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Manejo reproductivo postparto en ovejas de pelo

PAULINA PAOLA CASTILLO MALDONADO (2012)

Tesis (Maestría en Ciencias, especialista en Ganadería).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2012.

En este estudio se evaluó el efecto del amamantamiento y un protocolo de sincronización postparto (PP) con el efecto del carnero y destete temporal en la respuesta reproductiva de las ovejas de pelo. Aisladas de los carneros dos meses antes de la sincronización, 96 ovejas fueron clasificadas aleatoriamente al parto en dos grupos (n=48): amamantamiento continuo por 18 horas (Ac) y lactancia controlada con amamantamiento por 30 min 2 veces día-1 (Lc). En el día 35 PP las ovejas se sincronizaron con CIDR por 10 días; y 48 horas antes de retirarlo se les aplicó 7.5 mg de dinoprost y se probó el efecto del carnero (Ca) y el destete temporal (Dt). Se determinó el contenido de progesterona plasmática (P4) por RIA a los 30, 35, 50, 55 y 64 días PP. Las ovejas fueron inseminadas vía intrauterina con laparoscopio abdominal 12 a 15 horas después de iniciado el estro. Las variables de respuesta fueron: porcentaje de ovulación antes de los 35 días PP, hora de inicio del estro, tasa de gestación, prolificidad y pesos de las ovejas y de sus crías. La información obtenida fue analizada mediante regresión logística y de Poisson, prueba de Chi cuadrada, curvas de supervivencia y análisis de medidas repetidas. El porcentaje de ovejas que ovularon antes de los 35 días PP fue mayor (p<0.05) en Lc (89.6 %) con respecto a Ac (52.1 %). El peso de las ovejas fue similar (p>0.05) entre tratamientos. El peso de los corderos fue mayor (p<0.05) en Ac a partir de los 41 días PP y no hubo mortalidad durante la lactancia. Después del retiro del CIDR todas las ovejas manifestaron estro, siendo las de Lc (p<0.05) las que entraron antes (a las 50 horas). La tasa de gestación, prolificidad y fecundidad no fueron diferentes entre tratamientos y el promedio fue de 82.3%, 1.84 y 1.51 corderos, respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que al controlar la lactancia se aumenta y concentra el número de ovejas que ovularon antes de los 35 días PP, y que la ganancia de peso de los corderos disminuye después de los 41 días PP. Todas las ovejas respondieron a la sincronización postparto y al efecto del carnero al manifestar comportamiento estral, con buenas posibilidades de quedar gestantes, ya que solo una oveja presentó un cuerpo lúteo de vida media corta. _______________ POSTPARTUM REPRODUCTIVE MANAGEMENT IN HAIR SHEEPS. ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of suckling and postpartum (PP) synchronization protocol with the effect of the ram and temporary weaning on reproductive performance of hair sheep. Isolated from the rams two months before synchronization, 96 ewes were randomly assigned to one of two groups at lambing (n=48): continuous suckling for 18 h (Ac) and controlled suckling for 30 minutes twice a day (Lc). On day 35 PP, both groups were synchronized with CIDR for 10 days; 48 hours before CIDR removal 7.5 mg of dinoprost was administered and the effect of the ram (Ca) and the temporary weaning (Dt) were tested. We determined progesterone (P4) por radioimmunoassay at 30, 35, 50, 55 y 64 days PP. The ewes were inseminated intrauterine with abdominal laparoscope 12 to 15 hours after estrus onset. The response variables were: percentage of ovulation before 35 days PP, time of estrus onset, pregnancy rate, prolificacy and weight of ewes and their lambs. The information obtained was analyzed using logistic regression and Poisson, chi-square test, survival curves and repeated measures analysis. The percentage of ewes that ovulated before 35 days PP was higher (p<0.05) in Lc (89.6%) than Ac (52.1%). The weight of the sheep was similar (p> 0.05) between treatments. The weight of lambs was higher (p <0.05) in Ac after 41 days PP and there was no mortality during lactation. After CIDR removal all ewes showed estrus, being those of Lc (p <0.05) the first to manifest estrous behavior (50 hours). Pregnancy rate, prolificacy and fecundity were not different between treatments and averaged 82.3%, 1.84 and 1.51 lambs, respectively. The results indicate that controlling lactation increases and concentrates the number of ewes that ovulated before 35 days PP, and weight gain of the controlled lactation lambs decreases after 41 days PP. All ewes responded to the synchronization postpartum and the effect of ram to manifest estrous behavior, with good opportunities of becoming pregnant because only one ewe presented corpora lutea of shortened lifespan.

Master thesis

Efecto del carnero Tiempo de amamantamiento Destete temporal CIDR Corderos Progesterona RIA Ram effect Lambs Progesterone Hair ewes Ganadería Maestría Temporary weaning Postpartum lambs CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Respuesta productiva de becerros lactantes suplementados con alimento iniciador más cultivo de levaduras (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

Productive response of supplemented calves with starter feed plus yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

JOSE CARLOS ESCOBAR ESPAÑA CANDIDO ENRIQUE GUERRA MEDINA ALEJANDRO LEY DE COSS OZIEL DANTE MONTAÑEZ VALDEZ JOSE ANDRES REYES GUTIERREZ (2018)

El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la respuesta productiva de becerros lactantes alimentados con iniciador al cual se le adicionó cultivo de levaduras de Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CLSC). Diez becerros machos y seis hembras, con edades entre 5 y 27 días, se distribuyeron de manera aleatoria en dos tratamientos, T1: alimento iniciador y T2: alimento iniciador más CLSC bajo un diseño experimental completamente al azar, con ocho repeticiones por tratamiento. Estuvieron en pastoreo continuo en praderas de pasto Estrella (Cynodon plectostachyus) y Guinea (Megathyrzus maximum), más iniciador a libre acceso. Del día 135 en adelante se ofrecieron 2 kg de alimento de crecimiento por becerro. Las variables evaluadas fueron ga-nancia diaria de peso (GDP), cambio de peso vivo (CPV), consumo de alimento iniciador (CI) y conversión alimenticia (CA). No hubo diferencias en las variables evaluadas (p > 0.05) entre tratamientos. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la respuesta productiva en becerros lactantes es similar al incluir cultivo de levaduras en la dieta.

The objective of the study was to evaluate the productive response of lactating calves fed with initiator with added Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast culture (YC). Ten male and six female calves, aged between five and 27 days, were randomly assigned to two treatments: T1) starter feed and T2) starter feed plus YC used in a completely randomized experimental design with eight replicates per treatment. They were under continuous grazing on Es-trella (Cynodon plectostachyus) and Guinea (Megathyrzus maximum) grass pastures, plus starter on free access. From day 135 onwards, two kg of growth feed per calf were supplied. The variables evaluated were daily weight gain (DWG), live weight change (LWC), starter feed intake (SI) and feed conversion (FC). There were no differences in the variables evaluated (p> 0.05) in both treatments. The results indicate that the productive response in lactating calves is similar to that of calves including yeast culture in their diet.

Article

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA Becerros lactantes Alimento iniciador Cultivo de levaduras Destete Comportamiento productivo Lactating calves Starter Yeast culture Weaning Animal performance

Alimentos funcionales para cerdos al destete

JOSE LUIS FIGUEROA VELASCO EDGAR EDUARDO CHI MORENO MIGUEL CERVANTES RAMIREZ IGNACIO ARTURO DOMINGUEZ VARA (2006)

A functional food is a compound that, being or not a nutrient, has a positive effect on one or several functions in the organism, producing well-being in the animal. The following compounds are considered functional foods: prebiotics, probiotics, symbiotics, antioxidants, secondary products of plant metabolism, structural lipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, fat metabolism byproducts, bioactive peptides, fi ber, vitamins and minerals. Prebiotics, probiotics and symbiotics are modifi ers of the intestinal microfl ora increasing mainly lactobacilli and bifi dobacteria populations and reducing pathogenic bacteria. Lactobacilli and bifi - dobacteria use oligosaccharides and fructo-oligosaccharides arriving at the colon, producing fatty acids and freeing minerals to be absorbed and utilized by the host. Prebiotics are partially-digestible oligosaccharides; probiotics are microorganisms (mainly lactobacilli and bifi dobacteria); and symbiotics are a mixture of probiotics and prebiotics. During the weaning period, piglets face dramatic changes in feeding management and environment, affecting feed intake and, at the same time, affecting digestive functions resulting in lower growth and higher incidence of disease, mainly diarrhea. Functional food may be an alternative to reduce the effects of weaning on growth performance and health of piglets, to diminish or to avoid gastrointestinal problems during weaning, preventing the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria, and improving digestive functions. All these may help to withdraw antibiotics from piglet feed.

Article

Veterinaria FUNCTIONAL FOOD PROBIOTICS PREBIOTICS SYMBIOTICS WEANING PIGS WEANING INTESTINAL MICROFLORA BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

USO DE MICROIMPLANTES EN EL TRATAMIENTO DE ORTODONCIA

BRENDA YANETH CURIEL MEZA RAFAEL RIVAS GUTIERREZ ROGELIO DIAZ PEÑA (2013)

Dentists and orthodontists sometimes elaborate appliances to produce certain tooth movements. For each desired action there is a reaction force which can slide other teeth if they are in contact with the appliances. That is why it is necessary to plan the anchorage in orthodontic treatment. The term “anchorage”e in orthodontics is defined as resistance to unwanted tooth movements. The anchorage is classified as reciprocal, muscular, cortical, by splinting, intermaxillary, intraoral, extraoral and absolute. Implants and microimplantes are an attachment that are closest to getting an absolute anchorage, but still does not guarantee that there is an unfavorable movement. Classified as their insertion in: impacted and threaded. Regarding the dimensions of these may vary. Diameter varies between 1.3 and 2 mm. Length: 6 to 12 mm. To summarize some indications can be mentioned: retraction of 6 anterior teeth, intrusion of the anterior and posterior distal symmetric or asymmetric group, recovery of missing teeth spaces, uprighting molars, for location intermaxillary elastic anchor to extrude impacted teeth.

El ortodoncista en ocasiones utiliza aparatología para producir ciertos movimientos dentales. Para cada acción deseada existe una fuerza de reacción que puede deslizar otros dientes siempre y cuando estén en contacto con el aparato. Es por ello que es necesario planificar el anclaje en los tratamientos ortodóncicos. El termino anclaje en ortodoncia se define como la resistencia a los movimientos dentales no deseados. El anclaje se clasifica en: anclaje recíproco, anclaje muscular, anclaje cortical, anclaje por ferulización, anclaje intermaxilar, anclaje intraoral, anclaje extraoral, anclaje absoluto esquelético. Los implantes y los microimplantes son los aditamentos que más se aproximan a la preparación del anclaje absoluto, pero aun así no garantizan que no exista un movimiento desfavorable. Se clasifican en cuanto a su inserción en: impactados y roscados. Las dimensiones de los microtornillos pueden variar en diámetro desde 1,3 mm hasta 2 mm y en longitud desde 6 mm hasta 12 mm. Las indicaciones para los minimplantes son: retracción de los 6 dientes anteriores, intrusión del sector anterior y posterior, distalización en grupo simétrica o asimétrica, recuperación de espacios de dientes ausentes, enderezamiento de molares, para fijación intermaxilar, anclaje para elásticos y para extruir dientes impactados.

