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Using the primary datasets collected from 700 livestock farmers from all four major provinces of Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) and Gilgit Baltistan, this paper analyzes the impact of climate-change risk coping strategies on household welfare. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate the determinants of the livestock ownership and multivariate probit model to assess the determinants of the measures taken to manage the climatic-risk challenge for livestock. A propensity score matching approach (PSM) was used to assess the impact of the adopted climate-risk management strategies on livestock farmers. Findings indicated that in Pakistan livestock farmers generally adopt four main types of strategies to cope with climate risk: livestock insurance, selling of livestock, allocation of more land area for fodder and migration. The results show that age, education, wealth, access to extension services, and membership in NGOs, influence the livestock farmers' choice of climate-risk-coping mechanisms. The livestock farmers who adopted risk-coping mechanisms generally fared better. Increasing the land area allocated to fodder seems to increase production of milk and butter, resulting in higher income and lower poverty levels. Those who bought insurance had more milk production and a lower poverty level, while those who sold livestock to cope with climate risk decreased production but increased household income and lowered poverty levels. Migration seems to have a negative impact on production and income. Impact assessments confirm that purchasing livestock insurance and increasing fodder areas are more effective compared to the selling of livestock and migration. Agricultural climate policy should focus on creating awareness as well as increasing access to extension services among livestock farmers on climate risk and risk-coping strategies to mitigate the impact on rural livelihoods.
In controlled-condition field trials across South Asia, zero-tillage (ZT) has demonstrated considerable scope for enhancing wheat productivity in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) while using less energy and irrigation water. However, studies that quantify the impact of ZT in farmers’ fields are scarce, especially in the less productive and densely populated Eastern IGP, an area that the Indian government is targeting for investment to address current and future food insecurity. Furthermore, a recent global meta-analysis has questioned the yield benefits of ZT, especially when permanent soil cover with crop residues is not maintained. To assess the realworld performance of ZT wheat in Eastern India, we quantified the productivity impact of current ZT practices in the State of Bihar, based on a random sample of 1000 wheatgrowing households, stratified by ZT adoption status. Cobb- Douglas stochastic production frontiers estimated the effect of ZT on wheat output while controlling for potential selection bias between ZT users and non-users regarding crop management. In contrast to the global meta-analysis,we found that the prevailing ZT practices without full residue retention led to a robust yield gain over conventional-tillage wheat across different agro-ecological zones, amounting to 498 kg ha−1 (19 %), on average. The economic benefit from ZT related yield increase and cost savings in wheat production amounted to 6%of total annual income among sampled households.We conclude that ZT users reap substantial benefits, and that ZT technology could play a major role in making Bihar selfsufficient in wheat. To increase access to the technology among smallholders, an expansion of the network of ZT service providers is essential and can be supported through targeted policies and development interventions.
The demand for maize in Sub-Saharan Africa will triple by 2050 due to rapid population growth, while challenges from climate change will threaten agricultural productivity. Most maize breeding programmes have focused on improving agronomic properties and have paid relatively little attention to postharvest qualities, thus missing important opportunities to increase the contribution to food and nutrition security. This paper considers current and potential food uses of maize in Africa and proposes six objectives to enhance the contribution of maize breeding programmes to food and nutrition security: (1) enhance nutrient density; (2) enhance suitability for use in bread and snacks; (3) improve characteristics for consumption as green maize; (4) improve characteristics that enhance the efficiency of local processing; (5) reduce waste by maximising useful product yield and minimising nutrient losses; (6) reduce the anti-nutrient content of grain.
Maize Research programmes Agricultural productivity Maize Based Food Maize Breeding Maize Value Chain Consumer Preferences MAIZE PLANT BREEDING SUPPLY CHAIN CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA
The low agricultural productivity of key crops and food insecurity continue to be key issues in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Tanzania. The growing population, depleting resources, and changing climate further amplify these issues. Globally, many agricultural technologies (AgTs) are available as pathways for improved agricultural productivity and food security, however, they have had relatively little success in SSA and Tanzania. This is because the uptake of AgTs is a complex process, which is highly localized, involving multiple actors, stages, and spatial and time dimensions. Smallholder farmers often experience issues of sustainability, constraints for adoption, and scaling-up throughout the uptake process of AgTs, all of which vary by region. This indicates a need for a systematic and simultaneous understanding of sustainability, constraints for adoption, and scaling-up of AgTs to better guide agricultural strategy and policy interventions in SSA and Tanzania. Moreover, in order to understand the local settings better, a consideration of the perceptions of the farmers themselves, who are the primary actors in the uptake process of AgTs, is key. Acknowledging this, the study takes on a case study approach, using the scaling-up assessment (ScalA) method and three focus group discussions with a total of 44 smallholder farmers to systematically and simultaneously assess the sustainability, constraints for adoption, and scaling-up of three AgTs (use of fertilizers, improved seeds, and small-scale irrigation) in Tanzania. The study finds that the farmers perceive all three AgTs to be sustainable for the study region. Adoption rates are perceived to be medium for use of fertilizers, high for improved seeds, and low for small-scale irrigation. The most significant constraints for adoption experienced by the farmers are lack of technical physical inputs, marketing facilities, and know-how. Scaling-up is perceived to be well fulfilled for use of fertilizers and improved seeds, but only partially fulfilled for small-scale irrigation, which is the most limited of the three AgTs. The most significant constraints for scaling-up experienced by farmers are a lack of confidence in the added value of the AgTs beyond project activities, marketing facilities, and technical physical inputs. The overall success potential is high for the use of fertilizers and improved seeds, and the average for small-scale irrigation. The farmers’ perceptions partially indicate why the bundle of AgTs is lacking in the study region and provide a basis for discussing targeted agricultural and policy interventions in Tanzania.
Bruno Gerard (2020)
Smallholder farmers in the mid-hills of Nepal are facing an acute labor shortage due to out-migration which, in general, has affected the capacity to achieve timely crop establishment, harvest, and inter-cultural operations. These effects are more visible in the case of labor-intensive crops such as rice and promoting higher levels of rural mechanization has emerged as the primary policy response option. Nevertheless, quantitative evidence for the ability of mechanization to offset the adverse effects of shortages increasing labor prices in these systems is largely absent. This study investigates the impacts associated with adoption of mini-tillers (5 to 9 horsepower) for land preparation on smallholder rice productivity in the mid-hills of Nepal. We use an endogenous switching regression that accounts for both observed and unobserved sources of heterogeneity between mini-tiller adopters and non-adopters. Findings demonstrate that rising on-farm rural wage rates and an emerging decline in draft animal availability are driving adoption of the mini-tiller. Among users, the mini-tiller increased rice productivity by 1,110 kg/ha (27%). Further, regression results suggest that mini-tiller non-adopters would be able to increase their rice productivity by 1,250 kg/ha (26%) if they adopt. Moreover, our analysis revealed that very small farms (≤0.25 ha) that adopt mini-tillers are benefited the most in terms of gains in rice productivity. These findings support policies that favor the expansion of small-scale mechanization in the hill production ecologies of South Asia and highlight the need to foster the emergence of an associated service economy that will permit smallholders access to capital-intensive machinery such as the mini-tiller.
Farm Mechanization Technology Adoption Mini-Tillers Smallholder Rice Farmers Endogenous Switching Regression CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION SMALLHOLDERS AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES AND BIOTECHNOLOGY AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Paola Torres Díaz Santana (2011)
Resumen en español: "Los huertos familiares son considerados como sistemas de uso de la tierra saludables, eficientes y con alto potencial para satisfacer las necesidades locales y mitigar la degradación ambiental. El presente trabajo tuvo por objetivo analizar la sustentabilidad de los huertos familiares en la comunidad de Tziscao, municipio de La Trinitaria, Chiapas, a partir de una muestra de 30 familias. Se analizaron las dimensiones ambiental, tecnológica, económica y social de los huertos considerando los atributos de estabilidad, eficiencia, adaptabilidad, productividad, rentabilidad autogestión y equidad a través de 20 indicadores. La evaluación de la sustentabilidad se realizó mediante el Marco para la Evaluación de Sistemas de Manejo de Recursos Naturales Incorporando Indicadores de Sustentabilidad (MESMIS) y por estadística multivariada. Se identificaron tres niveles de sustentabilidad: baja (32%), media (43%) y alta (57%) con respecto al óptimo. La estabilidad fue el único atributo que presentó valores altos para los tres grupos de huertos (82%), mientras que los demás atributos, al menos en el grupo de sustentabilidad baja y media, presentaron valores inferiores al 50%. Los indicadores que más influyeron (p<0.05) en la sustentabilidad de los huertos fueron el margen neto, las prácticas innovadoras, las herramientas, los beneficiarios totales y la organización. El mejoramiento en el nivel de sustentabilidad de los huertos de Tziscao depende, en gran medida, del fortalecimiento del área social. "
Huertos familiares;Sustentabilidad;Productividad agrícola;Análisis económico Home gardens;Sustainability;Agricultural productivity;Economic analysis CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS CIENCIAS AGRARIAS