Advanced search


Knowledge area




2 results, page 1 of 1

Five decades of cuprizone, an updated model to replicate demyelinating diseases

JOSE MANUEL VEGA RIQUER GERARDO MENDEZ VICTORIANO RAUL ALBERTO MORALES LUCKIE OSCAR GONZALEZ PEREZ (2017)

Abstract: Introduction: Demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) comprise a group of neurological disorders characterized by progressive (and eventually irreversible) loss of oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths in the white matter tracts. Some of myelin disorders include: Multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, peripheral nerve polyneuropathy and others. To date, the etiology of these disorders is not well known and no effective treatments are currently available against them. Therefore, further research is needed to gain a better understand and treat these patients. To accomplish this goal, it is necessary to have appropriate animal models that closely resemble the pathophysiology and clinical signs of these diseases. Herein, we describe the model of toxic demyelination induced by cuprizone (CPZ), a copper chelator that reduces the cytochrome and monoamine oxidase activity into the brain, produces mitochondrial stress and triggers the local immune response. These biochemical and cellular responses ultimately result in selective loss of oligodendrocytes and microglia accumulation, which conveys to extensive areas of demyelination and gliosis in corpus callosum, superior cerebellar peduncles and cerebral cortex. Remarkably, some aspects of the histological pattern induced by CPZ are similar to those found in multiple sclerosis. CPZ exposure provokes behavioral changes, impairs motor skills and affects mood as that observed in several demyelinating diseases. Upon CPZ removal, the pathological and histological changes gradually revert. Therefore, some authors have postulated that the CPZ model allows to partially mimic the disease relapses observed in some demyelinating diseases. Conclusion: for five decades, the model of CPZ-induced demyelination is a good experimental approach to study demyelinating diseases that has maintained its validity, and is a suitable pharmacological model for reproducing some key features of demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis.

UAEMEX

Article

Cuprizone demyelination Remyelination neuroinflammation BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

The Neuroprotective Effect of Erythropoietin in Rat Hippocampus in an Endotoxic Shock Model

LUIS JAVIER RAMIREZ JIRANO TANIA ZENTENO SAVIN RAMON GAXIOLA ROBLES ELSY JANETH RAMOS GONZALEZ BLANCA MIRIAM DE GUADALUPE TORRES MENDOZA OSCAR KURT BITZER QUINTERO (2016)

"Sepsis is characterized by an early systemic inflammation in response to infection. In the brain, inflammation is associated with expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6, among others) that may induce an overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The constitutive expression of cytokines in the brain is low, but may be induced by various stimuli, including lipopolysaccharide, which causes neuronal damage. Erythropoietin, among other effects, acts as a multifunctional neurotrophic factor implicated in neurogenesis, angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and immune regulation in the central nervous system. In an experimental model of endotoxic shock, we studied the neuroprotective capacity of erythropoietin in the rat hippocampus and compared with melatonin, a neurohormone with an important antioxidant and immunomodulatory effect. Methods: In 21-day-old male Wistar rats divided into eight groups, we administered by intraperitoneal injection lipopolysaccharide, erythropoietin, melatonin, or combinations thereof. The hippocampus was dissected and morphological (histological analysis) and biochemical (cytokine levels) studies were conducted. Results: The number of dead neuronal cells in histological sections in groups treated with lipopolysaccharide was higher compared to the erythropoietin group. There was a greater decrease (70%) in interleukin-1β concentrations in rats with endotoxic shock that received erythropoietin compared to the lipopolysaccharide group."

Article

Erythropoietin, Endotoxic shock, Neuroimmunology, Neuroinflammation, Oxidative stress MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD CIENCIAS MÉDICAS PATOLOGÍA NEUROPATOLOGÍA