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Familias de agua subterránea y distribución de sólidos totales disueltos en el acuífero de La Paz Baja California Sur, México

Groundwater types and total dissolved solids distribution in the aquifer of La Paz Baja California Sur, México

ARTURO CRUZ FALCON ENRIQUE TROYO DIEGUEZ Janette Magalli Murillo Jiménez JOSE LUIS GARCIA HERNANDEZ Bernardo Murillo Amador (2018)

"El acuífero de La Paz se encuentra desde hace varios años en condición de sobreexplotación, lo que ha causado problemas de contaminación por intrusión marina. En 2013 se conformó una red de monitoreo de pozos, que incluyó el uso público urbano, agrícola, pecuario y de servicios, donde se realizaron muestreos representativos de la temporada de estiaje y lluvias. Se midió la concentración de sólidos totales disueltos (STD), temperatura, oxígeno disuelto y pH. Los resultados mostraron que la mayoría de los pozos agrícolas contenían alta concentración de STD a diferencia de los pozos de agua potable con concentración inferior a 1000 mg L-1, que es el límite permisible por la norma oficial mexicana (NOM). También se analizaron datos de iones mayoritarios de 14 pozos cercanos a la costa con alta concentración de STD, con los que se elaboró un diagrama de Piper, encontrándose dos tipos o familias principales de agua: clorurada-cálcica y clorurada-sódica. La presencia de sodio en concentraciones que superan los 200 mg L-1 en 8 pozos, y de magnesio con más de 50 mg L-1 en 10 pozos, sobrepasaron la NOM y se consideró que su origen es marino. La concentración de calcio mayora los 250 mg L-1 en 7 pozos, supone la existencia de capas de sedimentos de origen químico-orgánico en la estratigrafía interior del acuífero, a través de las cuales circula el agua subterránea. Los cloruros en concentraciones superiores a los 1000 mg L-1 en 6 pozos con elevada concentración de STD, sugiere que es producto de la intrusión marina. Con base en la distribución de la concentración de STD se delimitaron dos áreas amplias afectadas por la intrusión marina, y junto con la distribución de las familias de agua, se identificaron tres zonas principales del acuífero."

"The aquifer of La Paz has been overexploited for several years, causing contamination by seawater intrusion. A well-monitoring network, which included public-urban, agricultural, livestock and service use water wells, was set up in 2013. Representative sampling during the dry and rainy seasons was carried out. Concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS), temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were measured. Results indicate that most agricultural wells contain high TDS concentration, compared to potable water wells with concentration below 1000 mg L-1, which is the limit allowed by the Mexican official standard (MOS). Majority ion data from 14 wells near the coast with high concentration of TDS were also analyzed, with which a Piper diagram was constructed. Two main types of water were found: calcium-chloride and sodium-chloride. The presence of sodium in concentrations exceeding 200 mg L-1 in 8 wells, and magnesium with more than 50 mg L-1 in 10 wells, both above the MOS, reveal that its origin is seawater. Calcium concentrations above 250 mg L‑1 in 7 wells points to the existence of sedimentary layers of chemical-organic origin that compose the inner stratigraphy of the aquifer through which groundwater circulates. High chloride concentrations of more than 1000 mg L-1 in 6 wells with high concentration of TDS, suggests that its source is seawater intrusion. Based on the distribution of TDS concentration, two broad areas affected by seawater intrusion were delimited, and along with the distribution of water families, three main aquifer zones were identified."

Article

intrusión marina, calidad del agua subterránea, contaminación por sales, contaminación de agua subterránea en zonas costeras seawater intrusion, groundwater quality, salts contamination, contamination of groundwater in coastal areas CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Y DEL ESPACIO HIDROLOGÍA AGUAS SUBTERRÁNEAS AGUAS SUBTERRÁNEAS

Understanding the dynamics and contamination of an urban aquifer system using groundwater age (14C, 3H, CFCs) and chemistry

Jürgen Mahlknecht ARTURO HERNANDEZ ANTONIO Christopher Eastoe CAROL TAMEZ MELENDEZ Rogelio Ledesma Ruiz José Alfredo Ramos Leal NANCY EDITH ORNELAS SOTO (2017)

"The quality of the groundwater supplying drinking water to the Guadalajara metropolitan area has deteriorated due to both endogenic and exogenic processes. Previous studies of this complex neotectonic volcanic environment suggest that the sources of contamination here are underground fluids derived from an active volcanic center and surface wastewater derived from regional land?use intensification. This study uses isotopic, gaseous, and chemical signatures to more comprehensively characterize this groundwater flow and its contamination paths. Groundwater is mainly recharged at the La Primavera Caldera to the west and is discharged into the Santiago River to the east. The exception to this trend is the Toluquilla area, where groundwater most likely represents rainfall originating from outside the basin limits. Evaporation affects groundwater in these areas, especially waters that have been affected by recycling below urban areas in the Atejamac area and by intensive agricultural activity in the Toluquilla area. Additionally, we present evidence that groundwater flow through alluvial sediments and tuffs in deeper wells mixes with a lower aquifer unit in basaltic?andesitic rocks, which are in contact with hydrothermal fluids. Groundwater ages range from postbomb in the western and northwestern regions of the study area (i.e., the Atemajac aquifer unit) to Late Pleistocene in the southern and southeastern regions (i.e., the Toluquilla aquifer unit). Recently recharged water records little mixing and is located mostly in or near the La Primavera volcanic system. As groundwater undergoes gravitational flow towards discharge areas, it mixes with older water components. Chloride and sodium concentrations above natural background levels are primarily related to volcanic activity, nitrate is associated with human activities, and sulfate originates from both anthropogenic sources and water–rock interactions. Nitrate originating from land?use activities (such as sewers, septic tanks, landfills, and agricultural fields) that is introduced into the deeper part of the groundwater system is expected to travel with the groundwater to the discharge areas because oxidizing conditions will prevent microbial reduction."

Article

Chlorofluorocarbons Environmental tracers Groundwater contamination Groundwater flow Guadalajara Radiocarbon CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Y DEL ESPACIO HIDROLOGÍA HIDROLOGÍA

Distribución de sales y arsénico en el acuífero de La Paz B.C.S., México

ARTURO CRUZ FALCON JANETTE MAGALLI MURILLO JIMENEZ ENRIQUE TROYO DIEGUEZ ENRIQUE HIPARCO NAVA SANCHEZ (2016)

"Se instaló una red de monitoreo de pozos en el acuífero de La Paz para el muestreo de agua; esto incluye los usos del agua potable, agricultura, ganadería y servicios. Se midió la concentración de sales obteniéndose valores que van de 260 a 5300 mg/l, mientras que el límite para el consumo humano señalado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud es de 1000 mg/l, y el establecido por la Norma Ofi cial Mexicana para sólidos totales disueltos (STD)3 es también de 1000 mg/l. Además, se analizaron los elementos calcio, magnesio, sodio y potasio (cationes), y otros como carbonatos, bicarbonatos, sulfatos y cloruros (aniones) de 14 pozos situados paralelos a la línea de costa y en la parte central del acuífero, para determinar el tipo de agua utilizando un diagrama de Piper. Se encontraron dos familias principales de agua: clorurada cálcica y clorurada sódica.

Sodio y cloruros encontrados en altas concentraciones indican una afectación de los pozos cercanos a la costa debido a la intrusión marina. Así mismo, el calcio en concentraciones elevadas sugiere la existencia de materiales o capas de sedimentos de origen químico-orgánico en la estratigrafía del acuífero, a través de las cuales circula el agua subterránea.

Se delimitaron dos zonas afectadas por la intrusión marina, una de 6 km entre los ejidos Chametla y El Centenario; y la otra de 5.5 km hacia el este y sureste del ejido Chametla. Esta contaminación del acuífero por agua de mar puede estar relacionada a un bombeo excesivo de algunos pozos agrícolas. De los 30 pozos de agua potable que abastecen a la ciudad de La Paz, solo en cuatro se encontraron concentraciones de sales por encima de los 1000 mg/l. De ellos, tres se usaban antes para riego agrícola. Esta relativa baja concentración de sales en los pozos que abastecen a la ciudad de La Paz se atribuye a la continua recarga y circulación del agua subterránea debido a una buena permeabilidad entre los sedimentos de esta zona. De 20 pozos muestreados para análisis de arsénico, en tres se detectaron concentraciones que rebasan lo establecido en la Norma Oficial Mexicana, no obstante se ubican en un área donde no se ha desarrollado actividad minera, solo escasa agricultura. En este caso la presencia de arsénico en el agua se atribuye a condiciones naturales debido al tipo de roca, sedimentos y fallas geológicas en la zona..."

"A monitoring network of water wells was installed in the aquifer of La Paz for water sampling, including the use of potable water, agriculture, livestock, and services. Salt concentration was measured with values ranging from 260 to 5300 mg/l while the limit allowed for human consumption set by the World Health Organization is of 1000 mg/l, and the one established by the Official Mexican Standard for total dissolved solids (TDS) is also 1000 mg/l. In addition, elements such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium (cations), and others such as carbonates, bicarbonates, sulphates, and chlorides (anions) of 14 wells located parallel to the coastline and in the central part of the aquifer were analyzed to determine the type of water with a Piper diagram, with which two main water families were found, calcium chloride and sodium chloride.

Sodium and chlorides found in high concentrations indicates an affectation of the near shore water wells due to seawater intrusion, and high concentrations of calcium suggest the presence of materials or sedimentary deposits of chemical-organic origin that compose the stratigraphy of the aquifer through which underground water flows.

Two zones affected by seawater intrusion were delimited, one 6 km from the coast between the common lands Ejido Chametla and Ejido El Centenario; and the other one 5.5 km from the coast eastward and southeastward from Ejido Chametla. This contamination by seawater may be due to over pumping of some water wells for agriculture.

Of 30 potable water wells that supply water for the city of La Paz, only four were found with salt concentration above 1000 mg/l. Of these four, three wells were formerly used for agricultural irrigation. This relatively low salt concentration in the wells that supply water for the city of La Paz is attributed to a continuous recharge and a constant flow of groundwater due to a good permeability of the sediments in this area. Of 20 water wells sampled for arsenic analysis, three exceeded concentration of the Mexican Official Standard despite being located in an area where no mining activity has been developed, only little agriculture, such that the presence of arsenic in water is attributed to natural conditions due to the type of rock, sediments, and geological faults found around the area..."

Article

Acuífero de La Paz, calidad de agua subterránea, arsénico en agua subterránea, arsénico en pozos de agua, cuenca de La Paz Aquifer of La Paz, groun dwater quality, arsenic in groundwater, arsenic in water wells, basin of La Paz BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA

Retos y oportunidades de la gestión de los recursos hídricos subterráneos: Aproximación al problemático acceso al agua en Valles Centrales de Oaxaca, México

Challenges and opportunities of groundwater resources management: Examination of the problematic access to water in Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico

LUZMA FABIOLA NAVA JIMENEZ OJILVE RAMON MEDRANO PEREZ (2019)

Los recursos hídricos subterráneos, además de ser objeto de mecanismos de gestión cuantitativa, son la fuente principal de abastecimiento hídrico para ciertos usuarios. El acceso, el uso y el aprovechamiento de estos recursos favorecen la emergencia de tensiones entre las esferas gubernamental y social. La existencia de un decreto de veda y la falta de reconocimiento de la capacidad de participación de actores comunitarios son factores que potencializan la emergencia del conflicto. En este sentido, el liderazgo de comunidades indígenas organizadas favorece la formulación de estrategias alternativas para adaptar un longevo decreto de veda. El caso del problemático acceso por el agua en Valles Centrales (VC) de Oaxaca nos enseña que la gran oportunidad para adaptar la gestión de los recursos hídricos subterráneos reposa en las capacidades comunitarias para formular recomendaciones de política pública encaminadas a la gestión ad hocdel recurso.

Groundwater resources, in addition to being subject to quantitative management mechanisms, are the main source of water supply for certain users. The access, the use and the exploitation of these resources favor the emergence of tensions between governmental and social spheres. The existence of a water withdrawal ban decree and the lack of recognition of the capacity of participation of community actors are factors that potentiate the emergence of conflict. In this sense, organized indigenous leadership favors the formulation of alternative strategies to adapt a long-standing decree. The case of the problematic water access in Central Valleys of Oaxaca teaches us that the great opportunity to adapt groundwater management relies on the community capacities to formulate public policy recommendations aimed at ad hocwater resources management.

Article

CIENCIAS SOCIALES Decreto Agua subterránea Comunidades indígenas Adaptación Government decree Groundwater Indigenous communities Adaptation

Hydrogeochemistry and water-rock interactions in the urban area of Puebla Valley aquifer (Mexico).

EDITH ROSALBA SALCEDO SANCHEZ SOFIA ESPERANZA GARRIDO HOYOS MARIA VICENTA ESTELLER ALBERICH MANUEL MARTÍNEZ MORALES ARIADNA OCAMPO ASTUDILLO (2017)

The urban area of Puebla Valley aquifer is seated in Puebla City and neighbor municipalities. Puebla is the fourth

largest city in Mexico, where there are significant industrial zones and a large population. Water needs are

almost exclusively met by groundwater, which has brought intense exploitation of groundwater resources and

water quality degradation. The present study investigates the hydrogeochemical changes in groundwater, particularly

focuses on the chemical changes produced by upwelling mineralized water. These concentrations may

represent potential risks to the health of the population.

The groundwater presented five types of families Ca-HCO3, Mg-HCO3, Mix-HCO3, HCO3-Ca-SO4 and Ca-SO4.

The high concentrations of sulphates, calcium and magnesium are reflected in high TDS and Total Hardness. The

samples collected showed detectable concentrations of F−, Fe, Mn, Ba, Sr, Cu, Zn, B and Li. The limitations for its

use as drinking water are given by the high values of TDS, sulphates, total hardness and Mn.

Geochemical modeling using Geochemist's Workbench (GWB) and PHREEQC software enabled the computation

of the saturation index of mineral phases with ions in solution and speciation ions. Groundwater was

initially in equilibrium with calcite; however, due to the changes in hydrogeological conditions, gypsum and

dolomite are being dissolved until new equilibrium conditions are met. The additional calcium and carbonate in

the water causes calcite to become oversaturated and to precipitate. Evidence of dedolomitization reactions and

common ion effect is illustrated by concurrent increases in calcium and magnesium concentrations in the

groundwater.

Article

hydrogeochemistry water rock interactions Puebla Groundwater Saturation index BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Cuantificación del aporte hidrogeológico de la Cuenca Guadalupe a la recarga de los acuíferos del Valle de Guadalupe y Ojos Negros, B C

HANIEL CORDERO GONZALEZ (2014)

Tesis (Maestría en Ciencias, especialista en Hidrociencias).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2014.

Los modelos hidrológicos aportan elementos técnicos para el diseño de estrategias de operación y administración de los recursos hidráulicos de una cuenca, siendo estos de origen superficial o subterráneo. Las estimaciones de la recarga del agua subterránea constituyen la entrada para la mayoría de metodologías utilizadas para evaluación y manejo del recurso. El desarrollo de los sistemas de información geográfica (SIG) ha permitido algunos métodos analíticos. Se determinó la utilización de tres modelos en el estudio; el modelo tridimensional para un sistema de acuífero por capas, con código de diferencias finitas MODFLOW, seguido por SWAT, que es un modelo hidrológico de agua superficial. Así como, el balance de aguas subterráneas con el procedimiento definido por la Norma oficial Mexicana NOM-011-CNA-2000. Se utilizó el enfoque de múltiples unidades de respuesta hidrológica (HRU), el periodo simulado fue el año 2010. Resultando una tasa de recarga promedio de 11.87 mm año-1 para toda la cuenca. Se obtuvo un coeficiente de determinación (R2) de 0.9824 entre el modelo MODFLOW y el modelo SWAT. De las zonas agrícolas a las zonas de bosque, se disminuye el escurrimiento superficial y se incrementa la recarga de agua subterránea. _______________ QUANTIFICATION OF THE HYDROGEOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTION OF RIVER BASIN GUADALUPE TO GROUNDWATER RECHARGE OF THE VALLEY OF GUADALUPE AND OJOS NEGROS, B.C. ABSTRACT: The hydrologic models contribute to technical elements for the design of operation strategies and administration of the hydraulic resources of a river basin, being these of superficial or underground origin. The estimations of the recharge of groundwater constitute the entrance for the majority of methodologies used for evaluation and handling of the resource. The development of the GIS has allowed some analytical methods. The use of three models in the study was determined; the three-dimensional model for a groundwater system by layers, with code of finite differences MODFLOW, followed by SWAT, that is a hydrologic superficial water model. As well as, the underground water balance with the procedure defined by official Norm Mexican NOM-011-CNA-2000. The approach of multiple hydrologic response unit (HRU) was used, the simulated period was year 2010. Being a recharge rate of 11,87 mm year-1 for all the river basin. A 0,9824 between model SWAT and MODFLOW coefficient was obtained of determination (R2). Of the agricultural zones to the zones of forest, the superficial draining is diminished and the groundwater recharge is increased.

Master thesis

Agua subterránea MODFLOW Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG) SWAT Unidades de Respuesta Hidrológica (HRU) Groundwater Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Hydrologic Response Units (HRU) Hidrociencias Maestría CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Multi-criteria decision analysis and GIS approach for prioritization of drinking water utilities protection based on their vulnerability to contamination

ALEJANDRO RAFAEL ALVARADO GRANADOS MARIA VICENTA ESTELLER ALBERICH EMMANUELLE QUENTIN JORET JOSE LUIS EXPOSITO CASTILLO (2016)

This work presents the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) as a decisión tool to facilitate the process of prioritization of drinking wells that would need more protection before contamination risk. In this study, three aspects of the protection of the groundwater quality were taken into account: natural, anthropic and technical. From these aspects, elements more representative were selected, which can be quantified with available and easily accesible information. Considering those elements, selection criteria were defined which have been represented by: population distribution indicator, human development index, land use, index for aquifer vulnerability to contamination, well age and well yearly pumping rate. The developed method has been applied to drinking supply wells located in the Toluca Valley aquifer (Mexico), and implied the generation of the thematic maps of the defined selection criteria. For the MCDA, the values of each map were converted to the same scale, each criterion was weighted in function of its importance according to the objective and there were aggregated by the way of a lineal combination. The obtained result is a map that shows the level of protection priority of the supply wells. This map can offer information to the stakeholder in a relative short time and contribute to accelerate the actions aimed to protect the quality of the vital underground liquid.

Article

MCDA Groundwater Well protection CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA

Lead concentration in soil from an old mining town

HECTOR RENE VEGA CARRILLO (2011)

Lead concentration in soils has been measured

in Vetagrande, an old mining town located at the state of

Zacatecas in Me´xico. Eighty nine soils samples were

analyzed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence. The

lead concentrations were treated with the Kriging method

in order to estimate the lead concentration distribution in

the studied area. Pb levels in soils were from 8 to 7730 lg

kg-1, where 28.1% of soil samples have less than 400 lg

kg-1, 71.9% is above 400 lg kg-1 which is the maximum

level recommended by the EPA for residential use of soil.

Lead concentration measured around public sites represent

a risk of lead intake in the population.

Producción Científica de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas UAZ

Article

BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA Lead EDXRF Kriging method GIS Contamination Soil

Relación del escurrimiento superficial y el crecimiento poblacional en el Río de las Avenidas en Pachuca, Hidalgo

ALEJANDRO ROMERO BAUTISTA (2012)

Tesis (Doctorado en Ciencias, especialista en Hidrociencias).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2012.

El desarrollo sostenible de una nación no considera separación entre los factores económicos, ecológicos, sociales, políticos y culturales. Al tratarse de la conservación y buen manejo del recurso hídrico, es indispensable la convergencia de dichos factores. En México, es necesaria la construcción de nuevas y mejores relaciones entre la política hídrica y la urbana, dado el deterioro de las fuentes de agua de las que depende la mayor parte de los habitantes. Aquí se argumenta la existencia y aplicación de herramientas de análisis y gestión viables, con las que, es posible generar un modelo de desarrollo urbano acorde con la disponibilidad y sustentabilidad de los recursos naturales para la cuenca del Río de las Avenidas de Pachuca. En forma general, los estudios sobre evaluación de los recursos naturales realizan estimaciones cuantitativas o económicas en el espacio y tiempo; sin embargo, la conservación de vidas humanas debe ser el principal factor de evaluación cuando se analizan los fenómenos e interacciones con los recursos naturales, en este caso los relacionados con los recursos hídricos. El crecimiento de la población en la cuenca del Río de las Avenidas de Pachuca, aumentó proporcionalmente el área urbanizada de la cuenca, lo que trajo consigo el incremento de la cantidad de agua escurrida; la alta correlación encontrada entre la población y la superficie urbana estimadas, indican que el método de Clasificación Supervisada de Imágenes de Satélite, se aplicó correctamente. Se determinó que el crecimiento urbano, de la zona de estudio, redujo principalmente las áreas de cultivo de temporal, lo que modifica el régimen de escurrimiento superficial. Se generó evidencia de impacto presente y futuro del crecimiento poblacional y superficie urbanizada en el incremento de avenidas máximas; lo que representa una fuerte señal de alerta para prevenir, la probable pérdida de vidas humanas y daños materiales por el inminente riesgo de inundaciones. _______________ RELATIONSHIP OF SURFACE RUNOFF AND POPULATION GROWTH IN THE AVENIDAS RIVER IN PACHUCA, HIDALGO. ABSTRACT: The sustainable development of a nation does not consider separation between economic, ecological, social, political and cultural. Being good conservation and management of water resources is essential convergence of these factors. In Mexico, it is necessary to build new and better relationships between urban water policy and, given the deterioration of water sources on which it depends most of the inhabitants. Here we argue the existence and application of tools for analyzing and managing viable, with which, presumably, you can build a model of urban development in line with the availability and sustainability of natural resources for the Avenidas River basin of Pachuca. In general, studies on the evaluation of natural resources or economic make quantitative estimates in space and time, but the preservation of life should be the primary evaluation factor when analyzing the phenomena and interactions with natural resources, in this case related to water resources. The population growth in the basin of the River Avenues of Pachuca, increased proportionally the urbanized area of the basin, which resulted in the increase of the amount of water lost, the high correlation found between the population and the urban surface estimated indicate that the method of supervised classification of satellite images was applied correctly. It was determined that the urban growth of the study area, reduced mainly rainfed cropland, which amends the runoff. Evidence was generated present and future impact of population growth and urban area in the increase of maximum floods, which represents a strong warning to prevent the probable loss of life and property damage from the imminent risk of flooding.

Doctoral thesis

Avenidas máximas Inundaciones Agua subterránea Cambio climático Sistemas de información geográfica Proyecto PLATAH Hidrociencias Doctorado Maximum floods Flooding Groundwater Climate change Geographic information sistem Project PLATAH CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA