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Actualmente, la implementación de sitios de internet resulta cada vez más común debido al costo-beneficio que estos les aportan a las empresas e instituciones, en función a sus objetivos y metas particulares. En ese sentido, hoy en día colocar información en la red es una tarea relativamente sencilla y accesible dada la existencia de un considerable número de proveedores de servicios de Internet que permiten -tecnológica y administrativamente- una fácil y económica puesta en línea. Sin embargo, frecuentemente no son considerados los factores involucrados en la administración y mantenimiento de un sitio, surgiendo una serie de situaciones que afectan su eficacia e incrementan su costo directo e indirecto -tales como la ausencia de la figura del administrador o web master, la inadecuada selección del almacenamiento o hosting, el incorrecto manejo de la información así como su inconstante actualización, por mencionar algunas-, generando como consecuencia la obsolescencia del sito. Al respecto, considerar una administración de sitos que dé respuesta a esta problemática pudiera parecer una actividad un tanto compleja. Sin embargo, administrar adecuada y formalmente un sitio de Internet permitirá desarrollar sitios eficaces que, mediante la optimización del proceso, cumplan con los objetivos para los cuales fueron creados.
Administración, Website, Costo-beneficio. Intranets (Computer networks)--Management. Web sites--Management. Webmasters. TK5105.875.I6 CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA MATEMÁTICAS CIENCIA DE LOS ORDENADORES
Chickpea is an adequate source of proteins and starch which can be used to develop new nutritious and functional food products such as vegetable beverages. However, in order to use chickpea to develop a functional, healthy and nutritional beverage, its processing is needed to improve the digestibility and increase the quantity of soluble components into an aqueous system. Therefore, in the present research work, extrusion of whole chickpea and sequential hydrolyses with Alcalase® and α-amylase were evaluated to develop a high soluble chickpea-based food ingredient. The thermoplastic extrusion process was carried out varying processing moisture (15.6% or 22.55%), final barrel temperature (143 °C or 150 °C) and screw speed (450 rpm, 580
rpm, or 700 rpm) to generate three SME inputs (127.95 Wh/kg, 161.58 Wh/kg, and 199.13 Wh/kg). After extrusion, flours were hydrolyzed with Alcalase® and α-amylase in order to maximize soluble compounds after hydration. In general, extrusion did not affect chemical composition, but caused structural modifications that influenced changes in functional properties and modified in vitro protein and starch digestibilities. Extruded chickpea flours presented higher content of soluble proteins and increased starch hydrolysis after Alcalase® and α-amylase treatment, respectively. It was found that extrusion treatment of chickpea with a SME input of 127.95 Wh/kg produced at 22.5% processing moisture, 150 °C of final temperature and 580 rpm of screw speed in
combination with the later Alcalase®/α-amylase treatments achieved the highest release of both soluble proteins (70%) and soluble solids (62%) and the highest degree of starch hydrolysis (84%). These results were used to transform whole chickpea flour into a valuable soluble food ingredient by means of a combination of extrusion and sequential Alcalase®/α-amylase treatment. This soluble food ingredient was freeze dried, milled and characterized in terms of chemical composition and protein quality. It was found that the resulting powder had 53.7%, 20.2% and 3.6% of reducing sugars, proteins, and fat contents, respectively. The soluble powder had an in vitro protein digestibility of 83.1%, a PDCAAS value of 0.831 and it did not present any limiting amino acids which suggest that this product had the potential to be used to develop instant chickpea beverages with an excellent nutrimental quality.
Maestro en Ciencias con especialidad en Biotecnología
Introducción:La lactancia materna exclusiva (LME) es la forma ideal de aportar a los recién nacidos los nutrientes para su crecimiento y desarrollo y reducir complicaciones de malnutrición en estos. El objetivo del presente estudio es describir el conocimiento que poseen las madres sobre las señales de hambre que emite su hijo recién nacido y sobre la técnica de amamantar que realizan antes de ser dadas de alta del servicio. Material y métodos:Estudio transversal con 66 diadas mujeres primerizas en puerperio mediato y sus hijos recién nacidos internados en una institución de tercer nivel de salud de Monterrey, NL. Resultado:EL conocimiento que posen las madres sobre signos de hambre del hijo fue bajo (43.9%). Las señales que mejor identifican son las tardías como el llanto (50%). Con respecto a la técnica de agarre solamente el 10.6% cumple con los pasos correctos, y el 63.6% cumple solo de 10-12 pasos. Conclusiones: El personal de personal de enfermería puede contribuir a mejorar la LME si mejora el conocimiento de las madres sobre los signos de hambre del hijo recién nacido asi como la técnica de agarre al seno de las madres primerizas antes de ser egresada a su hogar / Norma Edith Cruz Chávez, Nora Hernández Martínez, Velia Margarita Cárdenas Villarreal
Introduction: Exclusive breastfeeding (SCI) is the ideal way to provide newborns with nutrients for growth and development and reduce complications of malnutrition in them. The objective of the present study is to describe the knowledge that mothers have about the hunger signals emitted by their newborn child and about the breastfeeding technique they perform before being discharged from the service. Material and methods: a cross-sectional study of 66 first time women in the middle puerperium and their newborn Children admitted to a third level health institution in Monterrey,N.L. Result:The knowledge that mothers have about signs of child hunger was low (43.9%). The signals that best identify are late ones such as crying (50%). With respect to the grip technique, 10.6%comply with the correct steps and 63.6% complete only 10-12 steps. Conclusions: Nursing staff can contribute to improving SCI if mothers' knowledge of the hunger signs of the newborn child improves, as well as the technique of grasping the breast of new mothers before being discharged to their home / Norma Edith Cruz Chávez, Nora Hernández Martínez, Velia Margarita Cárdenas Villarreal
GRISSEL TRUJILLO DE SANTIAGO (2020)
One of the most important challenges when engineering tissues in vitro is the creation of viable thick constructs. The diffusion of gas and nutrients severely limits the size of engineered constructs. Therefore, the incorporation of perfusable lumen structures within thick engineered tissues is needed for enabling gas exchange, perfusion of nutrients, and waste removal down to the depth of the tissue. Current biofabrication techniques used to create perfusable networks in thick 3D constructs are limited in resolution and control, and they require sophisticated or expensive tools.
In this work, we propose a simple technique to develop perfusable hydrogel constructs based on the use of a 3D flow-based biofabrication technique, namely the mini Journal Bearing (mJB), and by employing sacrificial inks. Through the action of regular flows induced in a mJB and the flow-advection of two different hydrogels, we created constructs with an internal sacrificial structure. We used gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) as a permanent hydrogel matrix, and a drop (100 µL) of gelatin as a fugitive ink/bioink. Here we present a thorough characterization of the microarchitecture and porosity of these constructs. Especially, we demonstrated how permeability increased within these constructs. Additionally, aiming to mimic the architectural complexity of natural tissues, we added nanotopographical cues to our constructs by the incorporation of elongated flexuous plant viruses, namely Turnip Mosaic Virus (TuMV).
We conducted our in vitro experiments using myoblasts cells as a biological model and characterized their biological response through time. We fabricated three different types of cell-laden-constructs: GelMA with suspended cells, GelMA with a gelatin ink loaded with cells, and GelMA with a gelatin ink loaded with cells and TuMV. Cells were able to grow faster and for longer in GelMA/gelatin constructs than in pristine-GelMA constructs. While an intricate network of cells was developed after 28 days of culture within permeabilized GelMA/gelatin constructs, only surface proliferation was observed in dense constructs made exclusively with GelMA. The use of GelMA/gelatin-TuMV had an evident morphological effect on cell attachment and proliferation. TuMV 3D meshes providing additional scaffolding within the lumina. While myoblast alignment was strongly evident in GelMA/gelatin where cells adhered mainly to the lamellae walls, in GelMA/gelatin-TuMV constructs, cells alignment was attenuated by interaction with the 3D micromesh of TuMV.
Maestra en Nanotecnología
BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA CELULAR CULTIVO DE TEJIDOS CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS AGRONOMÍA TÉCNICAS DE CULTIVO INGENIERÍA Y TECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS TECNOLÓGICAS TECNOLOGÍA DE LOS ALIMENTOS NUTRIENTES
The study was conducted in the village of Filo de Caballos, municipality of Leonardo Bravo, Guerrero, Mexico, from November 2011 to October 2012, in an orchard of Hass avocado, 5 years old. The objective was to evaluate the treatment of chemical and organic nutrition of avocado trees; fertilizers used were: 50 kg tree of cattle dung (manure); 200-100-200 kg ha-1 of N-P-K (edaphic) and 30-10-15.30 kg ha-1 of Ca-Mg-B (foliar). We found that in buds, treatment manure + edaphic + foliar (41 shoots/branch) was better than treatments manure + edaphic (19 shoots/branch), leaf (9 shoots/branch) and the control (21 shoots/branch). And with 17 fruits, manure + treatment + foliar edaphic significantly exceeded the edaphic + foliar treatments (6 fruits), leaf (1 fruit) and the control (3 fruits). The manure + foliar treatment had the highest length (16 cm) of the main shoot, beating the treatment of manure + edaphic (7 cm) and leaf (9 cm). The edaphic + foliar treatment (75 cm2 ) had higher leaf area than control (65 cm2 ) and had the highest fruit weight 2.62 kg with 10 fruits, which was significantly higher than the control (1.51 kg 10 fruits).
This manuscript considers elements for the formulation of strategic axes in the environmental planning of the water resource in tropical countries, differentiating the strategic, functional planning and the environmental water management. Similarly, aspects of the current problem are described using the qualitative method of quadrants, caused by the poor articulation of the instruments currently applied.
Este capitulo de libro constituye un aporte al conocimiento de los picudos (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) como plagas de frutales de alto valor comercial en México
Weevils are an economically important group of Coleopteran insects of the family Curculionidae. This is the largest insect family in the superfamily Curculionoidea. They may be found almost everywhere and more than 3000 species in near of 500 genera occur in North America. Most of them are plant feeders and others are key pests. These weevils use the snout to feed on plant tissues and notch egg-laying sites on it. Adults drill holes and feed in seeds, fruits and other reproductive parts of the plants. Some of the most notable examples of weevils include Conotrachelus spp. on avocado and guava, Optatus palmaris on anonaceous fruits, Heilipus lauri on avocado, Hypothenemus hampei on coffee berry and others. The presence of some of these species requires establishing measures of restriction when the product is for exportation. Management practices and postharvest treatments are required to ensure that the fruits will be free of larvae. In this chapter the main species of weevils in the most important tropical fruit are included, such as avocado, coffee, guava and anonas fruits. Weevils of economic and quarantine importance are considered.
Of all orchid species described, 70% live on phorophytes. Trees offer a vital space with characteristics that influence the successful establishment and life cycle of orchids. Field inventory and distribution analysis suggest that phorophyte selection is biased to certain tree species that would serve as better hosts. Phorophyte bark is known as an important factor that influences this preference, but the chemical and physical properties of bark that contribute to creating a favorable space for orchids are still poorly understood. In this work, the effect of bark physical characteristics on phorophyte preference of tropical orchids was studied.