Author: HECTOR GERARDO NOLASCO SORIA

Effect of attractant stimuli, starvation period and food availability on digestive enzymes in the redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (Parastacidae)

HECTOR GERARDO NOLASCO SORIA (2014)

"Chemical stimuli in crayfish have been extensively studied, especially in the context of social interactions, but also to a lesser extent in relation to food recognition and the physiological response of digestive enzymes. This is particularly important in commercial species in order to optimize the food supplied. The first objective of this study was to determine whether incorporation of squid meal (SM) in food (base feed, BF) acts as an additional attractant for Cherax quadricarinatus and, if so, the concentration required for optimal effectiveness. Incorporation of SM was evaluated through individual and group behavioral tests. The second objective was to analyze the effect of food availability on behavior and level of digestive enzyme activity after short-term (48 h) and long-term (16 d) starvation periods. To assess the effect of either starvation period, 3 different treatments were conducted: no feed (control), available BF, and BF present but not available. Individual and group behavior showed no differences among treatments with different percentages of SM inclusion in BF. The time spent in chambers with different percentages of SM was similar in all treatments. Levels of amylase activity and soluble protein, as a function of food availability after a short- or long-term starvation period, were not altered. Digestive enzyme activity was not affected after 2 d of starvation in response to the treatment. However, change was observed in enzymatic profiles after juveniles were deprived of food for 16 d. The main responses were given by lipase, protease and trypsin activity. Based on previous studies and the present results, we propose a hypothesis for a possible regulation of the digestive and intracellular lipase activities depending on food availability."

Article

Chemical stimuli, Crustaceans, Digestive enzyme, Food searching behavior, Food attractants, Starvation BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOQUÍMICA ENZIMOLOGIA

Esters biotransformation by immobilized interfacial esterases from the Caribbean Sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus

Biotransformación de ésteres por esterasas interfaciales inmovilizadas a partir de la anémona marina Stichodactyla helianthus

HECTOR GERARDO NOLASCO SORIA Jose M. Guisan (2015)

"An immobilized biocatalyst (ShIE-Octyl) was obtained by interfacial adsorption on Octyl-Sepharose CL 4B sup¬port of all interfacial esterases from the aqueous extract of the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. ShIE-Octyl, synthesized by this simple method, contains semipurified interfacial esterases, including the isotoxins StI and StII. The immobilized esterases are maximally stable at pH 7.0 for p-nitrophenylacetate hydrolysis (determined spec¬trophotometrically at 348 nm) during 6 days, although immobilization does not enhance the stability of the soluble enzymes toward pH. In contrast, immobilization appreciably increases the stability toward temperature and organic solvents. ShIE-Octyl shows 90 % residual activity after 6 days at 30 °C, and maintains at least 85 % initial activity in presence of 10 % methanol or acetonitrile. The immobilized derivative catalyzes the hydrolysis of the pharmaco¬logically relevant esters: naproxen methyl ester, 2-oxyranylmethyl acetate (OMAc), methyl-prostaglandin A2 and ethyl-2-hydroxy-4-phenyl butanoate (HPBEt) (determined by RP-HPLC or HPTLC) with 95-100 % conversion in 6240 min, and tolerates 20 % organic solvents. The immobilized biocatalyst is selective for esters with simple alcoholic and complex acid structures, but showing the infrequent ability to hydrolyze esters with heteroatomic or aromatic alcoholic substituents, such as phenylethyl butyrate and 7-aminocephalosporanic acid. ShIE-Octyl is S-stereoselective in the bioconversion of chiral HPBEt and OMAc, and R-stereoselective in the hydrolysis of naproxen methyl ester in presence of 10 % methanol or acetonitrile. The selectivity by (S)-OMAc is favored at low temperature (4 °C) and buffer ionic strength (10 mM sodium phosphate). The enantioselectivities toward naproxen methyl ester and OMAc are unusual; then are particularly relevant."

"Biotransformación de ésteres por esterasas interfaciales inmovilizadas a partir de la anémona marina Stichodactyla helianthus. Se obtuvo un biocatalizador inmovilizado (ShIE-Octyl), mediante la adsorción interfacial en el soporte Octyl-Sepharose CL 4B de todas las esterasas interfaciales del extracto acuoso de la anémona marina Stichodactyla helianthus. El ShIE-Octyl sintetizado mediante este método simple contiene esterasas interfaciales semipurificadas, incluidas las isotoxinas StI y StII. Las esterasas inmovilizadas tienen estabilidad máxima a pH 7.0 para la hidrólisis de p-nitrofenil acetato (determinada espectrofotométricamente a 348 nm) durante 6 días, 90 % de la actividad residual a 30 ºC posteriormente, y conservan el 85 % de la actividad inicial en presencia de metanol o acetonitrilo 10 %. La inmovilización no incrementa la estabilidad de las enzimas solubles frente al pH y sí frente a la temperatura y los solventes orgánicos. El biocatalizador hidroliza los ésteres farmacológicamente relevantes: éster metílico del naproxeno, acetato de 2-oxiranilmetilo (OMAc), metil-prostaglandina A2 y 2-hidroxi-4-fenil-butirato de etilo (HPBEt), determinada mediante RP-HPLC o HPTLC, con 95-100 % de conversión en 6240 min, y tolera solventes orgánicos al 20 %. La enantioselectividad frente a los dos primeros es inusual y particularmente relevante. Además, es selectivo por ésteres con estructuras ácidas complejas y alcohólicas simples, aunque hidro¬liza aquellos con sustituyentes alcohólicos aromáticos o heteroatómicos, como el butirato de feniletilo y el ácido 7-aminocefalosporánico. Es S-estéreoselectivo en la bioconversión de HPBEt y OMAc quirales, y R-estéreoselectivo en la hidrólisis del éster metílico del naproxeno en presencia de metanol o acetonitrilo 10 %. La selectividad por (S)-OMAc se favorece a baja temperatura (4 °C) y fuerza iónica del tampón fosfato de sodio (10 mM)."

Article

enantioselective hydrolysis, enzymatic bioconversion, interfacial adsorption, marine invertebrates, sticholysins adsorción interfacial, bioconversión enzimática, hidrólisis enantioselectiva, invertebrados marinos BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA QUÍMICA BIOQUÍMICA COENZIMAS

CIRCADIAN CYCLE OF DIGESTIVE ENZYME PRODUCTION AT FASTING AND FEEDING CONDITIONS IN NILE TILAPIA, OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS (ACTINOPTERYGII: PERCIFORMES: CICHLIDAE)

Magnolia Montoya Mejía Hervey Rodríguez González Héctor Gerardo Nolasco Soria (2016)

"Background. Fish have photoperiod-dependent rhythms (circadian cycle of about 24 h), including the enzymatic secretion cycles, and this information has not been available for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus,1758) The knowledge on the digestive enzymes in Nile tilapia may have practical implications in fish nutrition. The aim of the presently reported study was to determine the circadian cycle of digestive enzyme production of Nile tilapia, in fasting and feeding regimes, in hope to receive information that might improve feeding schedules of this fish in aquaculture. Materials and methods. In juvenile Nile tilapia the circadian cycle of concentrations of total soluble protein, protease, pepsin-like, trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase, and lipase were determined. The baseline (fasting) and feeding conditions (ad libitum) were sampled and monitoring every hour for 24 h. Results. The basal peak of enzyme activity in the intestine occurred at 18:44 h for amylase, at 19:57 h for proteases, and 20:29 for trypsin. The minimal activity for most enzymes, appeared between 4:51 h (amylase) and 10:13 h (lipases). In the feeding treatment (ad libitum), stomach activity (pepsin-like) had maximal activity at 20:06 h and minimal activity 05:46 h. Intestinal amylase activity covered an extended period of low enzymatic activity beginning at the 05:46 h and ending at 12:59 h. The peak of digestive enzyme activity occurred within 18:44–20:29 h. In general, secretion of digestive enzymes was positively stimulated by food, for all enzymes assayed. Conclusion. Nile tilapia has a higher digestive enzyme activity at night than during the day. Knowledge of the circadian cycle of digestive enzymes, and modifications initiated by food, is useful to establish feeding times. If feeding schedules are adjusted to coincide with maximum natural peaks, feed efficiency will increase, which will be reflected in weight gain of the fish and provide more profitable yields for aquaculture."

Article

enzyme activity, physiology, feeding schedule CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS PECES Y FAUNA SILVESTRE PISCICULTURA PISCICULTURA

PIGMENTACIÓN, CRECIMIENTO Y SUPERVIVENCIA DE CRÍAS CARPA KOI (CYPRINUS CARPIO VAR. HAEMATOPTERUS) ALIMENTADAS CON DIETAS CON INCLUSIONES DE ACEITE DE LANGOSTILLA ROJA (PLEURONCODES PLANIPES)

PIGMENTATION, GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF KOI CARP FRY (CYPRINUS CARPIO VAR. HAEMATOPTERUS) FED WITH DIETS WITH INCLUSIONS OF RED CRAB (PLEURONCODES PLANIPES) OIL

CYNTHIA EUGENIA MONTOYA MARTINEZ MARTÍN ALONSO ARÉCHIGA PALOMERA HECTOR GERARDO NOLASCO SORIA FERNANDO VEGA VILLASANTE (2015)

"En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la inclusión de aceite de langostilla roja (Pleuroncodes planipes) sobre el crecimiento, supervivencia y pigmentación del tegumento de crías de carpa koi (Cyprinus carpio var. haematopterus). El estudio consistió en tres experimentos: experimento 1, con fotoperiodo de 4 h L / 20 h O y aguas claras; experimento 2, con fotoperiodo 12 h L/ 12 h O y aguas claras, y, experimento 3, cuyo fotoperiodo fue de 12 h L /12 O y aguas con algas. En estos experimentos, dos variedades de crías de carpa koi -naranjas y con manchas oscuras- fueron alimentadas con dietas adicionadas con aceite de langostilla a diferentes porcentajes de inclusión (0, 1, 2 y 3 %), con el 5% de alimento con relación a la biomasa de cada unidad experimental. Al final de cada uno de los experimentos se tomaron fotografías de los organismos y se analizó la coloración con el modelo de matiz-saturación-brillantez de cuatro regiones anatómicas en ambas variedades de crías y en los experimentos 1 y 2 se evaluaron parámetros biológicos: supervivencia, ganancia en longitud y en peso, y porcentaje de incremento en peso y en longitud. Las dietas adicionadas con aceite de langostilla roja no fueron rechazadas por los organismos, y no se observaron efectos negativos en las variables evaluadas. En general, la inclusión de aceite influyó en la pigmentación de las crías de color naranja y en el crecimiento y la coloración de los organismos con manchas oscuras, particularmente cuando el fotoperiodo fue de 12 L/ 12 O."

"In this study the effect of the inclusion of red crab (Pleuroncodes planipes) oil, was evaluated on growth, survival and pigmentation of the integument of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio var. haematopterus) fry. The study consisted of three experiments: Experiment 1, with photoperiod of 4 h L/ 20 h D and clear waters; Experiment 2, with photoperiod of 12 h L /12 h D and clear waters, and experiment 3, with photoperiod of 12 h L/ 12 h D and green water (with natural production of microalgae). In these experiments, two varieties of koi fry (orange color and orange color with dark spots) were fed with diets containing inclusions at different percentages (0, 1, 2 and 3%) of red crab oil, according to the 5% of total biomass of each experimental unit. At the end of each experiment, pictures of every fish were taken and analyzed with the HSV color model, in four anatomical regions. In the experiments one and two, biological parameters were survival, length and weight gain, and percentage of increase in weight and length were evaluated. Diets with added red crab oil were not rejected by organisms, and no adverse effects were observed in the variables evaluated. In general, the inclusion of oil increases the pigmentation of the orange color fish and growth and coloration of black spot fishes, particularly when the light conditions were adjusted to a photoperiod of 12 h L/12 h D."