Article

minimplantes microtornillos anclaje temporal mini implant micro screws temporary anchorage MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD

The effect of non-genetic factors on growth traits in Dorper sheep managed intensively in Central Mexico

Jesús Alberto Mellado Bosque JOSE LUIS REYES CARRILLO MIGUEL ANGEL MELLADO BOSQUE LETICIA ROMANA GAYTAN ALEMAN Ma de los Ángeles de Santiago Miramontes (2015)

The objective of this study was to establish the non-genetic factors which affect growth traits in Dorper lambs under intensive conditions. 990 birth weight records and 851 weaning weight data from a commercial sheep farm were used. A model containing the effects of year of birth, season of birth, birth status, dam´s age and gender was used for identification of factors affecting growth traits. Birth weight was highest (P<0.05) in summer (4.0±0.7 kg) and lowest in winter and spring (3.7±0.8 kg). Male lambs excelled females in birth weight (3.9±0.7 vs. 3.7±0.8 kg), weaning weight (33.4±5.8 vs. 31.3±5.4 kg) and average daily gain (328±63 vs. 309±57 g). Young dams produced offspring with a lower (P<0.05) birth weight (3.6±0.8 vs 3.9±0.8 kg) and weaning weight (30.9±5.8 vs 32.3±5.9 - 33.6±5.4 kg) than older ewes. It was concluded that important influences of environmental factors on growth traits were identified for Dorper lambs.

Article

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA Birth weight weaning weight pre-weaning weight gain growth traits Dorper lambs

The effect of non-genetic factors on growth traits in Dorper sheep managed intensively in Central Mexico

Jesús Alberto Mellado Bosque JOSE LUIS REYES CARRILLO MIGUEL ANGEL MELLADO BOSQUE LETICIA ROMANA GAYTAN ALEMAN Ma de los Ángeles de Santiago Miramontes (2015)

The objective of this study was to establish the non-genetic factors which affect growth traits in Dorper lambs under intensive conditions. 990 birth weight records and 851 weaning weight data from a commercial sheep farm were used. A model containing the effects of year of birth, season of birth, birth status, dam´s age and gender was used for identification of factors affecting growth traits. Birth weight was highest (P<0.05) in summer (4.0±0.7 kg) and lowest in winter and spring (3.7±0.8 kg). Male lambs excelled females in birth weight (3.9±0.7 vs. 3.7±0.8 kg), weaning weight (33.4±5.8 vs. 31.3±5.4 kg) and average daily gain (328±63 vs. 309±57 g). Young dams produced offspring with a lower (P<0.05) birth weight (3.6±0.8 vs 3.9±0.8 kg) and weaning weight (30.9±5.8 vs 32.3±5.9 - 33.6±5.4 kg) than older ewes. It was concluded that important influences of environmental factors on growth traits were identified for Dorper lambs.

Article

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA Birth weight weaning weight pre-weaning weight gain growth traits Dorper lambs

Innovación en la micropropagación comercial de banano (Musa AAA cv. Gran Enano) utilizando un sistema de inmersión temporal.

ISABEL CRUZ VILLEGAS (2018)

Tesis (Maestría en Ciencias, especialista en Innovación Agroalimentaria Sustentable).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2018.

