEJANDRO ALONSO MORALES MARIA DEL CARMEN CAMACHO REA (2007)

In this study a 2×2 factorial arrangement was used to study the effect of sex and age on serum insulin levels in 24 growing Mexican Cuino pigs between 3 and 6 months old. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) neither for sex × age interaction nor for sex in any measured index. Overall, Mexican Cuino pigs had 14.4 and 50.8 kg of live weigh (p<0.001) and 9.33 and 19.26 u mLG of fasting serum insulin levels (p<0.001) at 1 3 and 6 months old, respectively. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant differences (p<0.05) among age, live weigth and fasting insulin levels in the examined period of life in growing Mexican Cuino pigs. According to the present evaluation, hiperinsulinemia should be present in Mexican Cuino pigs, as it has been found in either obese conventional genotypes of pigs or genetically manipulated to be small and obese animals. This effect was accentuated as pigs aged up to 6 months life. Sex appeared to have no influence on serum status of Mexican Cuino pig insulin.

En este estudio se utilizó un arreglo factorial 2 × 2 para estudiar el efecto del sexo y la edad sobre la insulina sérica en 24 cerdos Cuino mexicanos en crecimiento entre 3 y 6 meses de edad. No hubo diferencias significativas (P <0,05) ni para la interacción sexo × edad ni para el sexo en ningún índice medido. En general, los cerdos Cuino mexicanos 14,4 y 50,8 kg de peso vivo (p <0,001) y 9,33 y 19,26 u mLG de insulina en ayunas (p <0,001) a 13 y 6 meses, respectivamente. La matriz de correlación de Pearson reveló diferencias significativas (p <0,05) entre la edad, el peso vivo y los niveles de insulina en ayunas en el período de vida examinado en los cerdos Cuino mexicanos en crecimiento. Conforme en la presente evaluación, la hiperinsulinemia debe estar presente en los cerdos Cuino mexicanos, como se ha ya sean genotipos convencionales obesos de cerdos o genéticamente manipulados para ser animales pequeños y obesos. Este efecto se acentuó como los cerdos de hasta 6 meses de vida. El sexo parecía no tener influencia en el estado sérico de Mexican Cuino porcino insulina.

Article

Mexican cuino pigs insulin age body weight sex CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

The effect of non-genetic factors on growth traits in Dorper sheep managed intensively in Central Mexico

Jesús Alberto Mellado Bosque JOSE LUIS REYES CARRILLO MIGUEL ANGEL MELLADO BOSQUE LETICIA ROMANA GAYTAN ALEMAN Ma de los Ángeles de Santiago Miramontes (2015)

The objective of this study was to establish the non-genetic factors which affect growth traits in Dorper lambs under intensive conditions. 990 birth weight records and 851 weaning weight data from a commercial sheep farm were used. A model containing the effects of year of birth, season of birth, birth status, dam´s age and gender was used for identification of factors affecting growth traits. Birth weight was highest (P<0.05) in summer (4.0±0.7 kg) and lowest in winter and spring (3.7±0.8 kg). Male lambs excelled females in birth weight (3.9±0.7 vs. 3.7±0.8 kg), weaning weight (33.4±5.8 vs. 31.3±5.4 kg) and average daily gain (328±63 vs. 309±57 g). Young dams produced offspring with a lower (P<0.05) birth weight (3.6±0.8 vs 3.9±0.8 kg) and weaning weight (30.9±5.8 vs 32.3±5.9 - 33.6±5.4 kg) than older ewes. It was concluded that important influences of environmental factors on growth traits were identified for Dorper lambs.

Article

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA Birth weight weaning weight pre-weaning weight gain growth traits Dorper lambs

Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) oil on turkey slaughter quality

RAMON SILVA VAZQUEZ LORENZO ANTONIO DURAN MELENDEZ GERARDO MENDEZ ZAMORA (2016)

The quality of slaughtered turkeys fed a diet supplemented with Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) oil was investigated. Two treatments were studied. T0: control diet and T1: control diet + 400 mg kg−1 of oregano oil with 60 % carvacrol. Live weight at slaughter was di erent, with T0 weighing 11.0 kg and T1 11.89 kg, while the performance of feathers and drumstick was higher in T0 (4.33 and 3.18 % respectively). Viscera, blood, head, neck and hot and cold carcass yield did not di er between treatments (p > 0.05). Oregano oil at 400 mg kg−1 can be used in the production of turkeys to in uence slaughter quality. 

The quality of slaughtered turkeys fed a diet supplemented with Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) oil was investigated. Two treatments were studied. T0: control diet and T1: control diet + 400 mg kg−1 of oregano oil with 60 % carvacrol. Live weight at slaughter was di erent, with T0 weighing 11.0 kg and T1 11.89 kg, while the performance of feathers and drumstick was higher in T0 (4.33 and 3.18 % respectively). Viscera, blood, head, neck and hot and cold carcass yield did not di er between treatments (p > 0.05). Oregano oil at 400 mg kg−1 can be used in the production of turkeys to in uence slaughter quality. 

Article

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA live weight carvacrol yield carcass

Mucuna pruriens seeds given in broiler diets on growth performance and carcass yield

Ronald Santos Ricalde (2018)

The effects of Mucuna pruriens (MP) seeds soaked in water (WMP), acetic acid (AAMP) or calcium hydroxide (CHMP) solution + boiling on both its L-Dopa content and the productive performance of broiler chickens were evaluated. The experiment included a control without MP (C). The CHMP treatment reduced 71% of L-Dopa in comparison to AAMP (53%) or WMP (41%). In the starter phase, the AAMP group had the lowest live weight gain (p < 0.05) and the highest feed conversion ratio than C (p < 0.05). Broilers fed with CHMP and the C did not differ (p > 0.05). In the finisher phase, there was not statistical difference in any of the variables evaluated (p > 0.05). Differences were not observed in carcass yield (p > 0.05), but the broilers fed with WMP or AAMP had a heavier liver than birds on C group (p < 0.05). Results showed that 25% of CHMP can be used as ingredient in broiler diets.

Article

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA Feed intake L-Dopa poultry velvet bean weight gain

Rendimiento del pasto ballico perenne (Lolium perenne L) y ovillo (Dactylis glomerata L) solos y asociados con trébol blanco (Trifolium repens L)

SERGIO IBAN MENDOZA PEDROZA (2013)

Tesis (Doctorado en Ciencias, especialista en Ganadería).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2013.

El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la respuesta productiva de los pastos ballico perenne y ovillo solos y asociados con trébol blanco en las siguientes proporciones: 100:00:00, 00:100:00, 70:20:10, 00:50:50, 50:00:50, 40:40:20 40:20:40, 20:70:10 y 20:40:40 % de ballico perenne, ovillo y trébol blanco (BP:O:TB), mismas que se distribuyeron aleatoriamente en 27 unidades experimentales bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Se determinó el rendimiento de forraje, composición botánica y morfológica, peso, tasa de aparición, muerte y sobrevivencia de tallos. El mayor rendimiento (P<0.05) lo presentaron las asociaciones 50:00:50 y 40:20:40 de BP:O:TR. El ballico perenne fue la especie que contribuyó más al rendimiento. La mayor tasa de aparición y muerte de tallos de pasto ballico, se presentó en la pradera pura con valores de 0.16 y 0.30 tallos*100 tallos d-1, respectivamente. La asociación 20:70:10 de BP:O:TB mostró el mayor porcentaje de sobrevivencia de tallos con 0.86. Con respecto al pasto ovillo, independientemente de la asociación, las mayores tasas de aparición y muerte de tallos se presentaron en los meses de agosto y septiembre con 0.19 y 0.22 tallos * 100 tallos d-1, respectivamente. Debido a sus mejores atributos productivos las mejores asociaciones fueron 50:00:50 y 40:20:40 de O:BP:TB. _______________ PRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR OF PERENNIAL RYEGRASS (Lolium perenne L.) AND ORCHARD GRASS (Dactylis glomerata L.) ALONE AND ASSOCIATED WITH WHITE CLOVER (Trifolium repens L.). ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the productive response of perennial ryegrass and orchard grass swards alone and associated with white clover in the following proportions: 100:00:00, 00:100:00, 70:20:10, 00:50:50, 50:00:50, 40:40:20, 40:20:40, 20:70:10 and 20:40:40 % of perennial ryegrass, orchardgrass and white clover (BP:O:TB). Treatments were distributed randomly into 27 experimental units under a complete block design with three replications. Herbage yield, botanical and morphological composition, weight, tiller appearance, tiller death and tiller survival were recorded. The highest herbage yield (P<0.05) was recorded in the associations 50:00:50 and 40:20:40 of BP:O:TR. Perennial ryegrass was the specie that most contributed to herbage yield. The highest tiller appearance rate and tiller death in perennial ryegrass was observed at the pure sward with values of 0.16 and 0.30 tillers * 100 tillers d-1, respectively. The association with 20:70:10 of BP:O:TB showed the highest survival rate with 0.86 of tillers. Regarding to the orchard grass, regardless of the association, the highest tiller appearance rate and tiller death rate occurred in the months of August and September with 0.19 and 0.22 tillers * 100 tillers d-1, respectively. Because of it’s the associations with the best productive attributes were 50:00:50 and 40:20:40 of O:BP:TB.

Doctoral thesis

Lolium perenne L. Dactylis glomerata L. Trifolium repens L. Rendimiento de forraje Peso por tallo Herbage yield Tiller weight Ganadería Doctorado CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Analysis of microRNA expression in newborns with differential birth weight using newborn screening cards

SANDRA PATRICIA RODIL GARCIA ELVIRA DEL CARMEN ARELLANES LICEA ANGELICA MONTOYA CONTRERAS Luis Antonio Salazar Olivo (2017)

"Birth weight is an early predictor for metabolic diseases and microRNAs (miRNAs) are proposed as fetal programming participants. To evaluate the use of dried blood spots (DBS) on newborn screening cards (NSC) as a source of analyzable miRNAs, we optimized a commercial protocol to recover total miRNA from normal birth weight (NBW, n= 17–20), low birth weight (LBW, n = 17–20) and high birth weight (macrosomia, n = 17–20) newborns and analyzed the relative expression of selected miRNAs by stem-loop RT-qPCR. The possible role of miRNAs on the fetal programming of metabolic diseases was explored by bioinformatic tools. The optimized extraction of RNA resulted in a 1.2-fold enrichment of miRNAs respect to the commercial kit. miR-33b and miR-375 were overexpressed in macrosomia 9.8-fold (p < 0.001) and 1.7-fold, (p < 0.05), respectively and miR-454-3p was overexpressed in both LBW and macrosomia (19.7-fold, p < 0.001 and 10.8-fold, p < 0.001, respectively), as compared to NBW. Potential target genes for these miRNAs are associated to cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), type 2 diabetes, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)and Forkhead box O protein (FoxO) pathways. In summary, we improved a protocol for analyzing miRNAs from NSC and provide the first evidence that birth weight modifies the expression of miRNAs associated to adult metabolic dysfunctions. Our work suggests archived NSC are an invaluable resource in the search for fetal programming biomarkers."

Article

Circulating microRNAs Newborn screening cards Birth weight Fetal programming MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD