Advanced search


Knowledge area




18 results, page 1 of 2

Evidence and lessons learned from Long-Term On-Farm Research on Conservation Agriculture Systems in communities in Malawi and Zimbabwe

Christian Thierfelder Walter Mupangwa (2015)

A long-term study was carried out in the Zidyana Extension Planning Area (EPA), Malawi and in the Zimuto Communal Area, Zimbabwe, to evaluate the effect of different conservation agriculture (CA) systems on crop productivity, soil quality and economic performance. Maize productivity results from Zidyana showed that CA systems out-yielded the conventional system in seven out of nine cropping seasons. Labour savings relative to the conventional control ranged from 34–42 labour days ha−1 due to reduced time needed to make manual ridges and for weed control, leading to higher net benefits of 193–444 USD·ha−1. In Zimuto, yield benefits were apparent from the second season onwards and there was a much clearer trend of increased yields of CA over time. Greater net benefits (in USD·ha−1) were achieved on CA systems in Zimuto compared with conventional control treatments due to overall higher yields from CA systems. In Zimuto, both increased infiltration and a gradual increase in soil carbon were recorded, which may have contributed to the greater yield response of CA in this area. In Zidyana, yield increases were attributed primarily to enhanced water infiltration since no increases in soil carbon levels were measured. Farmers highlighted critical challenges to the adoption of CA. These will have to be addressed in future research and extension to provide effective solutions to farmers

Article

Maize Soil quality Yields Production Gross margin Farmer perceptions CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Analysis of the Masked Metabolite of Deoxynivalenol and Fusarium Resistance in CIMMYT Wheat Germplasm

Xinyao He Masayo Kushiro (2017)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) causes significant grain loss and contamination of grains with harmful mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON). Fusarium resistance and DON accumulation have been extensively investigated in various cultivars; however, the level of DON-3-O-glucoside (D3G) has not been as carefully studied. In this study, we measured accumulated DON and D3G levels in CIMMYT wheat elite germplasm using an analytical method validated in-house. Co-occurring nivalenol (NIV) and ergostrerol (ERG) were also analyzed. LC-MS/MS and LC-UV analyses were applied to the 50 CIMMYT elite wheat lines. D3G showed rather high correlation with DON (r = 0.82), while FHB symptoms showed slight correlation with DON and D3G (r = 0.36 and 0.32, respectively). D3G/DON ratio varied widely from 8.1 to 37.7%, and the ratio was not related with FHB resistance in this dataset.

Article

Maize production Soil quality Gross margin Farmer perceptions Yields CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Análisis de la cadena productiva bovinos de carne en el estado de Hidalgo.

ALICIA CERVANTES ANGELES (2016)

Tesis (Doctor en Ciencias, especialista en Economía).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2016.

La carne de bovino es un alimento importante en la dieta de la población, para disponer de este alimento se involucran cuestiones como la producción de ganado, la infraestructura para su transformación y la comercialización. La ganadería en México contribuye con el 38% del PIB del sector agropecuario (SIAP, 2015). Del año 2012 al 2013 los productores de carne de bovino en México enfrentaron un aumento en sus costos de producción por el incremento en los precios de maíz, sorgo y soya que aumentaron un 10%, 6% y 13% respectivamente (ASERCA, 2015), lo cual se tradujo en mayores costos de producción de la carne de bovino en el país, la cual disminuyó (1%), en ese mismo periodo el consumo aparente per cápita paso de 17 a 16.9 kg (0.58%). Considerando lo anterior se planteó el objetivo de analizar el funcionamiento de la cadena productiva bovinos de carne en el estado de Hidalgo, México para conocer la competitividad y eficiencia de los eslabones que la integran. Se diseñaron y aplicaron cuestionarios a 69 engordadores de ganado clasificados en pequeños, medianos y grandes con 28, 81 y 433 cabezas (muestreo aleatorio estratificado), acopiadores de ganado, 4 rastros municipales, introductores de carne, a 48 detallistas y a 284 consumidores de carne. Se determinó una rentabilidad de 1.25, 1.90 y 2.82 para corral pequeño, mediano y grande respectivamente; en las carnicerías una relación beneficio /costo de 1.01, 1,18 y 1.36 para micro, pequeñas y medianas respectivamente. Los mayores márgenes corresponden a los detallistas con un 32%, el consumo de carne de res depende del ingreso, destinando en promedio 1276 $/mes compra cortes populares. _______________ AN ANALYSIS OF BEEF CATTLE PRODUCTION CHAIN IN THE STATE OF HIDALGO, MÉXICO. ABSTRACT: Beef is an important part of the diet in any human population. The availability of this product involves matters such as cattle production, infrastructure for its processing and marketing. Livestock production in Mexico constitutes a 38% of the GDP in the agricultural sector (SIAP, 2015). From 2012 to 2103, cattle beef producers in Mexico faced an increase in their production costs due to a rise in the prices of maize, sorghum and soybean, which went up to 10%, 6% and 13% respectively (ASERCA, 2015). This caused production costs for beef to go up as well all over the country, and as a consequence production decreased 1% in that same period. Apparent per capita consumption went from 17 to 16.9 kg (0.58%). Considering this, we set the objective of analyzing the functioning of beef cattle production chain in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico, in order to know the competitiveness and efficiency of its links. We designed and applied questionnaires for 69 beef cattle feeders. Using stratified random sample surveys, they were divided into small (28 livestock head), medium (81 livestock head) and large (433 livestock head). The sample also included cattle collectors, 4 municipal butchers, beef promoters, 48 retailers and 284 beef consumers. A profitability of 1.25 for small producers, 1.90 for medium producers, and 2.82 for large producers was determined. In butcheries, a cost-benefit ratio of 1.01 (small), 1.18 (medium) and 1.36 (large) was determined as well. The highest margin is that of retailers, 32%. Beef consumption depends on income, out of which 1276 Mexican pesos/ month is destined to purchasing popular beef cuts.

Doctoral thesis

Rentabilidad Bovinos carne Márgenes Consumidores Profitability Beef cattle Margin Consumers Economía Doctorado CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS PRODUCCIÓN ANIMAL BOVINOS

Noise margin and short-circuit current in FGMOS logics

Luis Fortino Cisneros Sinencio ALEJANDRO DIAZ SANCHEZ Jaime Ramírez Angulo (2011)

Even when floating-gate logics are very-low-voltage circuits, as power supply is reduced, large fan-in FGMOS gates are prone to fail. Thus, determining the negative impact of noise margin and short-circuit current in this type of circuits is crucial to achieve optimal operation for a particular application. For this reason, a systematic and reliable technique for obtaining the correlation between fan-in and supply voltage, simultaneously considering noise margin and short-circuit current, is proposed.

Article

Floating-gate logic Noise margin FGMOS transistor CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA FÍSICA ELECTRÓNICA ELECTRÓNICA

Production and marketing characteristics of pig production in the south of the State of Mexico

Felipe de Jesús González Razo Javier Hernández Martínez SAMUEL REBOLLAR REBOLLAR ROLANDO ROJO RUBIO (2010)

The paper examines the structure and the operation of pig production in the south of the state of Mexico, it explores the various stages that make up the commercialization process of the activity and the different actors involved, it means, all the process that is followed since the departure of the animal from the farm until its arrival as a final product for the consumer. It is also calculated the marketing margins resulting during the different stages of the process, which are used as indicators of profitability. The study was held in 2007 when a total of 17 producers of pork, two collectors, 28 retailers and 37 consumers of pig meat were polled. The objective of the survey was to gather information about the production process, actors, marketing costs and prices, and then determine the margins of marketing and characterization of pig production in the South of the state of Mexico. The results showed that at current prices, the producers participation in the final price, paid by the consumer, was 26,22 %, while the intermediaries participation was 73,78 %. The total marketing margin averaged 23,93 $/kg, from which retailers gained 23,52 $/kg (98,28 %), while the remaining 0,40 $/kg was for the collectors. The traditional marketing process used in the region is: producer, collector, retailer and final consumer.

Article

Agrociencias Marketing marketing margin pig production CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Impacto económico de las características lineales de tipo en ganado suizo americano.

DANIEL ALONSO DOMÍNGUEZ OLVERA (2015)

Tesis (Maestría en Ciencias, especialista en Ganadería).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2015.

En la actualidad los criadores de ganado de registro en México producen los reproductores que son la base de los sistemas de producción nacionales, creando las condiciones para una mayor competitividad en sus propios mercados y en las unidades de producción (UP) de sus compradores, mejorando así su eficiencia económica. Los criadores de ganado Suizo Americano en el país han adoptado nuevas tecnologías en sus hatos para ser más eficientes, competitivos y rentables; sin embargo, estas tecnologías adolecen de un buen sistema de registros que sea sencillo, práctico y permanente, de manera que les permita obtener la información necesaria en forma oportuna para evaluar económicamente sus UP. Por ello, se planteó una investigación, mediante encuesta directa, para conocer los indicadores económicos, en términos de vida productiva de los vientres, que permitiera identificar las principales variables técnicas económicas que intervienen en el sistema. El estudio se basó en una muestra aleatoria de 21 UP, que constituyeron el 33% de la población, de las cuales se obtuvo información básica para caracterizar técnica y económicamente las UP, evaluando su rentabilidad y punto de equilibrio. Además, relacionar el efecto económico de las características lineales de tipo con la vida productiva de las vacas, en las ganaderías de Ganado Suizo de Registro (AMCGSR), ubicadas en las regiones Centro y Frailesca de Chiapas. Los resultados mostraron que la producción promedio de leche fue de 12.9 Lvaca-1día-1, con un punto de equilibrio que se alcanzó a 41.1 meses de vida productiva, que representó el 28.8 % de su promedio de vida. Se evidenció, que al aumentar en un mes la vida productiva de las vacas, se incrementa la utilidad bruta acumulada en $954.33, cuya longitud de vida promedio fue de 11.9 años. Por ello, la utilización de sementales con mejor calificación en rasgos de tipo, evaluados a través de sus hijas, tendrá un efecto directo en la longevidad de la progenie, que es una variable de gran importancia en la región de estudio y esta positivamente correlacionada con los beneficios económicos de las UP de ganado Suizo Americano. _______________ ECONOMIC IMPACT OF LINEAR TYPE TRAITS IN BROWN SWISS CATTLE. ABSTRACT: At present cattle breeders in Mexico produced reproductive that are the basis of national production systems, creating the conditions for greater competitiveness in their own markets and production units (UP) of its buyers, improving in economic efficiency. American breeders Swiss cattle in the country have adopted new technologies in their herds to be more efficient, competitive and profitable; however, these technologies suffer from a good set of records that is simple, practical and permanent, so as to enable them to obtain the necessary information in a timely manner to evaluate their UP economically. Therefore, an investigation was raised by direct survey to ascertain the economic indicators, in terms of productive life of bellies, which would identify the main economic and technical variables involved in the system. The study was based on a random sample of 21 UP, which accounted for 33% of the population, of which basic information was obtained to characterize the UP technically and economically evaluating profitability and breakeven. Furthermore, linking the economic effect of the linear type traits with productive life of cows in the herds of Swiss Cattle Association (AMCGSR) located in the Central and Frailesca of Chiapas regions. The results showed that the average milk production was 12.9 Lvaca-1day-1, a balance that was reached at 41.1 months of productive life, which accounted for 28.8% of its average life. It was shown that the increase in a month the productive life of cows, gross profit $ 954.33 cumulative increases, the average length of life was 11.9 years. Therefore, the use of sires with best rating on type traits evaluated through their daughters, will have a direct effect on the longevity of the progeny, which is a very important variable in the study region and is positively correlated with the economic benefits of the American Swiss cattle UP.

Master thesis

Utilidad bruta Correlación genética Vientre Longevidad Gross profit Genetic correlation Cow belly Real longevity Ganadería Maestría CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS PRODUCCIÓN ANIMAL SISTEMA DE PRODUCCIÓN GANADERA

Flow and energy quantification impacts using a method out of recommended interval for determining physicochemical properties of the gas

María Yaneth Díaz García Fernando Eliseo Solares Zavala Gerardo Ortega Montiel Wendy Muñiz Rodríguez JUAN FRANCISCO DE LA CRUZ CASTRO (2018)

The present study pretends to highlight the influence of physicochemical parameters such as compressibility and heat power in the volume and energy quantification, considering cases when the variable (Z) is calculated from a method outside the intervals (composition) recommended for its application (Gross method), for the study of this presented case, the flow conditions have a compressibility factor of 0.89928 with the Gross 1 method and 0.90702 with the Detailed method, these values have an influence on the determination of the adjusted heat value (ratio heat value and compressibility), obtaining a real net heat value of 39,150 MJ/m3 @ Z (Gross 1) and 38,816 MJ/m3 @ Z (Detail). It is possible to analyze how compressibility directly influences the flow determination, which can be considered when there's changes in the composition aand the necessary controls are not analyzed or established to monitor if changes are required in the models used in the computer flow. The study of this type of errors that the measurement systems area of CIATEQ A.C. has been able to detect over the years, in different projects of advice or support to the industry, allow to determine the impact that these represent and the economic losses that can be suppose one of the cases mentioned here.

Document ID: 1B9736CF

Conference proceedings

Compressibility Compressibility Calorific value Gross method Flow computer Gas chromatograph INGENIERÍA Y TECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS TECNOLÓGICAS TECNOLOGÍA DE MATERIALES PROPIEDADES DE LOS MATERIALES PROPIEDADES DE LOS MATERIALES

La deuda pública y el PIB, de las entidades federativas de México

SAID ESTEBAN DOMINGUEZ OLAN (2013)

Tesis (Maestría en Ciencias, especialista en Economía).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2013.

Treinta y un Entidades Federativas de México se encuentran endeudadas con empréstitos de carácter público, en un rango que va desde 404.8 millones de pesos el más bajo, (Campeche), hasta 52,162.4 millones de pesos el más alto (Distrito Federal); el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia de la deuda pública de los Estados y el Distrito Federal de México, sobre los indicadores macroeconómicos, consumo privado, formación bruta de capital (Activos Fijos) y el Producto Interno Bruto de las mismas entidades. Con un modelo de datos panel se obtiene que la tasa de crecimiento del PIB y de las otras variables de estudio por entidad federativa, es afectada negativamente por el aumento de deuda pública de la entidad, pero no de manera significativa estadísticamente. Lo que indica que el uso que se le da a la deuda pública en los Estados de la República mexicana, no influye en el crecimiento de la cantidad de bienes y servicios de la Economía de cada entidad y por ende del País, por lo tanto contratar más deuda pública no implica mayor crecimiento del PIB, Consumo y Formación bruta de capital. Sin embargo aumentar los niveles de deuda en 0% o el disminuirla si tiene un impacto positivo sobre las tasas de crecimiento de los indicadores de crecimiento económico. _______________ THE PUBLIC DEBT AND THE GDP, OF MEXICAN FEDERAL ENTITIES. ABSTRACT: Thirty-one Mexican Federal Entities they have public debt, in a range from 404.8 million pesos lower (Campeche) to 52,162.4 million the highest (Distrito Federal), the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the public debt of the Mexican states and the Federal District of Mexico, on macroeconomic indicators, Private Consumption, Gross Capital Formation (fixed assets) and Gross Domestic Product of the same entities. Using a panel data model is obtained that the growth rate of GDP and the other study variables by state, is negatively affected by rising public debt of the entity, but not statistically significantly. This indicates that the use given to public debt in the States of the Mexican Republic , does not influence the growth of the amount of goods and services in the economy of each entity and therefore the country, thus more debt implies higher GDP growth , consumption and capital. But debt levels increase to 0% or decrease it if it has a positive impact on the growth rates of economic growth indicators.

Master thesis

Consumo privado Formación bruta de capital Producto interno bruto Modelos de datos panel Indicadores macroeconómicos Crecimiento Private consumption Gross capital formation GDP Public debt Panel data models Macroeconomic indicators Growth Economía Maestría Empréstitos de carácter público CIENCIAS SOCIALES

Agricultural growth and sex-disaggregated employment in Africa: future perspectives under different investment scenarios

Aymen Frija Khondoker Mottaleb Daniel Mason-D'Croz (2020)

Literature is scanty on how public agricultural investments can help reducing the impact of future challenges such as climate change and population pressure on national economies. The objective of this study is to assess the medium and long-term effects of alternative agricultural research and development investment scenarios on male and female employment in 14 African countries. We first estimate the effects of agricultural investment scenarios on the overall GDP growth of a given country using partial and general equilibrium models. Secondly, using employment elasticities to GDP growth, we estimate the impact of GDP growth on overall employment in the economy. Results show that, increased investments in agriculture could generate higher overall employment and reduce gender disparities in labor participation. In 8 out of 14 sampled countries, female employment increased more than male employment in response to agricultural investments. Investment in infrastructure had higher impact on female employment growth compared to productivity scenarios.

Article

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA EMPLOYMENT INVESTMENT GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT ECONOMIC GROWTH

Remote sensing based simple models of GPP in both disturbed and undisturbed Piñon-Juniper woodlands in the Southwestern U.S.

Christopher Lippitt Lee Vierling Marcy Litvak Urs Schulthess (2016)

Remote sensing is a key technology that enables us to scale up our empirical, in situ measurements of carbon uptake made at the site level. In low leaf area index ecosystems typical of semi-arid regions however, many assumptions of these remote sensing approaches fall short, given the complexities of the heterogeneous landscape and frequent disturbance. Here, we investigated the utility of remote sensing data for predicting gross primary production (GPP) in piñon-juniper woodlands in New Mexico (USA). We developed a simple model hierarchy using climate drivers and satellite vegetation indices (VIs) to predict GPP, which we validated against in situ estimates of GPP from eddy-covariance. We tested the influence of pixel size on model fit by comparing model performance when using VIs from RapidEye (5 m) and the VIs from Landsat ETM+ (30 m). We also tested the ability of the normalized difference wetness index (NDWI) and normalized difference red edge (NDRE) to improve model fits. The best predictor of GPP at the undisturbed PJ woodland was Landsat ETM+ derived NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index), whereas at the disturbed site, the red-edge VI performed best (R2adj of 0.92 and 0.90 respectively). The RapidEye data did improve model performance, but only after we controlled for the variability in sensor view angle, which had a significant impact on the apparent cover of vegetation in our low fractional cover experimental woodland. At both sites, model performance was best either during non-stressful growth conditions, where NDVI performed best, or during severe ecosystem stress conditions (e.g., during the girdling process), where NDRE and NDWI improved model fit, suggesting the inclusion of red-edge leveraging and moisture sensitive VI in simple, data driven models can constrain GPP estimate uncertainty during periods of high ecosystem stress or disturbance.

Article

Remote sensing Gross agricultural product CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA