Advanced search


Knowledge area




7 results, page 1 of 1

Spatio-temporal land-use changes in the Colima-Villa de Álvarez metropolitan area, and their relationship to floodings

Spatio-temporal land-use changes in the Colima-Villa de Álvarez metropolitan area, and their relationship to floodings

MYRNA LORENA PEREZ GONZALEZ LUCIA CAPRA PEDOL NORMA ANGELICA DAVILA HERNANDEZ LORENZO BORSELLI SARA SOLIS VALDEZ AZALEA JUDITH ORTIZ RODRIGUEZ (2017)

Demographic growth and consequent land-use changes are consid - ered one of the main factors causing inundations in many cities in de - veloping countries. During the last decade, the city of Colima, Mexico, has suffered from an increase in flooding events. These episodes mostly occurred during tropical rainstorms associated to hurricanes (such as Jova in 2011, Manuel in 2013, and Patricia in 2015, all with average accumulated rainfall of 200 mm in 24 h), as well as during short- duration, high-intensity rainfall events at the beginning of the rainy season. To define the mechanisms leading to the increased occurrence of floodings, a space-time analysis of land-use changes, coupled with the characterization of natural and urban soils, are presented here for the Colima metropolitan area. Three land-use categories were created: native land (N1), urban land (N4), and cultivated land (N5). Each of these categories has subcategories depending on vegetative cover and/ or level of urbanization. SPOT imagery acquired in 2005, 2009, and 2015 was classified to analyze the spatial and temporal changes in land use. Thirty-two soil samples representative of different land uses were analyzed to obtain their physical and chemical properties such as granulometry, bulk and particle densities, porosity, and organic matter content. Hydraulic conductivity tests were performed in situ using a drip-infiltrometer device. The temporal and spatial analysis of SPOT images revealed that most changes in land use correspond to urban area and cultivated land, the former showing an increase and the latter a drastic decrease, especially towards the northern part of the city, where urban growth is evident for the 20052009 period. Analyzed soils from cultivated land have the highest permeability, and engineered soils correspond to the least permeable soils in the area; consequently, replacement of agriculture with housing has significant impacts on the rainfall-runoff process. These results indicate that as more permeable land area is substituted by disturbed urban soils, the infiltration capability will be reduced, leading to increasing flooding frequency in the Colima-Villa de Álvarez metropolitan area. To prevent and reduce the disruptive im - pact of inundation in the Colima metropolitan area, it is recommended to have adequate management of land-use change and to conserve the permeable areas around the city. In addition, it is necessary to revise the hydraulic infrastructure of the existing urban areas and to properly define the most suitable locations for future ones. Avoiding develop - ment in flood-prone areas through planning and zoning ordinances may reduce loss of life and damage to property.

Article

Ciencias de la Tierra Flooding land use hydraulic conductivity SPOT images Colima Mexico Ciencias de la Tierra Flooding land use hydraulic conductivity SPOT images Colima Mexico CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA

Proportional Variation of Potential Groundwater Recharge as a Result of Climate Change and Land-Use: A Study Case in Mexico

Jesús Guerrero CARLOS ROBERTO FONSECA ORTIZ MIGUEL ANGEL GOMEZ ALBORES Laura María Sampedro Sonia Emilia Silva-Gómez (2020)

Artículo en revista indexada

This work proposes a methodology whereby the selection of hydrologic and land-use cover change (LUCC) models allows an assessment of the proportional variation in potential groundwater recharge (PGR) due to both land-use cover change (LUCC) and some climate change scenarios for 2050. The simulation of PGR was made through a distributed model, based on empirical methods and the forecasting of LUCC stemming from a supervised classification with remote sensing techniques, both inside a Geographic Information System. Once the supervised classification was made, a Markov-based model was developed to predict LUCC to 2050. The method was applied in Acapulco, an important tourism center for Mexico. From 1986 to 2017, the urban area increased 5%, and by 2050 was predicted to cover 16%. In this period, a loss of 7 million m3 of PGR was assumed to be caused by the estimated LUCC. From 2017 to 2050, this loss is expected to increase between 73 and 273 million m3 depending on the considered climate change scenario, which is the equivalent amount necessary for satisfying the water needs of 6 million inhabitants. Therefore, modeling the variation in groundwater recharge can be an important tool for identifying water vulnerability, through both climate and land-use change.

CONACyT Centro de Ciencias de Desarrollo Regional (CCDR)

Article

Land-use change climate change potential groundwater recharge CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA

Interfaz de consulta en idioma español para la búsqueda de información en un ambiente académico

GABRIELA ALEJANDRA GARCIA ROBLEDO (2020)

98 páginas. Maestría en Ciencias de la Computación.

En este trabajo se aborda un sistema de consulta en idioma español de México para la búsqueda de información de dominio académico, mediante un modelo de segmentación y construcción de recursos léxicos, así como un análisis y enriquecimiento de un sistema de ontologías modulares en un ambiente académico. El sistema de consulta es implementado para recibir como entrada preguntas en idioma español del tipo ¿Dónde?, ¿Cuándo? y ¿Quién?, las cuales permiten identificar una tupla ontológica para la consulta al sistema de ontologías y que no utilizan un módulo de traducción como los trabajos reportados en la literatura. La metodología implementada permite la identificación de patrones estructurales para la búsqueda en SQWRL en el sistema de ontologías. Se realizó una evaluación en el reconocimiento de voz y en las respuestas recibidas por parte del modelo semántico, las preguntas son extraídas de expertos en el dominio académico. En esta tesis se realiza una interfaz de consulta en idioma español dentro de un dominio académico con una precisión de 92 %. Su evaluación es una aportación dentro del procesamiento de lenguaje natural con lexicones especializados, patrones estructurales que permiten realizar la búsqueda dentro de un sistema de ontologías, con un enriquecimiento en sus propiedades, clases e individuos.

Master thesis

User interfaces (Computer systems). SPARQL (Computer program language). Querying (Computer science). Query languages (Computer science). Interfaces con el usuario (Sistemas para computadora). Computación semántica. TK5105.884 INGENIERÍA Y TECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS TECNOLÓGICAS TECNOLOGÍA DE LOS ORDENADORES INTELIGENCIA ARTIFICIAL

Análisis multitemporal de la cobertura del terreno y su asociación con las tasas de erosión hídrica en Acoculco, Puebla

Multitemporal analysis of land cover and its association with water erosion rates in the Acoculco, Puebla

EDGAR DANIEL ZARAGOZA PULIDO (2021)

Las zonas de interés geotérmico son modelos interesantes en el diseño de políticas de ordenamiento territorial, debido a las iniciativas de sustentabilidad y análisis de impacto ambiental por parte de la Comisión Federal de Electricidad (CFE), con la finalidad de preservar el ecosistema y los recursos naturales del país fue analizado el comportamiento histórico de la cobertura del terreno, y la relación que esta tiene, con las tasas de erosión hídrica de la zona, a una escala territorial de microcuenca, las cuales presentan condiciones de aprovechamiento distintas (microcuenca 1 (C1), uso forestal; microcuenca Cuenca 2 (C2), uso agrícola). C1 y C2 se ubican en el municipio de Chignahuapan, en el Estado de Puebla. El análisis de la cobertura del terreno se realizó por medio de una clasificación supervisada de imágenes satelitales (5) de resolución media y baja de los satélites Landsat 5TM (3), Landsat 7 ETM+ (1), Landsat 8 OLI (2) para los años 1986, 1996, 2000, 2013, y 2018. Para la cuantificación de la pérdida del suelo por erosión hídrica, se utilizó la Ecuación Revisada de la Pérdida del Suelo (RUSLE, por sus siglas en inglés), el cual expresa su resultado en t año-1. En ella participan cinco variables: La agresividad de la lluvia (Factor R ), la erodabilidad del suelo (Factor K), la longitud e inclinación de la pendiente (Factor LS), la cobertura del terreno (Factor C) y las prácticas de manejo y conservación del suelo (Factor P). Para calcular la agresividad de la lluvia, fueron utilizados sistemas satelitales de la NASA para la medición de la precipitación, para corroborarlos, fueron correlacionados con datos de precipitación obtenidos en tierra por medio estaciones climatológicas automatizadas de la Comisión Nacional del Agua (CONAGUA). La erodabilidad del suelo fue calculada a través del análisis de la textura del suelo en laboratorio, por lo que se realizaron dos campañas de muestreo en las zonas estudiadas. La cobertura del terreno fue obtenida a través del promedio del Indice de Vegetación de Diferencia Normalizada (NDVI) de 3 imágenes (Temporada de lluvias, secas, e Intermedia) por año (los mismos que los de la cobertura). La longitud y la inclinación de la pendiente se realizó a través de un Modelo Digital de Elevación de 30 m de resolución espacial, y las prácticas del manejo y conservación fue tomada como 1. Los resultados del modelo RUSLE indicaron que la C1 presentaba en total una mayor pérdida del suelo que la C2, dichos fueron ...

The geothermal sites are interesting models in the design of land use planning policies, due to the sustainability initiatives and environmental impact analysis by the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE), in order to preserve the ecosystem and resources. natural areas of the country, the historical behavior of the land cover was analyzed, and the relationship that this has, with the rates of water erosion in the area, at a territorial scale of micro-basin, which present different conditions of use (micro-basin 1 (C1 ), forest use; Cuenca 2 (C2) micro-basin, agricultural use). C1 and C2 are located in the municipality of Chignahuapan, in the State of Puebla. The analysis of the land cover was carried out by means of a supervised classification of satellite images (5) of medium and low resolution of the satellites Landsat 5TM (3), Landsat 7 ETM + (1), Landsat 8 OLI (2) for the years 1986, 1996, 2000, 2013, and 2018. For the quantification of soil loss due to water erosion, the Revised Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was used, which expresses its result in t yr-1. Five variables participate in it: the aggressiveness of the rain (Factor R), the erodibility of the soil (Factor K), the length and inclination of the slope (Factor LS), the coverage of the land (Factor C) and the management practices and soil conservation (Factor P). To calculate the aggressiveness of the rain, NASA satellite systems were used to measure precipitation, to corroborate them, they were correlated with precipitation data obtained on land through automated weather stations of the National Water Commission (CONAGUA). The erodibility of the soil was calculated through the analysis of the soil texture in the laboratory, for which two sampling campaigns were carried out in the studied areas. The land cover was obtained through the average of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of 3 images (Rainy, dry, and Intermediate season) per year (the same as those of the cover). The length and inclination of the slope was performed through a Digital Elevation Model of 30 m of spatial resolution, and the management and conservation practices were taken as 1. The results of the RUSLE model indicated that the C1 presented a total of a greater soil loss than C2, these were correlated with the annual volume of runoff from the micro-basins, showing a significant correlation R2 => 80, in addition, a sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the importance of the variables that intervene ..

Master thesis

ecohidrología, bosque de pino, Puebla, erosión, RUSLE ecohydrology, land-use change, Pinus forest, Puebla, erosion, RUSLE CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Y DEL ESPACIO HIDROLOGÍA HIDROGRAFÍA HIDROGRAFÍA

Percepción del paisaje urbano: Taxco de Alarcón, Guerrero

SELENNE GALEANA CRUZ (2020)

En este artículo se estudia la percepción del paisaje urbano a partir del espacio público producido en un contexto patrimonial e histórico, que ha sido innovado con el objetivo de satisfacer las demandas del turismo y hacerlo atractivo para sus visitantes, pero con repercusiones en la lectura que los habitantes tienen de su ciudad. En el desarrollo de la investigación se utilizó una metodología cualitativa con enfoque interpretativo y etnográfico a través de la observación participante, las entrevistas colectivas y la elaboración de mapas mentales. El lugar examinado fue Taxco de Alarcón, que forma parte de una ruta turística importante en el estado de Guerrero. Los resultados muestran que el impacto en la percepción del paisaje urbano por parte de los habitantes es producto de las transformaciones físicas, económicas y socioculturales, cuya configuración deriva en una legibilidad que fusiona tanto las imágenes colectivas que le dan sentido de pertenencia e identidad como las dinámicas de consumo dirigidas al turista, bajo una constante aceptación por el beneficio económico obtenido.

This article studies the perception of the urban landscape from the public space produced in a heritage context, which has been innovated to make it more attractive to the tourism demand. However, it has had repercussions on the interpretation that the inhabitants have of their city. During the development of the research, a qualitative methodology with an interpretative and ethnographic approach was used through participant observation, collective interviews, and the preparation of mental maps. The location examined was Taxco de Alarcon, which is part of an important tourist route in the state of Guerrero. The results show that the impact on the perception of the urban landscape by the inhabitants is the product of the physical, economic, and socio-cultural transformations. The configuration derives in readability that fuses both the collective images that give it a sense of belonging and identity and the dynamics of consumption aimed at tourists, under constant acceptance for the economic benefit obtained.

No presente artigo estuda-se a percepção da paisagem urbano a partir do espaço público produzido num contexto patrimonial e histórico, que tem sido inovado com o objetivo de satisfazer as demandas do turismo e torná-lo atraente para os visitantes, mas tem tido repercussões na leitura que os habitantes têm de sua cidade. Uma abordagem qualitativa, interpretativa e etnográfica é utilizada através de entrevistas coletivas e mapas mentais. O sítio a ser examinado é o Taxco de Alarcón, que faz parte de um importante rota turística no estado de Guerrero, no México. Os resultados mostram que o impacto na percepção dos habitantes da paisagem urbana é o efeito das transformações físicas, econômicas e socioculturais, cuja configuração deriva duma legibilidade que funde tanto as imagens coletivas que lhe dão um sentido de pertencimento e identidade quanto as dinâmicas de consumo dirigidas ao turista, tudo pelo benefício económico obtido.

Article

Percepción; paisaje urbano; patrimonio; espacio público; apropiación; uso. Perception, urban landscape, heritage, public space, land use and appropriation. Percepção, paisagem urbana, patrimônio, espaço público, apropriação e uso. Urban landscape architecture. Urban beautification. Taxco de Alarcón (Mexico)--Buildings, structures, etc. HUMANIDADES Y CIENCIAS DE LA CONDUCTA CIENCIAS DE LAS ARTES Y LAS LETRAS ARQUITECTURA URBANISMO