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The aim of this study was to assess the effects of feeding Atriplex halimus (AH) silage treated with two developed enzyme cocktails to sheep on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation. The AH silage was treated without or with 2 L of ZAD1® or ZAD2®/1000 kg with 5% molasses and ensiled for 30 days. Barley grain (300 g/head/day) was fed as an energy supplement once daily at 10.00 hours and AH silage with or without enzyme treatment was offered ad libitum to animals twice daily at 09.00 and 16.00 hours. Sheep were fed on four experimental forage diets comprised of AH silage and barley (D1), AH silage treated with ZAD1® and barley (D2), AH silage treated with ZAD2® and barley (D3) and AH silage treated with a combination of ZAD1® and ZAD2® (1:1) and barley (D4). Ensiling AH with enzymes reduced its contents of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. The dry matter intake of AH of D2, D3 and D4 decreased (P < 0.001) as compared to D1. However, enzyme-treated diets had greater total digestible nutrients intake (P < 0.001) as compared to D1. The nutrients digestibility for D2, D3 and D4 were higher than those for D1 (P < 0.001), and were higher for D3 as compared to both D2 and D4. Sheep fed on D3 had highest (P < 0.001) ruminal total volatile fatty acids concentration, ammonia nitrogen concentration and microbial protein yield. It could be concluded that AH silage treated with ZAD1® or ZAD2® improved digestibility and rumen fermentation in sheep.
Four browse tree foliages (Cassia fistula, Schinus molle, Chorisia speciosa and Eucalyptus camaldulensis), native to the semi-arid region of north Egypt, were harvested during the dry season and evaluated for nutritional quality by determination of levels of nutrient and secondary compounds, as well as feed intake and apparent digestibility in sheep and goats. The study consisted of four experiments conducted in sequential 28-day periods that were the same in all respects, except that a different foliage was evaluated in each experiment which used six adult male Rhmani sheep (35±2.3 kg body weight (BW) at the start of the study) and six crossbred goats (30±1.56 kg BW). Sheep and goats were randomly divided into two groups of three and offered foliage at a level equal to 1.3 of the previous days voluntary intake of fresh matter and a commercial concentrate, with or without 10 g/animal/d of PEG, at 10 g/kg of BW to meet 0.7 of maintenance metabolizable energy requirements. Foliage crude protein (CP) content ranged from 124 (S. molle) and 128 (C. speciosa) to 185 g/kg DM (C. fistula). Ether extract was highest (97 g/kg) in S. molle. C. fistula had the lowest neutral detergent fiber (NDFom), acid detergent fiber (ADFom) and acid detergent lignin (lignin(sa)), while E. camaldulensis had the highest values. Total phenolics (TP), condensed tannins (CT), saponins (SAP), alkaloids (ALKA), the aqueous fraction (AF) of lectins, polypeptides and starch, and essential oils (EO) were lowest in C. speciosa (29, 21, 3, 0, 4 g/kg DM and 0.40 ml/kg DM, respectively) and highest in E. camaldulensis (102, 68, 15, 5, 3 g/kg DM and 15 ml/kg DM, respectively). Levels of TP, CT, SAP, ALKA and EO were highly positively intercorrelated among foliages, although AF was weakly negatively correlated to all others. Goats consumed 3.9% more foliage dry matter (DM) than sheep per kg BW0.75, and their digestibility was about 8% higher, probably reflecting their better capacity to detoxify secondary compounds in the rumen than sheep. Levels of CT (and due to its correlations, also TP, SAP, ALKA and EO) was a strong predictor of DM intake of PEG unsupplemented foliages within both sheep and goats. PEG increased (P<0.05) intake of DM and its components in sheep and goats. Digestion of DM and NDFom were not affected by feeding PEG, although digestion of OM, EE and CP were higher (P<0.05). TP in tree foliages (and due to its correlations, also CT, SAP, ALKA and EO) was not a predictor of the proportional increase in DM with PEG feeding, which was best predicted by level of CP within foliage. Overall, C. speciosa, had the highest nutrient value for both sheep and goats, both without and with PEG feeding, S. molle and C. fistula were intermediate and E. camaldulensis had the lowest nutritive value.
LAURA HAYDEE VALLEJO HERNANDEZ Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed Salem LUIS MIGUEL CAMACHO DIAZ Ahmed E. Kholif María Dolores Mariezcurrena Berasain MOISES CIPRIANO SALAZAR MARIA UXUA ALONSO FRESAN Jaime Olivares Pérez SECUNDINO LOPEZ PUENTE (2016)
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adding xylanase enzyme (XY) to a basal diet containing 300 g maize stover and 700 g concentrate/kg dry matter (DM) on feed intake, ruminal fermentation, total tract and ruminal digestibility, as well as some blood parameters. Four male Rambouillet sheep (39 ± 1·8 kg body weight), with permanent rumen and duodenum cannulae were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Sheep were fed a basal diet without xylanase addition (control, XY0), or with the addition of xylanase at 1 (XY1), 3 (XY3) or 6 (XY6) μl/g of diet DM for 84 days, with four 21-day experimental periods. Feed intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation parameterswere determined on days 16–21 in each experimental period, and the apparent ruminal neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibilitywas determined on days 16 and 17. Treatments XY1 and XY3 increased feed intake,whereas digestibility was increased with XY6. Ruminal NDF digestibility increased when sheep were fed diets treated with xylanase. Ruminal pH, ammonia-N and acetic acid increased with xylanase treated diets. Propionic acid concentration increasedwith diet XY1 at 3 h post-feeding, but after 9 h post-feeding its concentration decreased in the rumen of sheep fed xylanase treated diets. Xylanase had no effect on blood urea, phosphorus and triglycerides. Addition of xylanase at 6 μl/g DM in a diet containing 300 g maize stover and 700 g concentrate/kg DM and fed to Rambouillet sheep improved feed digestibility and ruminal fermentation without affecting blood parameters.
Antecedentes: Aunque, el balance energético es el principal factor que regula el peso corporal, estudios recientes sugieren que el metabolismo del calcio puede modificar el balance energético y actuar en la regulación del mismo. Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación entre la ingesta de calcio dietético y el índice de masa corporal elevado en adultos mexicanos de 20 a 59 años. Material y métodos: Estudio secundario de tipo analítico, derivado de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006. Se analizó la información del cuestionario de frecuencia de alimentos a 16.494 adultos. Después de eliminar valores biológicamente inadmisibles o casos con información incompleta, la muestra final fue de 15.662 adultos que se agruparon según su índice de masa corporal. Se utilizó regresión lineal para estimar la asociación entre ingesta de calcio dietético y el índice de masa corporal. Resultados: Hubo asociación inversa entre el consumo de calcio dietético e índice de masa corporal. Los sujetos con índice de masa corporal normal consumieron 903,9 mg/d versus 832,0 mg/d de calcio en obesos (p < 0,0001). Conclusión: Este estudio corrobora la evidencia existente de asociación inversa entre la ingesta de calcio dietético y el índice de masa corporal elevado.