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Multi-criteria decision analysis and GIS approach for prioritization of drinking water utilities protection based on their vulnerability to contamination


This work presents the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) as a decisión tool to facilitate the process of prioritization of drinking wells that would need more protection before contamination risk. In this study, three aspects of the protection of the groundwater quality were taken into account: natural, anthropic and technical. From these aspects, elements more representative were selected, which can be quantified with available and easily accesible information. Considering those elements, selection criteria were defined which have been represented by: population distribution indicator, human development index, land use, index for aquifer vulnerability to contamination, well age and well yearly pumping rate. The developed method has been applied to drinking supply wells located in the Toluca Valley aquifer (Mexico), and implied the generation of the thematic maps of the defined selection criteria. For the MCDA, the values of each map were converted to the same scale, each criterion was weighted in function of its importance according to the objective and there were aggregated by the way of a lineal combination. The obtained result is a map that shows the level of protection priority of the supply wells. This map can offer information to the stakeholder in a relative short time and contribute to accelerate the actions aimed to protect the quality of the vital underground liquid.



Funcionamiento familiar en población clínica y población con riesgo de trastornos alimentarios


This study was conducted with the aim to compare the family functioning in women with different level of eating alteration: clinic (AN, BN, EDNOS) and risk to ED; also to assess the risk and protective effects of family functioning over the participants diagnosis. 135 women participated; they were diagnosed with clinic interview and answered three questionnaires: EAT, BULIT and FES. The results confirmed that the ED symptoms are more pronounced in the clinical groups (BN, EDNOS), especially there were more compensatory behaviors in clinical groups than the risk group. The bulimic group has the poor family functioning. The correlational analysis confirmed some negatives associations between ED symptoms and family functioning. In consequence, the logistic regression models indicate that encourage the development dimension has a protective effects to decrease the probability to have ED, however, the contribution is limited because the models leave a large amount of unexplained variance. The findings are discussed from the multifactorial perspective where the family functioning should be interpreted in conjunction with others individual and social factors associated to ED.


salud eating disorders symptomatology family functioning protection MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD

Phenolic compounds accumulation in wild and domesticated cladodes from opuntia spp. and its benefits in cardiovascular diseases

Anne Negre_Salvayre Françoise Guéraud María del Socorro Carmen Santos Díaz Ana Paulina Barba de la Rosa (2018)

"Opuntia spp. are plants native from Mexico where the largest varieties of wild and semi-domesticated species are found. Nowadays the most domesticated species, O. ficus-indica is widely distributed worldwide. Since pre-Hispanic times, young cladodes or nopalitos have been used as a source of food and in folk medicine. Reports indicate that dietary intake of Opuntia spp. exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties, which emphasizes their nutritional benefit for preventing cardiovascular and most chronic non-infectious diseases. However the Opuntia biological properties may fluctuate depending on the cladode phytochemical composition, variations that can be quantitative and qualitative as function of the plant growing conditions. For these reasons cell tissue cultures represent an excellent alternative for the control of Opuntia metabolite production."

Book part

Ficus-indica Oxidative modification Bioactive compounds Stress Atherogenesis Antioxidants Metabolites Opportunity Protection Damage BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA QUÍMICA QUÍMICA

Evaluación de la capacidad inmunogénica y protectora de antígenos de Pasteurella multocida, obtenidos de aislados de casos clínicos


The immunogenic protection response to four P. multocida isolations obtained from clinical cases and a reference strain was studied. Isolations were proven as three different immunogens: complete antigen (Ag), washed Ag and culture supernatant. They were subcutaneously administered in SPF light White Leghorn hens. Immune response was evaluated using ELISA test and challenge test evaluated protection response. The ANOVA and Tukey test did not show statistical differences between groups. All isolations using different vaccines induced high protection levels ranging from 87 to 100%. This study indicates that immunization using these three immunogens induce an effective response against P. multocida challenge with the best protection when culture supernatant is used.


Veterinaria Evaluation P multocida isolations immunogenic protection BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Towards Sustainability: Photochemical and electrochemical processes applied for environmental protection


In the last century, public policy around the globe was mainly focused on economic growth leaving out of this perspective, social concerns and the environment detriment that this merely economic approach was causing. It was until the last quarter of the 20th century that people started to be aware of the growing poverty and of the jeopardy of the planet as a result of human being activities. In consequence, the concept of sustainable development emerged in the United Nations as a call to all countries to integrate economic growth with social needs and environmental protection, in such a way that our activities as earth inhabitants stopped compromising the quality of life and needs satisfaction of future generations.


sustainability: photochemical electrochemical environmental protection remediación de agua CIENCIAS SOCIALES

Face recognition and De-Identification in the frequency domain


When dealing with images obtained in surveillance context, video-based automatic

identity recognition is considerably more difficult than still images-based. The

difficulties increase due to several simultaneous and uncontrolled factors, such as severe

variations of illumination, expression, pose, occlusion and motion. Furthermore,

an automatic face detection process does not provide an accurate registration neither

guarantees a full face localization, then as a result there are misalignment errors

and/or wrong scales that affect the recognition performance. Moreover, not only recognizing

face images is highly important to combat crime, but nowadays, it is also

quite important to protect the privacy of subjects visible in some surveillance scenarios.

Thus, to obtain the necessary rightful information and at the same time to

preserve the rights for people's privacy is a current challenge. In this dissertation, a

general framework for such a challenge is developed.

Firstly, one goal is face recognition considering illumination and expression variations,

relative poses, partial occlusions and spatial shifts. To this end, we propose

a correlation lter capable of dealing with all those difficulties and achieving at the

same time a higher margin of separability between genuine and impostor classes. Because

the method uses both, modeling a face subspace in the frequency domain and

the original image matrix, we propose a new (2D)2(PCA) based phase-only method

that yields face images with higher quality while preserving edge information allowing

to represent and extract more efficiently facial features. Experimental results, using

the AR and YALE-B face databases, show that the proposed method achieves higher

recognition accuracies than other methods in the frequency domain and in the space


Cuanto tratamos con imágenes obtenidas en un contexto de video vigilancia, el

reconocimiento automático de la identidad de alguna persona en video es considerablemente

más dificultoso y desafiante que en imágenes fijas. El incremento de estas

dificultades se debe a varios factores simultáneos y no controlados, tal como variaciones

severas de iluminación, pose, oclusión y movimiento. Asimismo, un proceso de

detección automática de rostros no proporciona exactitud de registro ni garantiza la

localización perfecta del rostro, y como resultado, hay errores de desalineación y/o

de escalas incorrectas, que afectan el desempeño de reconocimiento facial. Además,

no sólo es muy importante reconocer imágenes de rostros en video vigilancia para

combatir el crimen o para salvaguardar la seguridad de los habitantes de sospechosos

y/o terroristas, sino también es muy importante proteger la privacidad de los sujetos

visibles en algunos escenarios de video vigilancia. De esta manera, hay un desafio en

obtener información legitima necesaria y al mismo tiempo preservar los derechos de

privacidad de las personas en el campo de visión. En ésta tesis, se desarrolla marco

general de trabajo para estos desafios.

En primer lugar, una meta es que el reconocimiento facial considere variaciones de

iluminación, expresiones faciales, poses relativos, oclusiones parciales y desplazamientos

espaciales. Para éste fin, proponemos un filtro de correlación capaz de tratar con

todos esas dificultades y logar al mismo tiempo un mayor margen de separabilidad

entre clases genuinas e impostoras. Puesto que éste método modela un subespacio en

el dominio de la frecuencia y usa la matriz original de la imagen, proponemos un nuevo

método de los espectros de fase basado en (2D)2(PCA) que produce imágenes de

rostro con mayor calidad, preservando la información de borde permitiendo representar

y extraer más eficientemente las características faciales. Resultados comparativos,

usando las bases de datos AR y YALE-B, muestran que el método propuesto logra

mayores tasas de reconocimiento facial que otros métodos en el dominio de la frecuencia y en en el dominio espacial.

Doctoral thesis

Fase recognition Frequency domain Face de-identification Privacy protection CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA FÍSICA ELECTRÓNICA

Estudio fitoquímico de Roldana ehrenbergiana (Klatt) H Rob


Brettell y su actividad insecticida en Epilachna varivestis Mulsant


Tesis (Doctorado en Ciencias, especialista en Botánica).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2014.

En la búsqueda de alternativas ecológicas para el manejo de plagas se ha utilizado una diversidad de plantas con propiedades tóxicas, entre ellas puede estar la hierba del perro Roldana ehrenbergiana, especie tóxica para borregos, caballos, perros y ratas; así mismo, se utiliza en cebos para el control de hormigas, como veneno para perros y ha presentado acción insecticida en mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Sin embargo, se desconoce el hábitat, fenología y áreas potenciales de distribución, así como su actividad insecticida e insectistática en plagas de importancia agrícola y sanitaria como la conchuela del frijol Epilachna varivestis y mosquito doméstico Aedes aegypti. Para ello, se realizaron muestreos y visitas de campo, se utilizaron colectas georeferenciadas y variables climáticas de WorldClim para crear un modelo con el algoritmo MaxEnt. En E. varivestis se realizaron bioensayos en confinamiento sin elección (CS) y con elección (CC) de alimento, donde se evaluó el extracto en un rango de concentraciones de 0.1 a 20,000 ppm, y de 5,000 ppm, respectivamente. Los tratamientos se asperjaron en hojas cotiledonales de frijol Phaseolus vulgaris var. Flor de mayo, después del secado se colocaron 10 larvas neonatas, de menos de 24 horas de edad, y se confinaron en recipientes de plástico. A los 7 d se registró mortalidad, peso de larva y consumo foliar, para determinar mediante análisis Probit la Concentración Letal media (CL50), Inhibición media de la Alimentación (IA50) y Protección Foliar media (PF50), así como Área Foliar Protegida (AFP). En A. aegypti se evaluó el macerado de 1 a 20%, extracto de 10,000 a 100,000 ppm y las fracciones de 10 a 1,000 ppm; colocando 20 larvas de cuarto instar en un vaso con 100 mL de agua, después se agregó 1 mL de la concentración a evaluar. A las 24 h se registró mortalidad y mediante análisis Probit se determinó la Concentración Letal media (CL50). Los resultados muestran que R. ehrenbergiana se distribuye en la zona centro de México a una altitud promedio de 1,874.7 msnm, temperatura media anual de 18.78 ºC y precipitación promedio de 876.70 mm, con vegetación asociada de matorral espinoso con Acacia sp, bosque de Quercus y pastizal inducido; el ciclo fenológico inicia en mayo y termina en agosto; la distribución potencial está determinada por la isotermalidad. R. ehrenbergiana presento actividad insecticida e insectistática a través de la inhibición de la alimentación en E. varivestis, y protección foliar en frijol; en CS, la mortalidad tuvo una CL50 de 3,233.09 ppm, IA50 de 1,575.22 ppm y PF50 de 459.07 ppm, mientras que en CC se observó un AFP de 91.88 a 98.96%, sin causar mortalidad ni afectar peso de larva. En A. aegypti, la acción insecticida del macerado tuvo CL50 de 8.29 a 12.32%, el extracto de 51,268.34 a 61,217.24 ppm, y las fracción de 92.65 a 220.92 ppm, atribuyendo el efecto toxico a las fracciones C1 y D1. La especie R. ehrenbergiana representa una alternativa para el manejo ecológico de plagas agrícolas y sanitarias y es fuente para la extracción de dichos compuestos. _______________ PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF Roldana ehrenbergiana (Klatt) H. Rob. & Brettell AND INSECTICIDAL EFFECT IN Epilachna varivestis Mulsant. ABSTRACT: In search of ecological alternatives for pest management has use a variety of plants with toxic properties, however there are option such as hierba del perro Roldana ehrenbergiana, it’s a toxic specie for sheep, horses, dogs and rats, so it’s used in baits to control ants, and insecticidal effect on mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. However, insecticidal and antifeedant activity are not known in Mexican bean beetle Epilachna varivestis and mosquito Aedes aegypti, and the environmental factors is not known for distribution area of the specie. In this paper, was evaluated the maceration, extract and fractions obtained with ethanol on root R. ehrenbergiana. In E. varivestis in non-choice bioassays (CS) was use extract to concentrations from 0.1 to 20.000 ppm, and choice bioassays (CC) was applied extrac to 5,000 ppm. They was sprayed in cotyledons leaf of bean var. Flor de mayo, after drying was put 10 neonate larvae and were confined in plastic containers. At 7 day, the mortality, larval weight and leaf consumption was determined and were use in PROBIT analysis for determinate Lethal Concentration (LC50) Antifeedant (AF50) and Leaf Protection (LP50). In CC was obtained 91.88 to 98.96% Leaf Protected Area (LPA) without causing mortality or affect larval weigth of E. varivestis. In A. aegypti was evaluated the maceration to concentrations of 1 to 20%, extract from 10,000 to 100,000 ppm, and fractions from 10 to 1,000 ppm; for bioassay test, 20 larvae were taken in plastic glass which 100 mL of water, then added 1 mL of each concentration. At 24 h was register mortality and determinated Lethal Concentration (LC50). In the potential model distribution of R. ehrenbergiana was use MAxEnt algorithm and bioclimatic variables of WorldClim. The results of R. ehrenbergiana show insecticide effect on A. aegypti, and toxic and antifeedant on larvae E. varivestis and leaf protection on beans. The LC50 was 3,233.09 ppm, AF50 of 1,575.22 ppm and LP50 of 459.07 ppm. In A. aegypti, the LC50 for maceration was 8.29 to 12.32%, extract of 51,268.34 to 61,217.24 ppm and fraction of 92.65 to 220.92 ppm; attributing to fractions C1 and D1 the toxic effect in roots of R. ehrenbergiana. The potential area distribution are located in central Mexico in the states of Oaxaca, Puebla and Tlaxcala, and was determined for bio3, bio19, Bio7, bio8 and bio10 variables of WorldClim. The extract ethanol of root R. ehrenbergiana is an alternative for pest management agriculture.

Doctoral thesis

Actividad insecticida Inhibición del crecimiento Protección foliar Aedes aegypti MaxEnt CL50 IA50 PF50 Insecticidal activity Antifeedant Leaf protection IC50 CP50 Botánica Doctorado CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Structural characterization of lignin in four cacti wood: Implications of lignification in the growth form and succulence

Jorge Reyes Rivera Ramón Marcos Soto Hernández GONZALO CANCHE ESCAMILLA Teresa Terrazas (2018)

Wood lignin composition strongly depends on anatomical features and it has been used as a marker for characterizing major plant groups. Wood heterogeneity in Cactaceae is involved in evolutionary and adaptive processes within this group; moreover, it is highly correlated to the species growth form. Here we studied the lignin structure from different types of woods in four Cactaceae species with different stem morphologies (Pereskia lychnidiflora, tree/fibrous wood; Opuntia streptacantha and Pilosocereus chrysacanthus, tree/succulent fibrous wood; Ferocactus hamatacanthus, cylindrical stem/dimorphic wood) in order to determine their relationship with the wood anatomy in an evolutionary-adaptive context. Dioxane lignin was isolated and analyzed by pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The main linkages are the β-O−4′ ether (67–85%), the β-β′ resinol (10–26%) and the β-5′ and α-O−4′ linkages of the phenylcoumaran structures (≤7%). Spirodienone structures have a considerable abundance (5%) in the dimorphic wood of F. hamatacanthus. In addition, low contents (≤3%) of α,β-diaryl ether, α-oxidized β-O−4′ ether and dibenzodioxocin structures were found. The sinapyl- and coniferyl acetates are not part of the wood lignin in any of the studied species. The low (≤5%) γ-acetylation in the F. hamatacanthus and P. chrysacanthus wood lignin is here interpreted as an evidence of a high specialization of the wood elements in the conduction/storage of water. The lignin of the studied Cactaceae is composed predominantly of guaiacyl and syringyl units (S/G: 0.9–16.4). High abundance of syringyl units (62–94%) in three of the four species is considered as a defense mechanism against oxidative agents, it is a very conspicuous trait in the most succulent species with dimorphic wood. Furthermore, it is also associated with ferulates and the herein called γ-acetylated guaiacyl-syringaresinol complexes acting as nucleation sites for lignification and as cross-links between lignin and carbohydrates at the wide-band tracheid-fiber junctions.