Los Sistemas de Inmersión Temporal (SIT) son la mejor alternativa para micropropagación comercial de plantas. Sin embargo, aunque se han reportado éxitos con los SIT, se requiere validar el sistema más adecuado para la multiplicación de banano in vitro. El objetivo de esta investigación fue comparar la eficiencia de diferentes SIT para micropropagación de banano (Musa AAA cv. Gran Enano), respecto a los sistemas convencionales (inmersión parcial y semisólido). Se utilizaron los sistemas biorreactores de inmersión temporal, biorreactor de inmersión por gravedad, MATIS y SETIS. Además, se evaluó el medio líquido con inmersión parcial y cultivo en medio semisólido. A los 28 días de cultivo, se evaluó el número y longitud del brote, el número de hojas por brotes, el contenido de clorofila, el índice estomático y el porcentaje de estomas cerrados. Además, el porcentaje de supervivencia y el desarrollo ex vitro de las plantas fueron evaluados durante la aclimatación. Los resultados mostraron que los SIT tienen una mayor tasa de multiplicación respecto a la inmersión parcial y el medio semisólido. El contenido de clorofila, el índice estomático y los estomas cerrados son afectados por los diferentes sistemas de cultivo. Los diferentes sistemas de cultivo no tienen efecto sobre el porcentaje de supervivencia; sin embargo, se observaron diferencias durante los parámetros morfológicos ex vitro en la aclimatación. En conclusión, en este estudio el biorreator SETIS resultó el sistema de cultivo más eficiente para la micropropagación comercial de banano. _______________ INNOVATION IN THE COMMERCIAL MICROPROPAGATION OF BANANO (Musa AAA cv. Grand Naine) USING A TEMPORARY IMMERSION SYSTEM. ABSTRACT: Temporary Immersion Systems (TIS) are the best alternative for commercial micropropagation. However, although successes have been reported with TIS, it is necessary to establish the most suitable system for in vitro banana multiplication. The aim of this research was to compare the efficiency of different TIS for banana (Musa AAA cv. Grand Naine) micropropagation. The temporary immersion bioreactor, gravity immersion bioreactor, MATIS and SETIS bioreactor systems were used. In addition, liquid medium with partial immersion and semi-solid medium culture were evaluated. At 28 days of culture the number and length of shoots, number of leaves per shoot, chlorophyll content, stomatal index and percentage of closed stomata were recorded. Additionally, survival percentage and ex vitro development of the seedlings were evaluated during acclimatization. Results showed that TIS have a higher multiplication rate with respect to partial immersion and semi-solid medium. The chlorophyll contents, stomatal index and stomata functioning are affected by the different culture systems. The different culture systems had no effect on survival percentage; however, morphological differences were observed during acclimatization. The SETIS bioreactor was more efficient than the rest of the TIS, producing better development in the plants obtained in vitro and ex vitro, proving it to be a useful alternative for banana micropropagation.

Master thesis

Inmersión temporal Clorofila Estomas Aclimatización Temporary immersion systems Chlorophyll Stomata Acclimatization Innovación Agroalimentaria Sustentable Maestría INGENIERÍA Y TECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS TECNOLÓGICAS TECNOLOGÍA DE LOS ALIMENTOS VALOR NUTRITIVO

Inclusión en la dieta de un inóculo de lactobacilos y levaduras y su efecto en el crecimiento de corderos lactantes

JOSE OCTAVIO LOPEZ RODRIGUEZ (2015)

Tesis (Maestría en Ciencias, especialista en Ganadería).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2015.