Article

Pigmentación, carpa koi, langostilla roja Pigmentation, koi carp, red crab BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA QUÍMICA BIOQUÍMICA BIOQUÍMICA DE ALIMENTOS

CRECIMIENTO Y SUPERVIVENCIA DEL LANGOSTINO (Macrobrachium tenellum) EN CULTIVOS EXPERIMENTALES DE VERANO Y OTOÑO EN LA COSTA TROPICAL DEL PACÍFICO MEXICANO

GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF PRAWN (Macrobrachium tenellum) IN EXPERIMENTAL CULTURES DURING SUMMER AND AUTUMN IN THE TROPICAL MEXICAN PACIFIC COAST

FERNANDO VEGA VILLASANTE Luis Daniel Espinosa Chaurand Héctor Gerardo Nolasco Soria (2011)

"Para fines de cultivo, Macrobrachium tenellum es considerado como un buen candidato pues no es agresivo ni presenta canibalismo, puede tolerar un amplio rango de temperaturas, salinidades y concentraciones de oxígeno. El presente trabajo evalúa el cultivo semiintensivo de M. tenellum bajo condiciones ambientales de verano y otoño con especial atención en la temperatura del agua. Los resultados de los cultivos experimentales en la costa tropical del Pacífico mexicano, sugieren que esta especie demuestra mejor crecimiento durante el final de la primavera, verano y principios del otoño, época en que la temperatura promedio del agua es cercana a 30°C. Mientras que los cultivos de finales de otoño e inicios de invierno demuestran crecimientos mínimos, con una temperatura promedio del agua de cultivo de 27°C. Otros parámetros físicoquímicos como pH, concentración de O2 y turbidez en el agua de cultivo fueron similares en todos los cultivos experimentales por lo que se sugiere que el factor temperatura fue el determinante en las diferencias encontradas en el crecimiento."

"For aquaculture purposes, Macrobrachium tenellum is considered as a good candidate, is not aggressive nor presents cannibalism and can tolerate an ample interval of temperatures, salinities and oxygen concentrations. The present work evaluates the semi-intensive culture of M. tenellum under environmental conditions of summer and autumn with special attention to water temperature. The results of the experimental cultures in the tropical Mexican Pacific coast, suggest this species demonstrates better growth during the end of the spring, summer and the beginning of the autumn, time at which the average temperature of the water is near 30°C. The experimental cultures of end of autumn and beginnings of winter demonstrate minimum growth, with an average temperature of the culture water of 27°C. Other parameters like pH, O2 concentration and turbidity in the culture water were similar in all the experimental cultures reason why temperature is suggested the factor was the determinant in the differences found in growth."

Article

camarón de río, temperatura, desarrollo, Macrobrachium, condiciones ambientales prawn, temperature, development, environmental conditions BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA ANIMAL (ZOOLOGÍA) CRECIMIENTO ANIMAL CRECIMIENTO ANIMAL

Effect of protein level in diet and feeding schedule on the digestive enzymatic activity of Macrobrachium tenellum juveniles

Luis Daniel Espinosa Chaurand olimpia victoria carrillo farnés FERNANDO VEGA VILLASANTE Héctor Gerardo Nolasco Soria (2019)

"This study assessed the effect of protein level in diet and feeding schedule on the digestive enzymatic activity of Macrobrachium tenellum juveniles. Freshwater prawn juveniles (0.31 ± 0.004 g and 32.48 ± 0.27 mm) were fed diets with 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40% crude protein (CP) (p/p). In a second experiment, feeding schedules were assessed at 08:00, 14:00 and 20:00 h with feed at 30% CP with juveniles of 0.22 ± 0.002 g and 29.36 ± 0.28 mm. In both experiments, five organisms were sampled after 60 days of treatment in a time-lapse of one hour (08:00 to 09:00 h) per experimental tank and treatment. The enzymatic extract was obtained from the complete organisms to determine specific general protease, trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase and lipase activities. Greater general protease, trypsin and lipase activities were observed in feed at 40% CP. The feeding schedules with greater general protease, trypsin, lipase and amylase activities were found at 14:00 and 20:00 h. Chymotrypsin did not show differences among treatments at CP levels or feeding schedules. Protein level in diets for M. tenellum modified basal digestive enzymatic activity and increased proteolytic and lipolytic activities, while it decreased amylolytic activity as the inclusion of CP level increased in the diet; likewise, the activity was modified by feeding schedule, showing a direct correlation between the increase in digestive enzymatic activity and food offering at the end of the day."

Article

Macrobrachium tenellum, prawn, feeding schedule, digestive enzymes, digestive physiology CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS PRODUCCIÓN ANIMAL NUTRICIÓN NUTRICIÓN

In vitro Digestibility of Yarrowia lipolytica Yeast and Growth Performance in Whiteleg Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

ANA RUTH ALVAREZ SANCHEZ HECTOR GERARDO NOLASCO SORIA ALBERTO PEÑA RODRIGUEZ CLAUDIO HUMBERTO MEJIA RUIZ (2018)

"Marine yeasts used in aquaculture disease control can also be an important protein source for improving feeding and nutrition of crustaceans. Yarrowia lipolyticca has been studied for its capacity to secrete heterologous proteins and high content of unsaturated fatty acids, beta-glucan, and mannane polymers in the cell wall. We measured in vitro digestibility of Y. lipolyticca by whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei digestive enzymes, and an in vivo assay of Y. lipolytica in feed onwhiteleg shrimp growth. We found that digestive gland enzymes of shrimp digest Y. lipolytica, based on reduced optical density of a yeast suspension. Digestion was –0.00236 ± 0.00010 OD U min–1 for intact cells and –0.00325 ± 0.00010 OD U min–1 for lysed cells. Release of reducing sugars in intact cells (5.3940 ± 0.1713 μmol h–1), and lysed cells (0.8396 ± 0.2251 μmol h–1) was measured. Digestive gland treatment significantly reduced cell viability (near 100%), relative to the control. Electron microscopy shows that the cell wall of Y. lipolytica exposed to the digestive gland enzymes was severely damaged. Shrimp diet containing Y. lipolytica resulted in significantly higher weight gain and specific growth rate of whiteleg shrimp."

Article

Marine yeast, cell digestibility, cell viability, turbidimetry, reduced sugars BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOQUÍMICA BIOQUÍMICA DE ALIMENTOS

Caracterización bioquímica del extracto crudo de Pleuroncades planipes (Crustacea: Galatheidae), como un aditivo alimenticiio potencial. consideraciones para una nueva pesquería en la Costa del Pacífico de México

Biochemicall characterization of crude extract Jrom Pleuroncodes planipes (Crustacea: Galatbeidae) as potential feed additive. considerations for a new fishery along the Mexico Pacific coast

FERNANDO VEGA VILLASANTE HECTOR GERARDO NOLASCO SORIA Adyary Fallarero olimpia victoria carrillo farnés (2002)

"La langostilla roja Pleuroncodes planipes es posiblemente el decápodo bentónico más abundante de la costa oeste de México, con una productividad natural estimada en 735,000 toneladas métricas al año, sin embargo este recurso aún no ha sido explotado comercialmente. En este trabajo el extracto crudo de la langostilla, obtenido por prensado mecánico del organismo completo, es analizado como un ingrediente potencial o aditivo alimentario para la nutrición de especies marinas en cultivo. El extracto liofilizado de la langostilla demostró poseer i) actividad enzimática digestiva de proteasas, am1lasas y lipasas, ii) ausencia de inhibición de proteasas de tipo serínico, iii) actividad antioxidante hacia la lipoperoxidación de tejido cerebral de rata y de los iones su peróxido producidos poir la reacción de la xantina-oxidasa, iv) actividad de péptidos tipo insulina. El perfil de aminoácidos presentó niveles altos de arginina, lisina y metionina. El cómputo químico de la proteína del extracto fue comparada con proteína de larva M. japonicus, tejido completo de pescado y de almeja. La digestibilidad del producto fue de 95.7% tomando la caseína purificada como referencia. Estas características bioquímicas y nutricionales y su relevancia se discuten en el trabajo. Estos resultados abren la perspectiva de la captura de langostilla como una nueva actividad pesquera en México. "

"The red crab Pleuroncodes planipes, commonly called "langostilla" is arguably the most abundant benthonic decapod of west coast Mexico, with natural productivity estimated at 735,000 metric tons/year. At the present time, it has not been exploited commercially. The implementation of a new fishery in Mexico, based on the capture of red carb, offers diversification of the fishing industry. In this work, a raw extract of langostilla, obtained by mechanical pressing of the whole organism, was analyzed as a potential feed ingredient or additive for cultured marine species. The lyophilized red crab extracts possessed: 1) enzymatic activity of protease, trypsin, amylase, and lipase; 2) no inhibition of serine-proteases; 3) antioxidant capacity against lipoperoxidation and superoxide ions produced by xanthine oxidase reaction; and 4) activity of insulin-like peptides. The amino acid profile shows high levels of arginine, lysine, and methionine. The cheical score of extract protein was compared with M. japonicus larvae, whole body fish tissue, and short-necked clam tissue. The digestibility of the product was 95% taking purified casein as reference. These biochemical and nutritional characteristics are discussed. These results offer a new use of red crab and the potential of a new fishery in Mexico."

Article

Pfeiuroncodes planipes, langostilla, nutrición, crustáceos, pesquería mexicana. Pleuroncodes planipes, red crab, nutrition, crustacean, Mexican fishery BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA ANIMAL (ZOOLOGÍA) ZOOLOGÍA MARINA

Cultivo de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) a pequeña escala ¿alternativa alimentaria para familias rurales y periurbanas de México?

Small-scale culture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), alimentary alternative for rural and peri-urban families in Mexico?

FERNANDO VEGA VILLASANTE LUZ MARIA ZUÑIGA MEDINA MAO ERNESTO RAFAEL BASTO ROSALES Héctor Gerardo Nolasco Soria (2010)

"Existe una tendencia global hacia la intensificación de los sistemas acuícolas, sin embargo una gran parte de la producción mundial es aún obtenida de acuicultura de “tipo rural” de pequeña escala y en sistemas extensivos. El término “acuicultura rural” ha sido usado para distinguir de otros sistemas de producción, el cultivo de organismos acuáticos por parte de grupos familiares mediante sistemas de cría extensivos o semiintensivos para el autoconsumo o la comercialización parcial. Estudios llevados a cabo en diversas regiones de México han sugerido que la acuicultura rural de tilapia puede ser una alternativa de producción capaz de atenuar la demanda y disminuir la presión sobre los recursos naturales. El presente trabajo analiza el cultivo de tilapia considerando el mínimo manejo posible, con baja densidad de siembra y bajo recambio de agua, con la intención de sugerir técnicas sencillas de producción que puedan desarrollarse en áreas marginadas rurales y periurbanas de zonas tropicales de México. Los resultados de nuestro trabajo fueron comparados con datos de una producción comercial encontrando que el peso promedio final y la tasa de crecimiento porcentual no difirieron significativamente entre ambos mientras que el FCA resultó mejor en las condiciones experimentales de baja densidad."

"There is a global trend towards intensification of aquaculture-based systems, however a large portion of world production from aquaculture is still in small-scale "rural type" and extensive systems. The term “rural aquaculture” has been used to distinguish, from other production systems, the culture of aquatic organisms by families through extensive or semiintensive systems, for home consumption or partial marketing. Studies conducted in various regions of Mexico suggested that rural aquaculture of tilapia could be an alternative activity, able to dampen the demand and reduce pressure on natural resources. This paper analyzes the culture of tilapia considering the minimum management, with low fish density and low water exchange with the intention to suggest simple techniques of production that could be implemented in poor rural and peri-urban areas of tropical Mexico. The results of our study were compared with data from a commercial production: final average weight and percentage growth rate didn't differ significantly when comparing them with those obtained in commercial cultures. FCR was better under the experimental conditions."

Article

piscicultura, Oreochromis niloticus, acuicultura rural, cultivo a baja densidad, acuicultura de subsistencia fish culture, rural aquaculture, low density culture, subsistence aquaculture CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS PECES Y FAUNA SILVESTRE PISCICULTURA PISCICULTURA