Author: Felipe Ignacio Arreguín Cortés
Acuíferos transfronterizos en México: análisis normativo hacia una estrategia de manejo
Felipe Ignacio Arreguín Cortés Mario Lopez Perez (2018)
Se analiza el marco legal que regula las aguas subterráneas en México y Estados Unidos de América (EUA). Belice, Guatemala y EUA no cuentan con regulación específica sobre acuíferos transfronterizos. Se encontraron diferencias en el reconocimiento del número de acuíferos transfronterizos existentes compartidos con EUA. Los criterios de definición de acuífero o unidad geohidrológica entre los cuatro países son diferentes. Se identifica una falta de información técnica y legal de los acuíferos transfronterizos con Belice, Guatemala y EUA. La normatividad y criterios sugeridos por las instituciones de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU) para los acuíferos transfronterizos permiten establecer las bases legales para construir la estrategia para la gestión sostenible de los acuíferos transfronterizos. Es indispensable que México y los tres países vecinos avancen en generar la información técnica para establecer una estrategia de gestión conjunta de las aguas subterráneas transfronterizas. Se proponen temas técnicos relevantes para las fijar las bases que permitan gestionar de forma sostenible los acuíferos transfronterizos.
Acuíferos transfronterizos Actos internacionales Aguas subterráneas CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA
The national drought policy in Mexico
Felipe Ignacio Arreguín Cortés Mario Lopez Perez David Ortega Gaucin (2016)
Traditionally, drought effects in Mexico have been attended through governmental reactive efforts directed to provide water and food, to assure health protection, and to restore economic impact once the phenomena occurred. The Mexican Government through National Water Commission (CONAGUA, for its acronym in Spanish), interested in changing the paradigm for preventive actions to cope with droughts in Mexico in the past, decided to launch in 2013 the National Program Against Drought (PRONACOSE, for its acronym in Spanish) and created the Intersecretarial Commission on Droughts and Floods (CIASI, for its acronym in Spanish) to take charge of coordinating, implementing and following-up of the PRONACOSE. This program has its main focus on reducing vulnerability through the implementation of planned preventive actions under a comprehensive and participative approach. As key part of the program, Programmes of Preventive and Mitigation Drought Measures (PMPMS, for its acronym in Spanish) for each one of the 26 river basin councils established in the country and for the principal cities of Mexico were developed. These programmes include the measures that can be implemented within the river basin councils and the cities to cope with drought in three ways: before the phenomenon occurs (strategic measures), when it is starting (tactical measures) or when it is already happening (emergency measures). Also, since 2014, the National Meteorological Service (SMN, for its acronym in Spanish) releases timely alerts and monitors the evolution of the drought including affected areas and level of severity of the phenomenon at a basin, state and municipality level. It is noteworthy that in all these activities the Mexican Institute of Water Technology (IMTA, for its acronym in Spanish) has played an important role, as this institute has provided the necessary technical support for the designing and implementation of the PRONACOSE. It is concluded that drought risk cannot be fully eliminated, nevertheless the actions that are implemented as part of this program are useful to mitigate its effects.
Sequías Políticas públicas México CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA
Drought risk management in Mexico: progress and challenges
David Ortega Gaucin Mario Lopez Perez Felipe Ignacio Arreguín Cortés (2016)
Drought is one of the most complex natural phenomena, which affects the most people in the world. In Mexico, drought has been a recurrent and persistent problem throughout its history. In recent years, drought has affected large agricultural areas and rural communities, leading to severe imbalances in the regional and national economies, as occurred during the 2011–2012 drought, the most severe of the last 70 years. Therefore, in this paper an analysis of the measures that have recently been implemented to cope with drought in Mexico, which highlights the beginning of the transition from a reactive approach based on the crisis management towards a proactive approach aimed to risk management, with the implementation of the National Program Against Drought (PRONACOSE, for its acronym in Spanish) launched in 2013 is presented. So, in this paper, the components of this program are presented, along with a brief description of the Programs of Preventive and Mitigation Drought Measures (PMPMS, for its acronym in Spanish), which have been formulated as an integral part of PRONACOSE for each of the 26 basin councils in the country. Similarly, some of the main future challenges in drought manage¬ment and research needs identified during the formulation of the PMPMS are exposed. We concluded that there is no way to avoid a drought but there are ways to mitigate its impacts and reduce losses of those affected by the phenomenon. Drought risk can’t be completely eliminated, but preventive actions implemented in the future will be useful to mitigate its effects.
Sequías Prevención de desastres Gestión del riesgo Vulnerabilidad CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA