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Diagnóstico para la caracterización de funciones normalizadas en el sector hídrico

Armando Mendiola Mauro Plata ANTONIO ROMERO CASTRO (2014)

Se presenta una aproximación de la descripción de algunos aspectos estructurales, económicos y técnicos que conforman el sector hídrico en México. El informe está conformado por una investigación bibliográfica, con algunos aspectos clave que permiten recabar información estadística, estructural y económica de las instituciones que conforman el sector hídrico. La segunda parte, a través de la aplicación de algunos instrumentos para recopilar información, se determinan algunos datos para identificar demanda de los 21 estándares de competencias labores que se han desarrollado dentro del Comité de Gestión por Competencias del sector hídrico.

Working paper

Organismos operadores Recursos humanos Aspectos económicos Productividad Informes de proyectos CIENCIAS SOCIALES

¿Por qué revalorizar los nances y sus variedades de colores?

Diana Elidé Burgos Lugo MARIA TERESA CASTILLO BURGUETE DANIELA ALEJANDRA MARTINEZ NATAREN (2023)

Los nances, frutales ancestrales con distribución desde el sureste mexicano hasta Sudamérica, están dejando de cultivarse y poco se conoce sobre sus variedades con frutos de colores, debido a los cambios en los hábitos de consumo y estilo de vida de las personas. El manejo tradicional de los nances se realiza en huertos familiares y parcelas de cultivo, cuyos frutos son recolectados, en ocasiones, con la participación familiar. Las formas de uso culinario de los nances, son parte de la cultura maya y ofrecen beneficios para la salud y la economía de los habitantes de comunidades rurales. Invitamos a conocer y apreciar los frutos de estos árboles que todavía están a nuestro alcance.

Article

BYRSONIMA BUCIDIFOLIA BYRSONIMA CRASSIFOLIA CONOCIMIENTO TRADICIONAL FRUTALES SUBUTILIZADOS PROPIEDADES FUNCIONALES BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA VEGETAL (BOTÁNICA) ECOLOGÍA VEGETAL ECOLOGÍA VEGETAL

Protein retention assessment of four levels of poultry by-product substitution of fishmeal in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diets using stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) as natural tracers

DANIEL BADILLO ZAPATA (2014)

This is second part from an experiment where the nitrogen retention of poultry by-product meal (PBM) compared to fishmeal (FM) was evaluated using traditional indices. Here a quantitative method using stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ15N values) as natural tracers of nitrogen incorporation into fish biomass is assessed. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed for 80 days on isotopically distinct diets in which 0, 33, 66 and 100% of FM as main protein source was replaced by PBM. The diets were isonitrogenous, isolipidic and similar in gross energy content. Fish in all treatments reached isotopic equilibrium by the end of the experiment. Two-source isotope mixing models that incorporated the isotopic composition of FM and PBM as well as that of formulated feeds, empirically derived trophic discrimination factors and the isotopic composition of fish that had reached isotopic equilibrium to the diets were used to obtain a quantitative estimate of the retention of each source of nitrogen. Fish fed the diets with 33 and 66% replacement of FM by PBM retained poultry by-product meal roughly in proportion to its level of inclusion in the diets, whereas no differences were detected in the protein efficiency ratio. Coupled with the similar biomass gain of fishes fed the different diets, our results support the inclusion of PBM as replacement for fishmeal in aquaculture feeds. A re-feeding experiment in which all fish were fed a diet of 100% FM for 28 days indicated isotopic turnover occurred very fast, providing further support for the potential of isotopic ratios as tracers of the retention of specific protein sources into fish tissues. Stable isotope analysis is a useful tool for studies that seek to obtain quantitative estimates of the retention of different protein sources. © 2014 Badillo et al.

Article

nitrogen 15, nitrogen, protein intake, animal behavior, animal experiment, animal food, animal tissue, aquaculture, Article, biomass, controlled study, energy metabolism, food composition, juvenile animal, nonhuman, poultry by product meal, protein a CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Y DEL ESPACIO OCEANOGRAFÍA OCEANOGRAFÍA

Appraisal of complementarity of subsurface drip fertigation and conservation agriculture for physiological performance and water economy of maize

C.M. Parihar Hari Sankar Nayak Dipaka Ranjan Sena Renu Pandey Mahesh Gathala ML JAT (2023)

The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in north-west (NW) India are facing a severe decline in ground water due to prevalent rice-based cropping systems. To combat this issue, conservation agriculture (CA) with an alternative crop/s, such as maize, is being promoted. Recently, surface drip fertigation has also been evaluated as a viable option to address low-nutrient use efficiency and water scarcity problems for cereals. While the individual benefits of CA and sub-surface drip (SSD) irrigation on water economy are well-established, information regarding their combined effect in cereal-based systems is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a two-year field experiment in maize, under an ongoing CA-based maize-wheat system, to evaluate the complementarity of CA with SSD irrigation through two technological interventions–– CA+ (residue retained CA + SSD), PCA+ (partial CA without residue + SSD) – at different N rates (0, 120 and 150 kg N ha-1) in comparison to traditional furrow irrigated (FI) CA and conventional tillage (CT) at 120 kg N ha-1. Our results showed that CA+ had the highest grain yield (8.2 t ha-1), followed by PCA+ (8.1 t ha-1). The grain yield under CA+ at 150 kg N ha-1 was 27% and 30% higher than CA and CT, respectively. Even at the same N level (120 kg N ha-1), CA+ outperformed CA and CT by 16% and 18%, respectively. The physiological performance of maize also revealed that CA+ based plots with 120 kg N ha-1 had 12% and 3% higher photosynthesis rate at knee-high and silking, respectively compared to FI-CA and CT. Overall, compared to the FI-CA and CT, SSD-based CA+ and PCA+ saved 54% irrigation water and increased water productivity (WP) by more than twice. Similarly, a greater number of split N application through fertigation in PCA+ and CA+ increased agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and recover efficiency by 8–19% and 14–25%, respectively. Net returns from PCA+ and CA+ at 150 kg N ha-1 were significantly higher by US$ 491 and 456, respectively than the FI-CA and CT treatments. Therefore, CA coupled with SSD provided tangible benefits in terms of yield, irrigation water saving, WP, NUE and profitability. Efforts should be directed towards increasing farmers’ awareness of the benefits of such promising technology for the cultivating food grains and commercial crops such as maize. Concurrently, government support and strict policies are required to enhance the system adaptability.

Article

Net Returns Subsurface Drip Irrigation Subsurface Drip Fertigation CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA EFFICIENCY GRAIN NITROGEN PHOTOSYNTHESIS PHYSIOLOGY WATER SUPPLY CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE CONVENTIONAL TILLAGE FERTIGATION GROUNDWATER NITROGEN-USE EFFICIENCY WATER PRODUCTIVITY

Agricultural lime value chain efficiency for reducing soil acidity in Ethiopia

Moti Jaleta (2023)

Soil acidity is challenging agricultural production in Ethiopia. Above 43% of the farmland is under soil acidity problem and it leads to low crop yields and production losses. Ag-lime is widely considered as an effective remedy for amending soil acidity. This study assesses the current structure of ag-lime value chain and its functionality focusing on central parts of Ethiopia where lime is produced and channeled to acidity affected areas. The study uses Ethiopia as a case study and applies qualitative methods such as key informant interviews and focus group discussions to collect data from different actors in the ag-lime value chain. Key findings indicate that both public and private ag-lime producing factories are operating below their capacity. Due to limited enabling environments, the engagement of private sector in ag-lime value chain is minimal. In addition, farmers have a good awareness of soil acidity problem on their farms, and its causes and mitigation strategies in all regions. However, the adoption of ag-lime by smallholders was minimal. Overall, the current structure of the ag-lime value chain appears fragmented and needs improvement. Addressing soil acidity challenge through efficient ag-lime value chain could narrow lime supply-demand mismatches and increase widespread adoption by farmers to enhance crop productivity and food security in acidity-prone areas of the country.

Article

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA LIMES PRODUCTION COSTS VALUE CHAINS SOIL PH

Modelo de optimización de recursos para un distrito de riego

Model for the optimization of resources for an irrigation district

DAVID ORTEGA GAUCIN ENRIQUE MEJIA SAENZ ENRIQUE PALACIOS VELEZ LUIS RENDON PIMENTEL ADOLFO ANTENOR EXEBIO GARCIA (2008)

Mediante el uso de técnicas de programación lineal se desarrolló un modelo de optimización de recursos hídricos para el distrito de riego 005, localizado en Delicias, Chihuahua,México. El modelo planteado permitió estimar la superficie de riego y el patrón de cultivos óptimo para incrementar los beneficios netos de los productores. Se analizaron cuatro escenarios posibles, tomando en cuenta la disponibilidad de volúmenes clave en las fuentes de abastecimiento de agua, así como dos eficiencias de conducción de la red de canales. Los resultados indicaron que la superficie sembrada en el distrito fue de 70 459 ha. La superficie estimada por el modelo fue menor de 9643 ha con respecto a la superficie regable actualmente; por lo cual se concluye que es conveniente establecer estrategias para que, en situaciones próximas, la superficie excedente sea desincorporada del distrito de riego, o bien, reducir la concesión de agua con la finalidad de lograr la sustentabilidad de los módulos.

Using linear programming techniques, a model for optimizing water resources was developed for the Irrigation District 005, located in Delicias, Chihuahua, Mexico. The proposed model allowed estimation of the irrigation area and optimal cropping pattern needed to increase net benefits for growers. Four possible scenarios were analyzed, considering the availability of key volumes in water supply sources, as well as two conduction efficiencies for the network of irrigation channels. The results indicated that the area cultivated in the Irrigation District was 79 459 ha. The area estimated by the model was 9643 ha less than the area currently irrigation. It is thus concluded that it would be recommendable to establish strategies for withdrawing the excess area from the Irrigation District or for reducing water concessions in order to achieve sustainability of the modules.

Article

Agricultura Productividad agrícola Programas de computación Programación lineal INGENIERÍA Y TECNOLOGÍA

Wheat seed demand assessment assisted by genotyping in Ethiopia

Moti Jaleta Kindie Tesfaye Olaf Erenstein (2023)

This study examines the extent to which wheat varieties supplied by the formal seed system align with the varieties demanded and used by farmers in Ethiopia. The framework of stated and revealed preferences drawn from the consumer preference theory is used to analyze farmer demand for different wheat varieties. We used official data from the formal seed sector and representative survey data from wheat farm households in Ethiopia. The survey data allow to contrast the farmer reported varietal use with genotyping by sequencing (also known as DNA fingerprinting). Farmers' reliance on informal seed sources and own saved seed, among others, contributes to the misidentification of the varieties they grow. Consequently, farmers are likely to misinform the formal seed demand assessment leading to either an over- or underestimation of actual seed demand for specific wheat varieties. Genotyping by sequencing, as opposed to farmer reports, established the persistence of old varieties. This also implies vulnerability of wheat production to disease dynamics depending on the longevity of disease resistance by the variety in use. Apart from narrowing the gap between the actual and stated demand and ensuring timely replacement of wheat varieties, genotyping-assisted estimates can save seed carry-over cost. Genotyping by sequencing is increasingly used as the new benchmark and gold standard for identifying and tracking the adoption of crop varieties. The technique has potential to enhance the performance of the seed sector through effective planning that can optimize resource commitments and accelerate the rate of varietal replacement.

Article

Seed Demand Varietal Replacement CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA GENOTYPING-BY-SEQUENCING SEEDS WHEAT

Cambio climático: percepciones sobre manifestaciones, causas e impactos en el distrito de temporal tecnificado Margaritas-Comitán, Chiapas

DENISE SOARES ANTONINO GARCIA GARCIA LUIS RICARDO MANZANO SOLIS (2018)

Se exploran percepciones acerca de las manifestaciones del cambio climático, sus causas e impactos en el cotidiano de actores sociales locales en el Distrito de Temporal Tecnificado Margaritas-Comitán (DTT011) ubicado en la Meseta Comiteca, estado de Chiapas, perteneciente a la parte alta de la cuenca del río Usumacinta. Asimismo, se propone argumentar con base en información empírica que, independiente de la aprehensión del concepto de cambio climático, a nivel local se observa, interpreta y siente el impacto de las variaciones en los periodos de lluvia y del incremento del calor, las cuales presentan consecuencias en términos económicos en la zona, toda vez que los sistemas productivos se ven afectados y se pierden cosechas.

Article

Cambio climático Sistemas productivos Vulnerabilidad CIENCIAS SOCIALES