Se realizó un estudio para evaluar el efecto de incluir un inóculo de lactobacilos y levaduras en el consumo de materia seca (CMS), ganancia diaria de peso (GDP), cambio de peso vivo (CPV), conversión alimenticia (CA), frecuencia de diarreas, pH, concentración de bacterias ácido lácticas, E. coli y levaduras en corderos lactantes. Se utilizaron 24 corderos, 12 machos y 12 hembras Pelibuey x Dorper con un peso vivo inicial de 8.0 ± 0.33 kg, hijos de hembras de primer parto con 12 meses de edad. Los corderos fueron alojados en corrales de 1 m2, con comederos y bebederos individuales. Se realizó un experimento usando seis corderos por tratamiento en un diseño de bloques completos al azar, en el cual se compararon cuatro diferentes niveles de un inóculo de lactobacilos y levaduras en el alimento: T1: 0.0 mL kg PV-1, T2: 3.0 mL kg PV-1, T3: 6.0 mL kg PV-1 y T4: 9.0 mL kg PV-1. El experimento duró 87 días: 17 días de adaptación a la dieta y 70 días de evaluación. Los resultados de CMS, GDP, CPV y CA fueron similares entre tratamientos. La concentración de bacterias ácido lácticas y levaduras en T4 fue superior a los demás tratamientos; la concentración de E. coli fue menor en los animales donde se adicionó el inóculo con respecto al tratamiento testigo, diferencias debidas probablemente a una mayor colonización de microorganismo benéficos en el rumen. _______________ INCLUSION OF LACTOBACILLI AND YEASTS INOCULUM INTO THE DIET AND ITS EFFECT ON THE GROWTH OF NURSING LAMBS. ABSTRACT: A study was done to evaluate the effect of including a lactobacilli and yeasts inoculum on dry matter intake (DMI), daily weight gain (DWG), change of live weight (CLW), food conversion (FC), frequency of diarrhea, pH, concentration of lactic acid bacteria, E. coli, and yeasts in nursing lambs. We used 24 lambs, 12 male and 12 female, Pelibuey x Dorper, with an initial live weight of 8.0 ± 0.33 kg, all from first birthing, 12-month old ewes. The lambs were kept in 1 m2 pens with individual feeding troughs and water supply. The experiment was done using six lambs per treatment in a completely random block design. Four different levels of the lactobacilli and yeasts inoculum were compared: T1: 0.0 mL kg LW-1, T2: 3.0 mL kg LW-1, T3: 6.0 mL kg LW-1 y T4: 9.0 mL kg LW-1. The experiment lasted 87 days: 17 days to adapt to the diet and 70 days for evaluation. The results in DMI, DWG, CLW, and FC were similar among the treatments. The concentration of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in T4 was higher than in the other treatments; E. coli concentration was lower in the animals with the inoculum with respect to the control treatment. These differences were probably due to a greater colonization of beneficial microorganisms in the rumen.

Master thesis

Ovinos Crecimiento pre destete Probióticos Sheep Pre-weaning growth Probiotics Ganadería Maestría OVINOS

Breed and environmental factors of sows and their repeatabilities in central Mexico

JOSE CANDELARIO SEGURA CORREA JOSE HERRERA CAMACHO ROSA ELENA PEREZ SANCHEZ ERNESTINA GUTIERREZ VAZQUEZ (2015)

Background: reproductive traits influence lifetime productivity of sows. Objective: to determine the effects of year and season of farrowing, parity number, and breed, on litter size at birth, weaning to service interval (WSI), farrowing to service interval (FSI), and to estimate their repeatabilities. Methods: data from years 1998 to 2008 from a farm in La Piedad, Michoacan, Mexico, were used. Sow breeds were Camborough 22 (PIC), Yorkshire (Y), F1 Landrace x Yorkshire (F1 LY), and ¼ Landrace x ¾ Yorkshire (LY3/4). The studied traits were total pigs born at birth (TPB, n = 45,798), number of pigs born alive (PBA, n = 45,798), WSI (n = 41,156), and FSI (n = 41,156). The statistical model for TPB and PBA included the effects of farrowing year, farrowing season, parity number, breed, and year/season interaction. The model for WSI and FSI included the above factors plus the linear and quadratic effects of lactation length. Results: the overall means for TPB, PBA, WSI, and FSI were 9.31 pigs, 8.60 pigs, 7.87 days, and 29.9 days, respectively. All effects included in the statistical models were significant (p<0.05), except season for TPB and PBA. TPB and PBA increased up to parity 4 and decreased thereafter. The LY3/4 and PIC breed groups had the highest litter size means. The shortest WSI and FSI corresponded to the fall season and the largest to the summer season. WSI and FSI decreased with parity. The Y breed had the shortest and the F1 LY sows had the highest WSI and FSI. The repeatability estimates for TPB, PBA, WSI, and FSI were 0.13, 0.12, 0.14, and 0.14, respectively. Conclusions: year, parity, breed, and lactation length affected litter size, WSI, and FSI. Repeatabilities were low, suggesting that environmental factors are more important than genetic factors for improving the reproductive traits.

Article

BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD Farrowing to service interval Litter size Pigs born alive Total pigs born Weaning to service interval